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Encyclopedia > North America

North America

Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 73 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Area 24,709,000 km² (9,540,000 sq mi)
Population 523,736,000 (est. July 2007)
Density 21.2/km² (54.9/sq mi)
Countries 23
Dependencies 17
Languages English, Spanish, French, and many others
Time Zones UTC (Danmarkshavn, Greenland) to UTC -10:00 (west Aleutians)
Largest
urban
agglomerations
(2005)
Mexico City
New York City
Los Angeles
Chicago
Miami
more[1]

North America is a continent [2] in the Earth's northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by the North Pacific Ocean; South America lies to the southeast. It covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 sq mi), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2007, its population was estimated at nearly 524 million people. It is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and is fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. North America and South America are collectively known as the Americas. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

Etymology

North and South America are popularly accepted as having been named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. Vespucci was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously undiscovered by Europeans. Vespucci was the first to discover South America and the Amerique mountains of Central America, which connected his discoveries to those of Christopher Columbus. The etymology is further complicated by the need of cartographers to come up with a name that paralleled the feminine names of the other continents (e.g. Europa, Asia, Africa etc.). The convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty[citation needed] and so a derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" may be problematic. Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting). ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


The second and less generally accepted theory is that the continents are named after an English merchant named Richard Amerike from Bristol, who is believed to have financed John Cabot's voyage of discovery from England to Newfoundland in 1497. A minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of 'Amairick'. Another is that the name is rooted in an Native American language.[3] Richard Amerike (Ameryk or ap Meryk) (c. ... John Cabot. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: History of North America
The ruins of Chichen Itza.
The ruins of Chichen Itza.

Scientists have several theories as to the origins of the early human population of North America. The indigenous peoples of North America themselves have many creation stories, by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation. Many natives of North America, when the Europeans found them, were semi-nomadic tribes and chiefdoms of hunter-gatherers; others were sedentary and agricultural civilizations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Temple of the Warriors Chichen Itza is the largest of the Pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Yucat n, Mexico. ... There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... An origin belief, or creation myth, is a supernatural story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). ...


Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g. the Bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g. Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). It is important to note that peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... Polity (Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... Empires is currently a Half-Life 2 modification that saw its first public release for the HL2 source engine on March 4, 2006. ... Cultural regions of North American people at the time of European contact. ... Global view centred on North America North America is the third largest continent (1990 est. ... For the religious publishing house, see LifeWay Christian Resources. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Plains Indians were a group of tribes who lived in a region of North America called the Great Plains. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Scientists believe that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Eskimo culture in Arctic North America. ... The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ...

Place d'Armes in Montreal, historic heart of French Canada.
Place d'Armes in Montreal, historic heart of French Canada.

During the thousands of years of native inhabitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. Archaeologists often name different cultural groups they discover after the site where they are first found. One of the oldest cultures yet found is the Clovis culture of modern New Mexico. A more recent example is the group of related cultures called the Mound builders (e.g. the Fort Walton Culture), found in the Mississippi river valley. They flourished from 3000 BC to the 1500s AD. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Place dArmes and Cathedral Notre Dame. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Place dArmes and Cathedral Notre Dame. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... First American Clovis Point courtesy of http://www. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Mound builder (disambiguation). ... Fort Walton Culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished near Ft. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes and squash. Perhaps most importantly they domesticated one of the world's major staples, maize (corn). Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many important cultural advances were made there. For example, the Maya civilization developed a writing system, built huge pyramids, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE, a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians.[4] The Mayan culture was still present when the Spanish arrived in Central America, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire further north. This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Mesoamerican pyramids, pyramid-shaped structures, are an important part of Ancient Mesoamerican architecture. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kē-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


Upon the arrival of the Europeans in the "New World", native peoples found their culture changed drastically. As such, their affiliation with political and cultural groups changed as well, several linguistic groups went extinct, and others changed quite quickly. The names and cultures that Europeans recorded for the natives were not necessarily the same as the ones they had used a few generations before, or the ones in use today. It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...


Geography and extent

Further information: Geography of North America
A satellite composite image of North America. Clickable map
A satellite composite image of North America. Clickable map

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which is sometimes considered a single continent[5][6][7] and North America a subcontinent).[8] North America's only land connection is to South America at the Colombia-Panama border according to most authorities, or at the Panama Canal by some and even at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico by a few who separate Central America which rests mostly on the Caribbean Plate. Before the Central American isthmus was raised, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North America and South America via Florida and Venezuela. Global view centred on North America North America is the third largest continent (1990 est. ... Download high resolution version (1624x1748, 474 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1624x1748, 474 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California. Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ...


There are numerous islands off the continent’s coasts: principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Alexander Archipelago, and the Aleutian Islands. Greenland, a Danish self-governing island and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but is an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago. The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and it is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent. World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... Location of the Greater Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean The islands of the Caribbean Sea, collectively known as the West Indies are sorted by size and location into the Bahamas (or Lucayan archipelago), the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... A MODIS photograph of the Alexander Archipelago The Alexander Archipelago is an archipelago, or group of islands, off the southeast coast of Alaska. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... An aerial view of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse prior to its 1999 relocation. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Physical geography

Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America.
Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America.

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. Parts of California and western Mexico form the partial edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southern-most portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, while the Juan de Fuca and Cocos Plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier. Download high resolution version (644x2146, 641 KB) N.A. terrain Rock type maps for the North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain map. ... Download high resolution version (644x2146, 641 KB) N.A. terrain Rock type maps for the North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain map. ... Four maps show the North American distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rock. ... Four maps show the North American distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rock. ... Four maps show the North American distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rock. ... Four maps show the North American distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rock. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ...  The Cocos plate, shown in gray-blue, off the Pacific coast of Central America The Cocos Plate (Chocos Plate) is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it. ...


The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many sub-regions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf. For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ... Digitally colored elevation map of California The Geography of California is rich and diverse. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western backbone of both North America and South America. ...


The western mountains are split in the middle, into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali in Alaska. The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the west coast of North America from Alaska to northern and central Mexico. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Denali redirects here. ...


The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at approximately 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167, -100.167, approximately 15 miles (25 km) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that “No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent.” Nonetheless, there is a 15 foot (4.5 m) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. Balta is a city located in Pierce County, North Dakota. ... Rugby is a city in Pierce County, North Dakota in the United States. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ...

Human geography

Mexico City is the most populous city in North America.
Mexico City is the most populous city in North America.
New York City, the largest city in the United States and a major world city.
New York City, the largest city in the United States and a major world city.
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada -- fifth in North America -- and is one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities.
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada -- fifth in North America -- and is one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities.

The prevalent languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize and parts of the Caribbean. Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the United States) where Romance languages derived from Latin predominate: the other republics of Central America, Mexico, much of the Caribbean, and most of South America. Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe1mxc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe1mxc. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... Metropolitan areas with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 This is a list of the 100 largest urban agglomerations in the world according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (2005 revision). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “World city” redirects here. ... The languages of North America reflect not only that continents indigenous peoples, but the European colonization as well. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada is officially bilingual; French is the official language of the Canadian province of Quebec and is co-official with English in the province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, as well as the U.S. state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti is included with this group based on past historical association but Haitians speak Creole and French. Although the former language is derived from French, it is not French. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ...


Socially and culturally, North America presents a well-defined entity. Canada and the United States have a similar culture and similar traditions as a result of both countries being former British colonies. A common cultural and economic market has developed between the two nations because of the strong economic and historical ties. Spanish-speaking North America shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. In Mexico and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity and the fact that, after winning independence from Spain, Mexico never took part in an effort to build a Central American Union. This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Economically, Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country; the countries of Central America and the Caribbean are much less developed. The most important trade blocs are the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the recently signed Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)—the last of these being an example of the economic integration sought by the nations of this subregion as a way to improve their financial status. World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Countries in green are considered NICs. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a free trade agreement between the United States and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, and Canada, and Mexico. ...


Demographically, North America is a racially and ethnically diverse continent. Its three main ethnic groups are Whites, Mestizos and Blacks (chiefly African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans).[citation needed] There is a significant minority of Amerindians and Asians among other less numerous groups. Whites redirects here. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... American Afro-Caribbean Community may refer to: Jamaican American Haitian American Bahamian American Category: ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


Countries and territories

Political highlights of North America
Political highlights of North America

North America is often divided into subregions but no universally accepted divisions exist. Central America comprises the southern region of the continent, but its northern terminus varies between sources. Geophysically, the region starts at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico (namely the Mexican states of Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán[9]). The United Nations geoscheme includes Mexico in Central America; conversely, the European Union excludes both Mexico and Belize from the area. Geopolitically, Mexico is frequently not reckoned in Central America.[10] Image File history File links North_america. ... Image File history File links North_america. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 11 Largest City San Francisco de Campeche Government  - Governor Jorge Carlos Hurtado Valdez (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI:2  - Federal Senators PRI:2 PAN:1 Area Ranked 18th  - State 50,812 km²  (19,618. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... This article is about the Mexican state of Tabasco. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations for statistical purposes The UN geoscheme divides the world into macro regions[1] and subregions, all in alphabetical order. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ...


Northern America is used to refer to the northern countries and territories of North America: Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. They are often considered distinct from the southern portion of the Americas, which largely comprise Latin America. The term Middle America is sometimes used to collectively refer to Mexico, the nations of Central America, the Caribbean and may include the South American nations of Colombia and Venezuela. Northern America is a name for the parts of North America besides Mexico when Mexico is considered as Latin America. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Middle America For other uses, see Middle America (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Country or
territory with flag
Area
(km²)[11]
Population
(July 2007 est.)[11]
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
Flag of Anguilla Anguilla (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0102.&&&&&0102 &&&&&&&&&&013677.&&&&&013,677 134.1 The Valley
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda &&&&&&&&&&&&0443.&&&&&0443 &&&&&&&&&&069481.&&&&&069,481 157.0 St. John's
Flag of Aruba Aruba (Netherlands)[12] &&&&&&&&&&&&0193.&&&&&0193 &&&&&&&&&0100018.&&&&&0100,018 518.2 Oranjestad
Flag of the Bahamas Bahamas &&&&&&&&&&013940.&&&&&013,940 &&&&&&&&&0305655.&&&&&0305,655 21.9 Nassau
Flag of Barbados Barbados &&&&&&&&&&&&0431.&&&&&0431 &&&&&&&&&0280946.&&&&&0280,946 651.8 Bridgetown
Flag of Belize Belize &&&&&&&&&&022966.&&&&&022,966 &&&&&&&&&0294385.&&&&&0294,385 12.8 Belmopan
Flag of Bermuda Bermuda (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&&053.&&&&&053 &&&&&&&&&&066163.&&&&&066,163 1241.3 Hamilton
Flag of the British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0153.&&&&&0153 &&&&&&&&&&023552.&&&&&023,552 153.9 Road Town
Flag of Canada Canada &&&&&&&&09984670.&&&&&09,984,670 &&&&&&&033390141.&&&&&033,390,141 3.3 Ottawa
Flag of Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0262.&&&&&0262 &&&&&&&&&&046600.&&&&&046,600 177.9 George Town
Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica &&&&&&&&&&051100.&&&&&051,100 &&&&&&&&04133884.&&&&&04,133,884 80.9 San José
Flag of Cuba Cuba &&&&&&&&&0110860.&&&&&0110,860 &&&&&&&011394043.&&&&&011,394,043 102.8 Havana
Flag of Dominica Dominica &&&&&&&&&&&&0754.&&&&&0754 &&&&&&&&&&072386.&&&&&072,386 96.0 Roseau
Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic &&&&&&&&&&048730.&&&&&048,730 &&&&&&&&09365818.&&&&&09,365,818 192.2 Santo Domingo
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador &&&&&&&&&&021040.&&&&&021,040 &&&&&&&&06948073.&&&&&06,948,073 330.2 San Salvador
Flag of Greenland Greenland (Denmark) &&&&&&&&02166086.&&&&&02,166,086 &&&&&&&&&&056344.&&&&&056,344 0.026 Nuuk
Flag of Grenada Grenada &&&&&&&&&&&&0344.&&&&&0344 &&&&&&&&&&089971.&&&&&089,971 261.5 St. George's
Flag of Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (France) &&&&&&&&&&&01780.&&&&&01,780[13] &&&&&&&&&0452776.&&&&&0452,776[13] 254.4 Basse-Terre
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala &&&&&&&&&0108890.&&&&&0108,890 &&&&&&&012728111.&&&&&012,728,111 116.9 Guatemala City
Flag of Haiti Haiti &&&&&&&&&&027750.&&&&&027,750 &&&&&&&&08706497.&&&&&08,706,497 313.7 Port-au-Prince
Flag of Honduras Honduras &&&&&&&&&0112090.&&&&&0112,090 &&&&&&&&07483763.&&&&&07,483,763 66.8 Tegucigalpa
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica &&&&&&&&&&010991.&&&&&010,991 &&&&&&&&02780132.&&&&&02,780,132 252.9 Kingston
Flag of Martinique Martinique (France) &&&&&&&&&&&01100.&&&&&01,100[13] &&&&&&&&&0436131.&&&&&0436,131[13] 396.5 Fort-de-France
Flag of Mexico Mexico &&&&&&&&01972550.&&&&&01,972,550 &&&&&&0108700891.&&&&&0108,700,891 55.1 Mexico City
Flag of Montserrat Montserrat (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0102.&&&&&0102 &&&&&&&&&&&09538.&&&&&09,538 93.5 Plymouth; Brades[14]
Flag of the United States Navassa Island (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&&&&05.&&&&&05 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&00.&&&&&00 0.0
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles (Netherlands)[12] &&&&&&&&&&&&0960.&&&&&0960 &&&&&&&&&0223652.&&&&&0223,652 233.0 Willemstad
Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua &&&&&&&&&0129494.&&&&&0129,494 &&&&&&&&05675356.&&&&&05,675,356 43.8 Managua
Flag of Panama Panama[15] &&&&&&&&&&078200.&&&&&078,200 &&&&&&&&03242173.&&&&&03,242,173 41.5 Panama City
Flag of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&08870.&&&&&08,870[16] &&&&&&&&03944259.&&&&&03,944,259 444.7 San Juan
Flag of Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (France) &&&&&&&&&&&&&021.&&&&&021 &&&&&&&&&&&06852.&&&&&06,852[17] 326.3 Gustavia
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis &&&&&&&&&&&&0261.&&&&&0261 &&&&&&&&&&039349.&&&&&039,349 150.8 Basseterre
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia &&&&&&&&&&&&0616.&&&&&0616 &&&&&&&&&0170649.&&&&&0170,649 277.0 Castries
Flag of Saint Martin (France) Saint Martin (France) &&&&&&&&&&&&&054.&&&&&054 &&&&&&&&&&033102.&&&&&033,102[18] 608.5 Marigot
Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) &&&&&&&&&&&&0242.&&&&&0242 &&&&&&&&&&&07036.&&&&&07,036 29.1 Saint-Pierre
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines &&&&&&&&&&&&0389.&&&&&0389 &&&&&&&&&0118149.&&&&&0118,149 303.7 Kingstown
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago[12] &&&&&&&&&&&05128.&&&&&05,128 &&&&&&&&01056608.&&&&&01,056,608 206.0 Port of Spain
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0430.&&&&&0430 &&&&&&&&&&021746.&&&&&021,746 50.6 Cockburn Town
Flag of the United States United States of America[19] &&&&&&&&09826630.&&&&&09,826,630 &&&&&&0301139947.&&&&&0301,139,947 30.6 Washington, D.C.
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&&0346.&&&&&0346[16] &&&&&&&&&0108448.&&&&&0108,448 313.4 Charlotte Amalie
Total &&&&&&&024709027.&&&&&024,709,027 &&&&&&0523736302.&&&&&0523,736,302 21.2

For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Anguilla. ... The Valley is the capital of Anguilla and the main town on the island. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... St Johns is the capital city of the nation of Antigua and Barbuda, a country located in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Center of Oranjestad Oranjestad (Dutch: Orange City), with a population of 26,355 (2000), is the capital and most important city of Aruba located on the southern coast near the western end of the island. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... [--168. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Belmopan, estimated population 12,300, is the capital of Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bermuda. ... City Hall in Hamilton. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands. ... Road Town, located on Tortola island, is the capital of the British Virgin Islands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cayman_Islands. ... George Town, Grand Cayman, is the capital of the Cayman Islands, in the British West Indies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Nickname: Location of San José Canton between provinces Coordinates: , Country Province Canton San José Canton Founded circa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... There are also separate articles concerning the Minnesota county of the same name, and its chief town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... For other uses, see San Salvador (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greenland. ... A panoramic photo of Nuuk taken in October 2006 Location of the Nuuk municipality in Greenland Nuuk (The Cape in Greenlandic) (Danish: GodthÃ¥b, which translates to Good Hope in English, and was the name of the ship which brought the settlers) is the capital and largest city of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... St. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Basse-Terre Island (top) from space, September 1994 Basse-Terre is the name of the western of the two largest islands of Guadeloupe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Tegucigalpa IPA: (Tegus for short), population 1,200,000 (2006) (metro area), is the capital of Honduras (together with Comayagüela), and the countrys largest city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fort-de-France is the capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montserrat. ... Plymouth is the capital of Montserrat, which is an overseas territory of the U.K. After the volcanic eruption in 1995, the city has been abandoned. ... Brades (or Brades Estate) is the de-facto capital of Montserrat, and is in the Carrs Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Willemstad Willemstad is the territorial capital of the Netherlands Antilles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... This article is about the capital city of Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... View over Gustavia Gustavia is the main town of the island of St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Distinguish from Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... For the town in France, see Castries, Hérault. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Marigot Marigot Marigot is the main town on the French side of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, off of the coast of Newfoundland in North America. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Kingstown Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Location Map Kingstown, estimated population 15,900 (July 1999), is the chief port of Saint Vincent, and the capital of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands. ... Cockburn Town is the capital city of the Turks and Caicos Islands, located on the largest island in that archipelago, Grand Turk Island. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States_Virgin_Islands. ... Charlotte Amalie is the capital of the U.S. Virgin Islands, a territory of the United States of America. ...

Usage

The term North America may mean different things to different people in the world according to the context. Usage other than that of the entire continent includes:

  • In English, North America is often used to refer to the United States and Canada exclusively.[20] Alternatively, usage may include Mexico[21] (as with North American Free Trade Agreement) and other entities.[22]
  • In Latin America, Spain, and some other parts of Europe, North America usually designates a subcontinent (subcontinente in Spanish) of the Americas containing Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Bermuda.[23]

NAFTA redirects here. ...

Historical toponymy

North America, in whole or in part, has been historically referred to by other names:

map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Norumbega (or Norumbègue, Nurumbega, etc) was a legendary settlement in northeastern North America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 Captain/Sir John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... This article is about the area claimed by Francis Drake. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... The Golden Hind was an English ship best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

See also

North America Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
North America

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Americas, also known as America, are the lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture. ... Many natives of North America, when the Europeans found them, were semi-nomadic tribes and chiefdoms of hunter-gatherers; others were sedentary and agricultural civilizations. ... The role of discoverer of the Americas is variously attributed to the following people, depending on context and definition: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the first people to live in America (see Paleo-Indians, Clovis Culture, Models of migration to the New World, Solutrean hypothesis, Pre-Siberian American Aborigines); Vikings... The economy of North America comprises more than 514 million people in 23 soverign states and 15 dependent territories. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ List based on 2005 figures in Table A.12, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations. Accessed on line January 1, 2008.
  2. ^ United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49). United Nations Statistics Division.
  3. ^ The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves. By Jonathan Cohen
  4. ^ Robert Kaplan (January 16, 2007). What is the origin of zero? How did we indicate nothingness before zero?. Scientific American. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  5. ^ The Olympic symbols. International Olympic Committee. 2002. Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania).
  6. ^ Océano Uno, Diccionario Enciclopédico y Atlas Mundial, "Continente", page 392, 1730. ISBN 84-494-0188-7
  7. ^ Los Cinco Continentes (The Five Continents), Planeta-De Agostini Editions, 1997. ISBN 84-395-6054-0
  8. ^ Encarta, "Norteamérica".
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Central America"
  10. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary, "Central America"
  11. ^ a b Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2007 data, unless otherwise noted.
  12. ^ a b c Depending on definitions, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago have territory in one or both of North and South America.
  13. ^ a b c d Since Guadeloupe and Martinique have been upgraded from overseas departments to regions of France, they are no longer listed separately in The World Factbook. Therefore, these figures are from the last edition in which they appear -- July 2006.
  14. ^ Due to ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning 1995, much of Plymouth's de jure capital was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades.
  15. ^ Panama is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama Canal; land area and population figures are for the entire country.
  16. ^ a b Water area makes up a considerable portion of this entity's total area. Therefore, for a more accurate figure on which to calculate population density, this figure includes land area and excludes water area.
  17. ^ Figure as of March 1999 census.
  18. ^ Figure as of October 2004 census.
  19. ^ Includes the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and is, thus, commonly included with the other territories of Oceania.
  20. ^ Burchfield, R. W., ed. 2004. "America." Fowler's Modern English Usage (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 48 -- quotation reads: "the term 'North America' is mostly used to mean the United States and Canada together. Countries to the south of the United States are described as being in Central America (Mexico, Nicaragua, etc.) or South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)"; see also: McArthur, Tom. 1992. "North American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 707. See also [1]
  21. ^ the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: refers to "Three nations, on the same continent"
  22. ^ Countries of North America: includes Bermuda, Canada, Mexico, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States
  23. ^ In Ibero-America, North America is considered a subcontinent containing Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Bermuda and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon."Norteamérica (Mexican version)"/(Spaniard version). Encarta Online Encyclopedia.
Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the southern hemisphere and mostly in the Antarctic south polar region, is the largest of the worlds five major landmassesic divisions and the deepest. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
North America :: Travel to North America :: North America Journey :: North America Travel Guide (976 words)
North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the North Pacific Ocean.
Climate of United States of America Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi River, mediterranean in coastal California, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January...
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