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Encyclopedia > North African campaign

During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. The United States began to directly supply the British in the effort on May 11, 1942. The US Army officially does not list a single “North African Campaign” but subdivides its effort into some of the smaller campaigns described here. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...

Western Desert Campaign
CompassSonnenblumeTobrukBrevityBattleaxeCrusaderGazalaBir Hakeim1st AlameinAlam HalfaAgreement2nd Alamein

Fighting in this region started with Italian attacks on British occupied areas. When the Italians suffered terrible reverses, the German Afrika Korps commanded by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel came to their assistance. After a back-and-forth series of battles for control of Libya and parts of Egypt, British Commonwealth forces under the command of General Bernard Montgomery eventually pushed the Axis forces back to Tunisia. Following on the Allied Operation Torch landings in north west Africa in late 1942 under the command of General Dwight Eisenhower, and after Allied battles against Vichy France forces (which subsequently joined the Allies), Commonwealth and US forces finally pincered the Axis forces in northern Tunisia and forced their surrender. The Western Desert Campaign was the primary early theatre of the North African Campaign of World War II. It is sometimes referred to as the Egypt-Libya Campaign. ... Combatants United Kingdom India Australia Italy Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength Western Desert Force: British 7th Armoured Division Australian 6th Division Indian 4th Infantry Division 36,000 men 120 guns 275 tanks Italian Tenth Army 200,000 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 494 killed 1... During World War II. Operation Sonnenblume (German for sunflower) was the deployment of German troops (the “Afrika Korps”) to the North African Campaign in February, 1941. ... Combatants Australia United Kingdom Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 9,000 Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North African Campaign... Combatants Germany, Italy United Kingdom, India Commanders Erwin Rommel Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Strength Afrika Korps (5th Light Division, 15th Panzer Division) and three Italian divisions (Ariete, Brescia, Trento). ... Combatants Germany, Italy United Kingdom, India Commanders Erwin Rommel Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Strength Afrika Korps including 5th Light Division and 15th Panzer Division, about 13,000 XIII Corp consisting of 7th Armoured Division and 4th Indian Division 20,000+ troops with 200 tanks Casualties 12 tanks destroyed 700... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ... Combatants Free French Forces Afrika Korps Commanders Marie Pierre Koenig Erwin Rommel Strength 3703 ? Casualties deads 140, wounded 229, prisonners 814 3300 The Battle of Bir Hakeim (May 26, 1942 - June 11, 1942) was fought, during World War II, between the German/Italian Afrika Korps and the 1st Free French... The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ... Battle of Alam Halfa Conflict World War II Date August 30–September 6, 1942 Place El Alamein, Egypt Result Allied strategic victory Axis tactical victory The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II... During World War II, Operation Agreement consisted of ground and amphibious attacks by British, Rhodesian and New Zealand forces on German- and Italian-held Tobruk (Operation Daffodil), Benghazi (Operation Snowdrop), Jalo oasis (Operation Tulip) and Barce (Operation Hyacinth) launched on 13 September 1942. ... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Dwight David Eisenhower (also known as Ike) (born David Dwight Eisenhower on October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ...


By making the Axis powers fight on a second front in North Africa, the Western Allies provided some relief to the Soviet Union fighting the Axis on the Eastern Front. Information learned from the British Ultra codebreaking operation was a major contributor to Allied success in the North African campaign. The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ...

Contents

Western Desert Campaign

Afrika Korps panzers advance during the North African campaign.

The Northern African Campaign was strategically important for both the Allies and the Axis powers. The Allies used the campaign as a step towards a second front against the Axis powers in Fortress Europe, and it helped to ease Axis pressure on the Russian front. The Axis had planned to follow a successful campaign in North Africa with a strike north to the rich oil fields of the Middle East. This would have cut off nearby oil supplies to the Allies, and would have tremendously increased the oil supplies available for the Axis war machine. The Western Desert Campaign was the primary early theatre of the North African Campaign of World War II. It is sometimes referred to as the Egypt-Libya Campaign. ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Panzers is a popular World War II computer game created by Hungarian game developer Stormregion. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


On September 13th, Italian forces stationed in Libya launched the Tenth Army in a tentative, 100,000 troop invasion into British-held Egypt and set up defensive forts at Sidi Barrani. The army was largely un-mechanized and Italian general Graziani, with little intelligence on the state of British forces there, chose not to continue further towards Cairo. Sidi Barrani is a village in Egypt, ~95km from the border with Libya, and ~240km from Tobruk. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) comes from...


The British forces were greatly outnumbered, 35,000 to 500,000, and only half of the British were combatants. Nevertheless they launched a counter-attack, Operation Compass. It was far more successful than expected and resulted in the surrender of the entire Italian army and the advance of the Allies to El Agheila. The stunning defeat of the Italians did not go unnoticed and soon German troops, the Deutsches Afrikakorps under Rommel (The Desert Fox), were sent in to reinforce them. Combatants United Kingdom India Australia Italy Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength Western Desert Force: British 7th Armoured Division Australian 6th Division Indian 4th Infantry Division 36,000 men 120 guns 275 tanks Italian Tenth Army 200,000 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 494 killed 1... Operation Crusader November 18, 1941 - December 31, 1941 El Agheila is on the lower left (Click to enlarge) El Agheila is a coastal city on the Gulf of Sidra in far southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is...


Although ordered to simply hold the line, Rommel launched an offensive from El Agheila which, with the exception of Tobruk, managed to press the Allies beyond Salum, effectively putting both sides back at their approximate original positions. Combatants Australia United Kingdom Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 9,000 Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North African Campaign... The Kingdom of Saloum in Senegal is a traditional kingdom which was founded in the late 15th century by the Gelwaar or nobles from the Kingdom of Gaabu to the south. ...


During the following stalemate, the Allied forces reorganised as the Eighth Army, which was made up of units from the armies of several countries, especially the Australian Army and the Indian Army, but also including divisions from the South African Army, the New Zealand Army and a brigade of Free French under Marie-Pierre Koenig. The new formation launched a new offensive and recaptured almost all of the territory recently acquired by Rommel, failing only to take the garrison forces at Bardia and Salum. Once again, the frontline was at El Agheila. The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Indian Army in the time of the British Raj (1857–1947) // Administrative Name The Indian Army is the name for the Indian Armed forces of that country; the meaning of that name changed over time: History The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the... The South African Army is the army of South Africa, also known in Afrikaans as the Suid-Afrikaanse Leër. ... Ngāti Tumatauenga or New Zealand Army is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... Marie Pierre Koenig (October 10, 1898—September 2, 1970) was a French general. ... Bardia is a seaport in eastern Libya. ... A frontline is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ...


After receiving supplies from Tripoli, Rommel again attacked. Defeating the Allies at Gazala and capturing Tobruk, he drove them back to the border of Egypt where his advance was stopped in the First Battle of El Alamein. Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ... The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ...


At this point General Bernard Montgomery took over as commander of Allied forces in North Africa and, after victory in the battles of Alam Halfa and Second El Alamein, Montgomery began to push the Axis forces back, going as far as capturing Tripoli. Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Battle of Alam Halfa Conflict World War II Date August 30–September 6, 1942 Place El Alamein, Egypt Result Allied strategic victory Axis tactical victory The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle...


Algeria-French Morocco Campaign (Operation Torch)

Main article: Operation Torch

The Algeria-French Morocco Campaign started on November 8, 1942, and terminated on November 11, 1942. In an attempt to pincer German forces, Allied forces (primarily American, with a smaller British contingent) landed in Vichy-held French North Africa under the assumption that there would be little to no resistance. Nevertheless, Vichy French forces put up a strong and bloody resistance to Allied forces in Oran and Morocco. But not in Algiers, where a coup d'état by the French resistance on November 8 succeeded in neutralizing the French XIX Army Corps of Algiers before the landing, and arrested the Vichyist commanders. Consequently the landings met no practical opposition in Algiers and the city was captured on the first day with the whole Vichyist African command. After three days of talks and threats, General Mark Clark, an Eisenhower assistant, compelled the Vichyist Admiral François Darlan (and the chief commanding General Alphonse Juin) to order French forces to cease armed resistance in Oran and Morocco, on November 10 and 11, providing Darlan would remain the head of a Free French administration. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... View of Oran Oran (population 700,000) (Arabic: , Wahran) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... A coup d’État (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 - April 17, 1984) was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ... Alphonse Juin (December 16, 1888-January 27, 1967) was a Marshal of France. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ...


The Allied landings prompted the German occupation of Vichy France (Case Anton). In response, the French Fleet was scuttled at Toulon and the Vichy army in north Africa joined the Allies (see Free French Forces). Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ...


Tunisia Campaign (Operation WOP)

Main article: Tunisia Campaign

The Tunisia Campaign started on November 17, 1942, and terminated on May 13, 1943, and was designed to accomplish three things: The Tunisia Campaign was a series of World War II battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the World War II, between forces of the German/Italian Axis, and allied forces consisting primarily of U.S., British and small numbers of Vichy French. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...

  1. an Allied amphibious landing (Operation Largesse) near Sfax on the Gulf of Gabes in eastern Tunisia to cut the Italian supply lines on January 5, 1943.
  2. An eastward attack by the US II Corps from the termination line of Operation TORCH to assault German positions at Gafsa on March 17, 1943 in support of Operation Pugilist;
  3. Give US troops that just finished the Torch landings and the follow-on troops that arrived after that operation concluded a chance to get their feet wet in European-style warfare.

Though Rommel was now pincered between American and Commonwealth forces, he did manage to stall the Allies with a series of defensive operations, most notably in routing the US II Corps at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass, but overall Rommel was flanked, outmanned and outgunned. After The British eighth army shattered the Axis defense on the Mareth Line, the Allies squeezed Axis forces until their resistance in Africa collapsed, ending with the surrender on May 13, 1943 of over 275,000 prisoners of war. This huge loss of experienced troops greatly reduced the military capacity of the Axis powers. Sfax, Looking across the Place de la Republique towards the Town Hall. ... The Gulf of Gabes, called Minor Syrtis in ancient times, is a gulf on Tunisias east coast in the Mediterranean Sea. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The US II Corps was the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II. History It came to prominence in the Battle of Kasserine Pass when Field Marshal Erwin Rommel defeated the formation. ... Gafsa (or Qafsah; Arabic: ‎) is a capital city of Gafsa Governorate. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Operation Pugilist was a battle in Egypt during World War II. Categories: | ... The US II Corps was the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II. History It came to prominence in the Battle of Kasserine Pass when Field Marshal Erwin Rommel defeated the formation. ... Combatants 10th Panzer Division 21st Panzer Division U.S. II Corps Commanders Erwin Rommel Lloyd Fredendall Strength 22,000 30,000 Casualties estimates vary greatly estimates vary greatly The Battle for Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ... The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by the French near the coastal town of Medenine in southern Tunisia prior to World War II. It was designed to defend against attacks from the Italians in Libya, but following the fall of France it fell into Axis hands. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


This operation was finalized by Operation Retribution, which was designed to prevent the evacuation of the German and Italian forces from Tunisia. This operation started on May 7, 1943, and focused on attacking the German evacuation fleet as it crossed from Tunisia to Sicily and Italy. It is known that 897 Germans were captured at sea, while an additional 653 escaped. The remainder are assumed to have drowned. During World War II, Operation Retribution was a series of air and naval attacks designed to prevent the German evacuation of North Africa through Tunis. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Conclusion

An Italian propaganda poster admitting defeat in North Africa, but stating that one day Italy will return
An Italian propaganda poster admitting defeat in North Africa, but stating that one day Italy will return

After victory in the North African Campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin. The invasion of Sicily followed two months later. An Italian propaganda poster from World War II, declaring we will return [to Africa]. This is a copyrighted poster. ... An Italian propaganda poster from World War II, declaring we will return [to Africa]. This is a copyrighted poster. ... The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Alfredo Guzzoni Strength  ? 365,000 Italians 40,000Germans Casualties USA: 2,237 killed 6,544 wounded British: 2,721 killed 10,122 wounded Canada: 562 killed 1,848 wounded Total:23,934 Casualties Germany: ? killed ? wounded Italy: ? killed ? wounded...


See also

Timeline of the North African Campaign. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italy in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... Afrika Korps game Afika Korps is a wargame published by the Avalon Hill game company in 1964 and then re-released in 1965 and 1977. ... This page is intended to serve as a focal point for information pertinent to understanding German military activity during World War II. // Foreword When in 1933 Hitler gained power, and set on a massive program of rearmament, no one could have predicted the scope, intensity, and duration of the armed... The United Kingdom, along with France, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 as part of the United Kingdoms pledge to defend Poland to the invasion of Poland. ... This page is intended to serve as a focal point for studying Italian military history during the WWII-era. ... Military history of Egypt during World War II. Map of modern Egypt. ... The United States entered World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. ... France, along with the United Kingdom, was one of the first participants in World War II after declaring war on Nazi Germany following its invasion of Poland in 1939. ...

External links


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

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in Asia Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... Combatants  Finland Germany  USSR  United Kingdom Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Strength 450,000 men +1,000,000 men Casualties 66,000 dead 188,000 wounded 1,500 civilian casualties 305,000 dead or missing +700,000 wounded 64,188 captured The Continuation War or War of Continuation (Finnish: , Swedish... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... It has been suggested that Axis plans for invasion of the United States during WWII be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolia Japan Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, sometimes spelled Halhin Gol or Khalkin Gol after the Halha River passing through the battlefield and known... Combatants  Finland  USSR Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[1][2] Casualties 22,830 dead 43,557 wounded 1,000 captured (at least) 126,875 dead or missing... Combatants Vichy France (first phase), Free France, British and Commonwealth nations (second phase) Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000(First Phase), 150,000 (Second Phase) 60,000(First Phase), 120,000 (Second Phase) Casualties 489 military (First Phase), 12,900+ military (Second Phase) 583 military (First Phase... Combatants Iraq United Kingdom Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 1,200 The Anglo-Iraqi War was a short war fought between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist government, from April 18 to May 30, 1941. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ...


Main theatres:
Europe
Eastern Europe
Africa
Middle East
Mediterranean
Asia & Pacific
China
• Atlantic The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W.Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines...


General timeline:
Timeline This is a timeline of events in World War II. // German soldiers supposedly destroying a Polish border checkpoint. ...

  

1939:
Invasion of Poland
Winter War
Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... Combatants  Finland  USSR Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[1][2] Casualties 22,830 dead 43,557 wounded 1,000 captured (at least) 126,875 dead or missing...


1940:
Invasion of Denmark and Norway
Battle of France
Battle of Britain
Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ...


1941:
Invasion of Soviet Union
Battle of Moscow
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines...


1942:
Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad
Second Battle of El Alamein
Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle...


1943:
Battle of Kursk
Guadalcanal campaign
Invasion of Italy
Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500... Combatants United States Australia New Zealand United Kingdom Tonga[1] Solomon Islands[2] Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Ghormley William Halsey, Jr. ... This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ...


1944:
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Battle of Normandy
Operation Bagration
This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann () Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ...


1945:
Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Berlin
End in Europe
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Surrender of Japan
more...
Combatants United States U.K. Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Weidling Helmuth Reymann Wilhelm Mohnke Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Koniev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Strength 1,000,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 3,300 aircraft 2,500,000 men, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery Casualties 150,000–173... The raising of the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, May 1945. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ...

  

Blitzkrieg
Cryptography
Equipment
Home Front
Military Engagements
Production
Resistance
Technology
One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Holocaust
Siege of Leningrad
Allied war crimes
Dutch famine of 1944
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
German war crimes
Japanese war crimes
Strategic bombings
This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ...


Aftermath:
Effects
Casualties
Expulsion of Germans
Cold War Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas of Europe during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

  

The Allies
Soviet Union
United Kingdom
United States
Republic of China
Poland
France
Netherlands
Belgium
Canada
Norway
Greece
Yugoslavia
Czechoslovakia
India
Australia
New Zealand
South Africa
Egypt
Philippines
Brazil
more...
The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


The Axis
Germany
Japan
Italy
Hungary
Bulgaria
Romania
Finland
Croatia
Slovakia
Thailand
more... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Bulgaria_flag. ... Image File history File links Romania_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links 1stslovakia_flag_large. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

• Category: World War II
Topics
Conferences
Total war
WWII in contemporary culture
Military awards of World War II
Attacks in North America
Comparative military ranks of World War II // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants. ... It has been suggested that Axis plans for invasion of the United States during WWII be merged into this article or section. ... The following table shows comparative officer ranks of major Allied and Axis powers during World War II. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks. ...


More information on World War II:

 World War II from Wiktionary
 WWII Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWII Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWII Source texts from Wikisource
 WWII Images and media from Commons
 WWII News stories from Wikinews
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

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North African Campaign (1175 words)
The North African Campaign, or Desert War, took place in the North African desert during World War II between 1940 and 1943.
North Africa is a region generally considered to include Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara.
After the victory in the North African Campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin.
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