FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Norse mythology
The Norse gods were mortal, and they had to eat Iðunn's golden apples in order not to age until Ragnarök when most of them would die. Image by J. Penrose, 1890.
The Norse gods were mortal, and they had to eat Iðunn's golden apples in order not to age until Ragnarök when most of them would die. Image by J. Penrose, 1890.
Topics in Norse mythology
Æsir (gods) Andhrímnir, Baldr, Borr, Bragi, Búri, Dagr, Delling, Forseti, Heimdall, Hermóðr, Höðr, Hœnir, Kvasir, Lóðurr, Loki, Móði and Magni, Óðr, Odin, Ríg, Thor, Tyr, Váli, Ve, Vidar, Vili
Ásynjur (goddesses) Bil, Eir, Frigg, Gná, Hlín, Iðunn, Jord, Lofn, Nanna, Nótt, Saga, Sif, Sigyn, Sjöfn, Snotra, Sól, Syn, Var, Vör, Þrúðr
Vanir
(gods and goddesses)
Freyr (Yngvi), Freyja, Gullveig, Nerthus, Njord, Ullr
Norns (fates) Urd, Verdandi, Skuld
Valkyries Brynhildr, Göndul, Gunnr, Hildr, Hlaðgunnr, Róta, Skuld, Sigrdrífa, Sigrún, Skögul, Sváva, Þrúðr
Elves (Álfar) Beyla, Byggvir, Dökkálfar, Svartálfar, Volund
Jotuns (giants) Ægir, Angrboda, Baugi, Beli, Bergelmir, Bestla, Billing, Bolthorn, Byleist, Elli, Fárbauti, Fenja, Fjalar, Fornjót, Geirrod, Gerd, Gjálp and Greip, Gilling, Grid, Gunnlod, Gymir, Hel, Hrym, Hræsvelgr, Hrod, Hrungnir, Hymir, Hyndla, Hyrrokkin, Járnsaxa, Kari, Laufey, Loki, Mani (moon), Menja, Modgunn, Mundilfari, Muspel, Mökkurkálfi, Narfi, Olvaldi, Ragnhild, Rán, Rind, Skaði, Snær, Suttung, Surtr, Thokk, Þjazi, Þrívaldi, Þrúðgelmir, Þrymr, Utgardaloki, Vafþrúðnir, Ymir
Dwarves Alvíss, Andvari, Berling, Brokkr, Durin, Dvalinn, Eitri, Fafnir, Fjalar and Galar, Gandalf, Hjuki, Hreidmar, Litr, Nordri, Sudri, Austri and Vestri, Nyi and Nidi, Otr, Regin, Sindri
Humans Adils, Agne, Ask, Aslaug (Kraka), Björn Ironside, Bödvar Bjarki, Berserkers, Dag the Wise, Domalde, Draugr, Dyggve, Egil, Einherjar, Embla, Erik and Alrik, Fjölnir, Frodi, Glam, Grimhild, Gylfi, Haddingjar, Hagbard and Signy, Haki, Halfdan, Halfdan the Old, Harald Hildetand, Hedin, Helgi Hundingsbane, Hjalmar, Hrólf Kraki, Hugleik, Hvitserk, Ingeborg, Ingjald, Jorund, Karl, Krimhild, Lif and Lifthrasir, Marmennill, Nór, Ottar, Raum the Old, Röskva, Sigar, Siggeir, Sigmund, Signy, Sigurd, Sigurd Ring, Sinfjötli, Skagul Toste, Skirnir, Sveigder, Svipdag, Þjálfi, Vanlade, Völva, Yngvi and Alf, Yrsa
Beasts Arvak and Alsvid, Auðumbla, Blóðughófi, Eikþyrnir, Fenrisulfr, Garm, Geri and Freki, Grani, Gullinbursti, Gullinkambi, Gulltopp, Hati, Heiðrún, Hildisvíni, Hófvarpnir, Hræsvelgr, Hrímfaxi, Hugin and Munin, Jörmungandr, Lindorm, Mánagarmr, Níðhöggr, Ratatosk, Skinfaxi, Skoll, Sleipnir, Svadilfari, Sæhrímnir, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr, Varulf, Veðrfölnir
Locations Álfheim, Ásgard, Barri, Bifröst, Bilskirnir, Breidablik, Élivágar, Eliudnir, Fensalir, Fólkvangr, Gimlé, Ginnungagap, Gjallar Bridge, Gjöll, Gladsheim, Glasir, Glitnir, Gnipahellir, Helgrindr, Helveg, Himinbjörg, Hindarfjall, Hörgr, Körmt and Örmt, Idavoll, Jötunheimr, Ironwood, Hlidskjalf, Midgard, Muspelheim, Mirkwood, Náströnd, Niflheim, Noatun, Sessrúmnir, Singasteinn, Slidr River, Sökkvabekkr, Þrúðvangr, Þrymheimr, Utgard, Valhalla, Vanaheim, Hvergelmir, Vigrid, Vimur, Vingólf, Ýdalir, Yggdrasil
Artifacts Andvarinaut, Brisingamen, Draupnir, Eldhrímnir, Gand, Gjallarhorn, Gleipnir, Gram, Grotte, Gungnir, Helskór, Megingjord, Well of Mimir, Mistilteinn, Mjölnir, Naglfar, Óðrerir, Reginnaglar, Hringhorni, Skíðblaðnir, Tyrfing, Well of Urd
Worship Blót, Hörgr, Human sacrifice, Seid, Sumbel, Temple at Uppsala, Thor's Hammer, Völva, Yule

Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. Norse mythology is the best-preserved version of the older common Germanic paganism, which also includes the closely related Anglo-Saxon mythology. Germanic mythology, in its turn, developed from an earlier Indo-European mythology. ImageMetadata File history File links Idun_and_the_Apples. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Idun_and_the_Apples. ... Idun and the Apples (1890) by J. Doyle Penrose. ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... Andhrímnir was the chef for the Æsir and einherjar in Norse mythology. ... Balder redirects here. ... Borr or Burr (sometimes anglicized Bor) in Norse mythology was the son of Búri and the father of Odin. ... Bragi is shown with a harp and accompanied by his wife Iðunn in this 19th century painting by Nils Blommér. ... Búri is licked out of a salty ice-block by the cow Auðumbla in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Dagr rides his horse in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ... Delling was the god of the dawn in Norse mythology. ... Forseti (Old Norse the presiding one, actually president in Modern Icelandic and Faroese) is the Æsir god of justice, peace and truth in Norse mythology. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Hermóðr the Brave (Old Norse Hermóðr Courage-Battle) appears, in Norse mythology, clearly among the gods only in Snorri Sturlusons Gylfaginning where Hermóðr is the messenger sent by Odin to find out what ransom Hel would accept to return Baldr to Ásgarðr. ... Loki tricks Höðr into shooting Baldr. ... HÅ“nir was an indecisive god and a member of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Kvasir is a god of Norse mythology. ... Lóðurr is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Móði and Magni are the sons of Thor and Járnsaxa. ... Ódr (ON: Óðr) is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Ríg is the name applied to a Norse god described as old and wise, mighty and strong in the Eddic poem Rígthula (Old Norse Rígþula - Song of Ríg). ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In Norse mythology, Váli is a son of the god Odin and the giantess Rindr. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Vidar (Víðar, Viðarr, Widar) is the son of Odin and the giantess Grid (Jotun) in Norse mythology. ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... ... In Norse mythology, Vidfinn was the father of Hjuki and Bil. ... Eir (help or mercy) is, in Norse mythology, a goddess of the Æsir; she knew the medicinal properties of herbs and was capable of resurrection. ... For other uses, see Frigg (disambiguation). ... (The term may also refer to Gna. ... Hlín is, in Norse mythology, one of the three handmaids of Frigg, together with Fulla and Gna. ... Idun and the Apples (1890) by J. Doyle Penrose. ... Jord was, in Norse mythology, the goddess of the Earth. ... Lofn is, in Norse mythology, one of the Ásynjur. ... Nanna is a moon goddess in Norse mythology, the daughter of Nep and wife of Baldur. ... Nótt rides her horse in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ... Saga is, in Norse mythology, a goddess of the Æsir, and may be another name for Frigg. ... For other uses, see SIF (disambiguation). ... Sigyn was, in Norse mythology, the wife of Loki, who bore him two sons, Narvi and Váli. ... Sjöfn is one of the Ásynjur in Norse mythology. ... According to the Prose Edda, Snotra is one of the Ásynjur. ... In Norse mythology, Syn was a goddess invoked by defendants in a trial, and an attendant of Frigg. ... In Norse Mythology Var is an Asynja, a goddess of the Aesir. ... According to the Prose Edda, Vör is one of the Ásynjur. ... In Norse mythology, Þrúðr was the daughter of Thor and Sif. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ... Yngvi, Ingui or Ing appears to have been the older name for the god Freyr, which meant lord. In Scandinavian mythology, Yngvi, alternatively Yngve, was the progenitor of the Yngling lineage, a legendary dynasty of Swedish kings from whom the earliest historical Norwegian kings in turn claimed to be descended... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... Faroe Islands postage stamp - Gullveigs Execution Gullveig (seemingly gold drink or gold might) is, in Norse mythology, a mysterious goddess or giantess who became the igniting source for the War of the Gods. ... Nerthus (also sometimes Hertha) is a Germanic fertility goddess who was mentioned by Tacitus in his work entitled Germania. ... In Norse mythology, Njord or Njordr (Old Norse Njörðr) is one of the Vanir and the god of wind, fertile land along the seacoast, as well as seamanship, sailing and fishing. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript in the care of the Árni Magnússon Institute, shows Ullr on his skis and with his bow. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... In Norse Mythology Urd (ON: Urðr) is one of the three Norns (old crones). ... In Norse mythology, Verdandi (ON: Verðandi), also known as Verthandi, is one of the three norns, along with Urd and Skuld. ... In Norse mythology, Skuld was one of the Norns, and she was also one of the Valkyries. ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... Sigurd and Brynhilds funeral In Norse mythology, Brynhildr was a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology, Göndul is one of the valkyries. ... In Norse mythology, Gunnr or Guðr is one of the valkyries. ... In Norse mythology, Hildr was one of the Valkyries. ... In Norse mythology, Hlaðgunnr, Hlaðguðr or Svanhvít was a valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology Róta was one of the valkyries. ... In Norse mythology, Skuld was one of the Norns, and she was also one of the Valkyries. ... Sigrdrífa gives Sigurðr a horn to drink from. ... In Norse mythology, Sigrún was a valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology, Skögul or Geirskögul is one of the valkyries. ... In Norse mythology, Sváva was a valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology, Þrúðr was the daughter of Thor and Sif. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... In Norse mythology, the Álfar, or Elves, are usually considered to be the height of humans or just above. ... In Norse mythology, Beyla was a female elf and the wife of Byggvir and like her husband one of Freyrs servant. ... In Norse mythology, the elf Byggvir was one of Freyrs servants and the husband of Beyla. ... In Norse mythology, the svartálfar (black elves) or dökkálfar (dark elves) are supernatural beings (Old Norse vættir, wights) that are said to reside in the underground world of Svartálfheim. ... In Norse mythology, the svartálfar (black elves) or dökkálfar (dark elves) are supernatural beings (Old Norse vættir, wights) that are said to reside in the underground world of Svartálfheim. ... Weyland (also spelled Wayland, Weland and Watlende) is the mythical smith-god of the Saxon immigrants into Britain. ... In Norse mythology Ægir is a giant and a king of the sea. ... Angrboda (Old Norse Angrboða Harm-foreboding) appears in Norse Mythology as a giantess. ... In Norse mythology, Baugi was a Jotun and brother of Suttung, who had hidden the mead of poetry after obtaining it from Fjalar and Galar, who had murdered Suttungs father (Baugis uncle: Gilling). ... Norse mythology Beli was said a giant, Gymirs and Aurbodas son and brother to Freyrs wife, Gerd. ... In Norse mythology, Bergelmir was a son of Thrudgelmir. ... In Norse mythology, Bestla was an ancient frost giantess, a daughter of Bolthorn. ... Billing was a giant in Norse mythology and the father of Rind. ... In Norse mythology, Bolthorn was a frost giant and father of Bestla. ... Byleist is a character described in Norse Mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Elli or Elle was the goddess of old age. ... In Norse mythology, Fárbauti (cruel-striker) was the father of Loki, Byleifstr/Byleist and Helblindi/Helbindi with his wife Laufey or Nal. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... In Norse mythology, Fjalar refers to two different beings. ... Fornjót (Old Norse Fornjótr) is an ancient giant in Norse mythology, the father of Kári (a personification of wind), of Logi (a personification of fire), and of Hlér or Ægir (the ruler of the sea) and a king of Finland. ... In Norse mythology, Geirrod was one of the Jotuns and father of Gjalp and Greip. ... Skírnir tries to woo Gerd for Freyr as related in Skírnismál. ... In Norse mythology, Gjálp and Greip were two giantesses. ... In Norse mythology, Gilling was one of the Jotuns and father of Suttung. ... In Norse mythology, Gríðr (sometimes Anglicized Grid) was a giantess who, aware of Lokis plans to get Thor killed at the hands of the giant Geirrod, sets out to help him by supplying him with a number of magical gifts. ... In Norse mythology, Gunnlod was a daughter of Suttung, who was set guard by her father in the cavern where he housed the mead of poetry. ... This article is about a mythological figure. ... In Norse mythology, Hel (sometimes Anglicized or Latinized as Hela) is the queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. ... In Norse mythology, Hymir was a giant, a husband of Hrod. ... In Norse mythology, Hræsvelgr, meaning corpse swallower, is a giant. ... In Norse mythology, Hrod was the wife of Hymir and a giantess. ... Hrungnir was a giant in Norse mythology, slain by the god Thor with his hammer Mjollnir. ... In Norse mythology, Hymir was a giant, a husband of Hrod. ... The Lay of Hyndla or Hyndluljóð is an Old Norse poem of the same type as those in the Poetic Edda, but in corrupted form, and it is only preserved in Flateyjarbók. ... In Norse mythology, Hyrrokkin is a giantess. ... In Norse mythology, Járnsaxa is a giantess. ... Karo kari in Pakistan is capital punishment for girls accused of causing disgrace to family honor and are killed as honor killing Fornjót, or Kári, the Norse mythology personification of wind Korea Aerospace Research Institute, or KARI, the Aeronautics and Space Agency of South Korea Silat Kari, the... In Norse mythology, Laufey was, with Farbauti, the mother of Loki. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Máni was the god of the moon and a son of Mundilfari and Glaur. ... Fenja and Menja Grottasöngr is a Scandinavian legend that was written down by Snorri Sturluson in the Poetic Edda. ... In Norse mythology, Móðguðr (Modgud) was the giantess guardian of the Gjallarbrú. She allowed the newly dead to cross from one side of the river Gjöll to the other if the soul stated his or her name and business. ... In Norse mythology, Mundilfari (or Mundilfäri) was the father of Sol (goddess of the Sun) and Mani (god of the Moon) by Glaur. ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel, is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... Hrungnir was a giant in Norse mythology, slain by the god Thor with his hammer Mjollnir. ... In Norse mythology, Narfi was the father of Nótt. ... In Norse mythology, Olvaldi was a giant and the father of Thjazi, Gangr and Idi as well as the grandfather of Skaði. ... Ragnhild is a local saint whose veneration is attested in late Medieval Sweden and whose name was particularly associated with the church in Södertälje in the province of Södermanland and the diocese of Strängnäs in Sweden. ... Rán In Norse mythology, Rán is a sea goddess who collects the drowned in a net. ... Rind (giantess) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... In Norse mythology, Skaði ‡ is a mountain giantess, wife of the Van god Njord and thus a Van goddess herself. ... Snær (Old Norse) Snærr, East Norse Sniō, Latin Snio) snow, in Norse mythology seemingly a personification of snow, appearing in extant text as an euhemerized legendary Scandinavian king. ... In Norse mythology, Suttung was a Jotun, son of Gilling, who (along with Suttungs mother) had been murdered by Fjalar and Galar. ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... In Norse mythology, Thokk (actually Loki in disguise) was the giantess who refused to weep for the slain Baldur, thus forcing him to stay dead until Ragnarok. ... Iðunn is carried off by Þjazi in this artwork by H. Theaker, 1920 In Norse mythology, Thiazi (Old Norse: Þjazi) was a giant who kidnapped the goddess Iðunn. ... In Norse mythology, Þrívaldi (anglicized as Thrívaldi or Thrivaldi), whose name means thrice mighty, is a giant killed by Thor. ... Þrúðgelmir (anglicized Thrudgelmir or Thrúdgelmir) is a giant in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, King Thrym (uproar) (Þrymr) of the Jotuns (frost giants) stole Mjollnir, Thors hammer, to extort the gods into giving him Freyja as his wife. ... In Norse mythology, Utgardaloki was the ruler of the city Utgard in Jotunheim. ... Vafþrúðnir was a giant in Norse mythology and both Odins host and (defeated) opponent in a battle of wits in the poem Vafþrúðnismál, a part of the Poetic Edda. ... Ymir is killed by the sons of Borr in this artwork by Lorenz Frølich In Norse mythology, Ymir, also named Aurgelmir (Old Norse gravel-yeller) among the giants themselves, was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology. ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ... Alvíss (All-Wise) was a dwarf in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Andvari was a dwarf. ... // Berl, Berle can be: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Brokkr is a dwarf from Norse mythology, brother of Eitri (or Sindri). ... In Norse mythology, Durin is the name of a dwarf mentioned in Völuspá and repeated in Gylfaginning. ... In Norse mythology, Dvalin is a common dwarf name found in several mythological tales and kennings. ... In Norse mythology, Eitri is a dwarf, brother of Brokk. ... Fáfnir guards the gold hoard in this illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagners Siegfried. ... In Norse mythology, Fjalar and his brother, Galar, were dwarves who killed Kvasir and turned his blood into the mead of poetry, which inspired poets. ... Gandalf is a dwarf in Norse mythology, he appears in the poem Völuspa in the Edda. ... In Norse mythology, Vidfinn was the father of Hjuki and Bil. ... In Norse mythology, Hreidmar was the avaricious king of the dwarf folk, who captured three gods with his unbreakable chains. ... In Norse mythology, Hringhorni is the name of the ship of Baldr, described as the greatest of all ships. According to Gylfaginning, following the murder of Baldr by Loki the other gods brought his body down to the sea and laid him to rest on the ship. ... In Norse mythology, Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri (Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western) were four dwarves who each supported one of the four cardinal points. ... In Norse mythology, Nýi and Niði (New and Nether) were the two dwarves who governed the waxing and waning lunar phase, respectively. ... Look up qtr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Norse mythology, Regin was the son of Hreidmar and foster father of Sigurd. ... In Norse mythology, Sindri is the name of both a dwarf and a hall that will serve as a dwelling place for the souls of the virtuous during Ragnarök. ... Adils pursuing Hrolf Kraki on the Fýrisvellir Eadgils (Beowulf), Adils the Great, or Athisl (Saxo Grammaticus) (all forms are based an older Aðgils, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical but it was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons) was a Swedish king of... Agne or Agni Skjafarbonde was king of Sweden, of the House of Yngling. ... Look up ask in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aslaug, Asl g, Kraka or Kr ka, was a queen of Scandinavian mythology who appears in Snorris Edda, the V lsunga saga and the saga of Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Björn Járnsíða or Björn Järnsida, Swedish king (ca 785-800) was a legendary viking from the 8th century. ... Bödvar Bjarki is the hero appearing in tales of Hrólf Kraki in the Saga of Hrölf Kraki, in the Latin epitome to the lost Skjöldunga saga, and as Biarco in Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum. ... For other uses, see Berserker (disambiguation). ... Dag the Wise or Dagr Spaka was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings. ... Domalde was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, in Norse mythology. ... A draugr (original Old Norse plural draugar, as used here, not draugrs), draug or draugen (Norwegian meaning the draug) is a corporeal undead from Norse mythology. ... Dygvi, Dyggve or Digne was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings. ... Ongenþeow, Ongentheow, Ongendþeow, Egil, Egill, Eigil, or Angantyr (- ca 515) was the name of one or two semi-legendary Swedish kings of the house of Scylfings, who appear in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian sources. ... In Norse religion the einherjar or einheriar were spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... Ask and Embla were the first two humans created by the gods of the Norse Mythology (analogy with Adam and Eve). ... Alrik and Erik fighting Alrek and Eirík (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ) were two legendary kings of Sweden. ... humouristic image by Albert Engström (1869-1940): Fjölnir, Fjölner or Fjolner was a Swedish king of the House of Yngling, at Gamla Uppsala. ... Fródi (Old Norse Fróði corresponding to Old English Froda) is the name of a number of legendary Danish kings in various texts including Beowulf, Snorri Sturlusons Edda and his Ynglinga saga, Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum, and the Grottisöng. ... The acronym LAMP (or L.A.M.P.) refers to a set of free software programs commonly used together to run dynamic Web sites or servers: Linux, the operating system; Apache, the Web server; MySQL, the database management system (or database server); Perl, PHP, Python, and/or Primate (mod mono... This article should be merged with Kriemhild In Norse mythology, Grimhild was the witch who cast a spell on Sigurd making him leave his wife, Brünnehilde, for Gudrun. ... Gylfi greets Odin Gylfi, Gylfe, Gylvi, or Gylve was the earliest king of Sweden present in Norse mythology. ... The Haddingjar were two brothers (possibly twins and sons of the berserker Arngrim) in Norse mythology. ... Signhild Hagbard and Signy (Signe) (the Viking Age) or Habor and Sign(h)ild (the Middle Ages and later) were a pair of lovers in Scandinavian mythology and folklore whose legend was widely popular. ... Hake, Haki or Haco was a famous Scandinavian sea-king who had amassed a great force of warriors, and occasionally plundered together together with his brother Hagbard (who himself was the hero of one of the most popular legends of ancient Scandinavia, see Hagbard and Signy). ... Old Norse persons with the name Halfdan (half dane) (Old Norse sources) or Healfdene (Beowulf) or Haldan (Danish Latin sources) was probably kings. ... Halfdan the Old (Old Norse Hálfdanr gamli and Hálfdanr inn gamli) was an ancient, legendary king from whom descended many of the most notable lineages of legend. ... Harald Hildetand at the Battle of Bråvalla Haraldr hilditönn, Harald Wartooth or Harald Hildetand was the king of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Wendland. ... Hedin and Högni is a Scandinavian legend from Norse mythology about a never-ending battle which is documented in Sörla þáttr, Ragnarsdrápa, Gesta Danorum and in Skáldskaparmál. ... Helgi Hundingsbane/Hundingsbani was a hero in the Norse sagas. ... Hjalmar proposes to Ingeborg Hjalmar was a Swedish hero who figures in the Hervarar saga and in Orvar-Odds saga. ... Hrólf Kraki (Old Norse), Rolf Kraki or Rolf Krake was a legendary king at Lejre on the isle of Zealand, Denmark, described in several old sagas and other documents such as the Leire chronicle and Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. ... Hugleik or Ochilaik (a namesake of Hygelac) was a Swedish king of the House of Yngling, according to the Ynglinga saga, Ynglingatal and Historia Norwegiae. ... Hvitsärk (Whiteshirt) was one of the legendary sons of Ragnar Lodbrok and Kraka. ... Ingeborg is a Scandinavian name carried by many prominent women in Scandinavian history and mythology, including: The daughter of the Norwegian king Beli, in Friðþjófs saga ins frÅ“kna. ... Ingjald centralizing Sweden Ingjaldr hinn illráði or Ingjald illrÃ¥de (ill-ruler), ca 640 - ca 650, was a legendary Swedish king of the House of Ynglings. ... Jorund or Eorund was a Swedish king of the House of Yngling. ... Look up Karl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article should be merged with Grimhild In the medieval Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild is one of four children of Uote. ... In Norse mythology, Lif (life/(f)) and Lifthrasir (eager for life/(m)) will be the only two to survive Ragnarok, the end of the world. ... In Norse mythology, the Marmennill were mermen with the ability to prophesize the future. ... Nór (Old Norse Nórr) or Nori is firstly a merchantile title and secondly a Norse boy name. ... This is about the Swedish king Ohthere. ... Raum the Old (Old Norse Raumr inn gamli) is a legendary king in Norway in the Hversu Noregr byggdist and in Thorsteins saga Víkingssonar. ... Röskva is a person from Norse mythology who appears in Snorris Edda. ... The name Sigar is worn by two characters in Scandinavian mythology. ... Siggeir is the king of Gautland (i. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Signy and Hagbard Signy is the name of two heroines in two legends from Scandinavian mythology which were very popular in medieval Scandinavia. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Sigurðr hringr, Sigurd Ring (ca 750) was a Swedish king mentioned in sources such as the Heimskringla, Gesta Danorum, Hervarar Saga and Sögubrot af Nokkrum. ... Odin taking the dead Sinfjötli to Valhalla Sinfjötli (Old Norse) or Fitela (Anglo-Saxon) was born out of the incestuous relationship between Sigmund and his sister Signy. ... Skoglar Toste or Skagul Toste (there are several variations) was a Viking from the Swedish province of West Götaland. ... In Norse mythology, Skírnir is Freyrs messenger and vassal. ... Sveigder or Swegde was a Swedish king of the House of Yngling in Norse mythology. ... Svipdag is the hero of the two Old Norse poems, Grogaldr and Fjolsvinnsmal, which are contained within the body of one work, Svipdagsmál. ... Thjálfi (Old Norse) or Thjelvar (Old Gutnish) is a person (or two) from Norse mythology who appear(s) twice in Snorris Edda and once in the Gutasaga. ... Vanlade, Vanlande was a Swedish king at Uppsala of the House of Yngling. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Yngvi and Alf were two legendary Swedish kings of the House of Yngling. ... Yrsa learns of her true fathers identity In Scandinavian legendary tradition Yrsa is the illegitimate daughter of Helgi whom Helgi later unwittingly married and on whom he fathered his famous son Hrólf Kraki. ... In Norse mythology, Arvak (early-riser) and Alsvid (all-swift) were the horses that pulled Sols chariot (i. ... Auðumbla licks Búri out of a stone while four rivers of milk flow from her udders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... According to Þulur, Blóðughófi (Bloody Hoof, sometimes Anglicized Blodughofi) is the horse of Freyr. ... Eikþyrnir and Heiðrún have fun on top of Valhalla in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ... According to the Edda Fenrisulfr bites off the hand of Týr (John Bauer, 1911) In Norse mythology, Fenrir or Fenrisulfr is a wolf, the son of Loki and the giantess Angrboða. ... In Norse mythology, Garm or Garmr is a huge hound which guards Hel, the land of the dead, alongside of Hræsvelgr and living in a cave called Gnipahellir. ... Geri and Freki (also spelled Gere and Freke) are a pair of wolves, companions of the god Odin in Norse mythology. ... Grani is a mythical eight-legged horse that appears in Norse mythology. ... Gullinbursti (meaning Golden Mane) is a boar in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Gullinkambi (golden comb) was a rooster who lived in Valhalla, where he woke up the Einherjar every morning. ... Gulltopp is the horse of Heimdall in Norse Mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Hati (Hateful) is a wolf that according to Gylfaginning chases the Moon across the night sky, just as the wolf Sköll chases the Sun during the day, until the time of Ragnarök when they will swallow these heavenly bodies, after which Fenrir will break free... This article is about the goat in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Hildisvíni (battle boar) was Freyjas boar. ... In Norse mythology, Hofvarpnir (hoof-thrower) was Gnas horse. ... In Norse mythology, Hræsvelgr, meaning corpse swallower, is a giant. ... In Norse mythology, Hrímfaxi is the horse which Nótt rides. ... Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Thor goes fishing for the Midgard Serpent in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Lindworm (wingless bipedal dragon) in British heraldry Lindorm (seaserpent) in Scandinavian heraldry Lindworm or lindorm (cognate with Old Norse linnormr snake, Scandinavian languages lindorm seaserpent, German Lindwurm dragon, from two Germanic roots meaning roughly constrictor snake), in British heraldry, is a technical term for a wingless bipedal dragon. ... In Norse mythology, Mánagarmr is another name for the wolf Hati, referring to his hunting down the moon during the Ragnarök and swallowing it. ... Níðhöggr gnaws the roots of Yggdrasill in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This image from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript shows Ratatoskr with a horn. ... In Norse mythology, Skinfaxi was Dagurs horse. ... In Norse mythology, Sköll was a wolf that chased the sun (Sol) through the sky every day, trying to eat her. ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... In Norse mythology, Svadilfari was a magical stallion, owned by a hrimthurs (rime giant) disguised as a human stonemason, who built the walls of Asgard and whose name is uncertain. ... In Norse mythology, Sæhrímnir was the cosmic boar killed and eaten every night by the Æsir and einherjar. ... In Norse mythology, Tanngrisnir (tooth-grinder) and Tanngnjóstr (tooth-gnasher) are a pair of magic goats which draw the chariot of the god Thor. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... This illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript attempts the difficult task of showing a hawk on top of an eagle on top of a tree. ... Álfheim (Old Norse Álfheimr Elf-home) is the abode of the Álfar Elves in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame, sometimes modernized as Elfland or Elfenland. ... Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Aesir, in Norse mythology, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ... AM 748 I 4to, one of the two manuscripts to preserve Skírnismál, has notes on the margin indicating the speaker of each verse. ... In Norse Mythology, Bifröst is the bridge leading from the realm of the mortals Midgard to the realm of the gods Asgard, which the gods travel daily to hold their councils under the shade of the tree Yggdrasill. ... Bilskirnir is the hall of the god Thor in Norse Mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Breidablik (broad splendor; often erroneously spelled Briedablik) is the home of Baldur in Asgard where he lives with his wife Nanna. ... In Norse mythology, Elivagar is the name given to eleven rivers that were created at the beginning of the world. ... In Norse mythology, Eliudnir (or Eljudnir) was Hels hall, located in her domain, the underworld. ... In Norse mythology, Fensalir (water falls) was Friggs hall in Asgard. ... In Norse mythology, Fólkvangr (folk-plain or host-plain) was the dwelling of Freya (Freyja) in Asgard (Ásgarðr), the world of the Æsir, where stood Sessrúmnir, her hall. ... In Norse mythology, Gimlé (alternately Gimli) was a place where the survivors of Ragnarok were to live. ... In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap (seeming emptiness or gaping gap) was a vast chasm that existed before the ordering of the world. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Norse mythology, Gjöll is one of the eleven rivers traditionally associated with the Élivágar, according to Gylfaginning, originating from the wellspring Hvergelmir in Niflheim, flowing through Ginnungagap, and thence into the worlds of existence. ... Gladsheim (place of joy) is the hall of the gods in Asgard, situated on the plain of Ida. ... In Norse mythology, Glasir is a part of Asgard. ... Glitnir (shining) is the home of Forseti, the Norse god of justice, and the seat of justice amongst the Aesir. ... Gnipahellir, in Norse Mythology, is the overhanging cave at the entrance of the Norse Underworld. ... In Norse mythology, Hel (sometimes Anglicized or Latinized as Hela) is the queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. ... In Norse mythology, Hel (sometimes Anglicized or Latinized as Hela) is the queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Hindarfjall or Hindafjall[1] (Hind mountain) is the mountain where Brynhildr lives in the Völsung cycle. ... In Norse paganism, hörgr was a type of altar, constructed of piled stones. ... In Norse mythology, Körmt and Örmt are two rivers which Thor wades over every day when he goes to judgment by Yggdrasill. ... In Norse mythology, Idavoll was the central plain in Asgard. ... In the late 19th century, this Norwegian mountain district was named Jotunheimen after Jötunheimr of Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Járnviðr (often anglicized as Járnvid), which means Iron-wood, is a forest inhabited by giantesses and giant wolves. ... In Norse mythology, Hlidskjalf (also spelt Hlidhskjalf) is Odins throne where none may sit save Odin himself and his wife Frigg. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel (Old Norse Múspellsheimr and Múspell, respectively), is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... Myrkviðr (from Proto-Germanic *merkÊ·jo-widuz) was the name of a forest in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Náströnd (Dead Body Shore) is a hall and region in Hel. ... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Noatun (enclosure of ships) was the sea-side abode of Niord. ... In Norse mythology, Sessrúmnir (Room of seat) was Freyas hall in the Fólkvangr. ... In Norse Mythology, Singasteinn was a small skerry from which Loki tried to steal the necklace Brisingamen while in the guise of a seal. ... In Norse mythology, the Slidr is a river in Helgardh, the land of the dead. ... Odin and Sága drink happily from golden cups in this illustration by Jenny Nyström. ... Þrúðvangr (anglicized Thrúdvang or Thrudvang), which means Fields of Strength, is the name given by Snorri in Gylfaginning to Þrúðheimr, the kingdom of Thor in Asgard where he lives in the hall of Bilskirnir with his wife Sif. ... In Norse mythology, Thrymheim (house of uproar) was the abode of Þjazi, a giant, located in Jötunheimr. ... In Norse Mythology, Útgarðr (often Anglicized Utgard) is a stronghold of the giants. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology Vanaheim is the home of the Vanir. ... Hvergelmir is the wellspring of cold in Niflheim in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Vigrond (battle shaker) is the battlefield, on a plain, where Ragnarok will be fought. ... In Norse mythology, the Vimur is the largest of the Elivagar rivers that were formed at the beginning of the world. ... In Norse mythology, Vingólf is one of the buildings of the gods. ... In Norse mythology, Ydalir (Yew dales) was Ullrs hall. ... For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Andvarinaut was a magical ring, first owned by Andvari. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freyja In Norse mythology, Brísingamen (brisinga flaming, glowing; men jewellry, ornament) is the necklace of the goddess Freyja (or Frigg in some mythological writings). ... Draupnir is a golden arm ring possessed by Odin, the ruling god of Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Eldhrímnir was the magical cauldron in which the cook of the gods, Andhrímnir, prepared Sæhrímnir, the cosmic boar, every evening. ... Gand can refer to Gand is a fictional planet within the Star Wars galaxy. ... Heimdallr blows into Gjallarhorn in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Gleipnir is the bindings that hold the mighty wolf Fenrisulfr in Norse Mythology. ... Illustration by Alan Lee In Norse mythology, Gram was the name of the sword that Sigurd (Siegfried) used to kill the dragon Fafnir. ... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ... In Norse mythology, Gungnir (also Gungni, Gungner, or Gungrir) was the name of Odins javelin. ... In Norse paganism, helskór (hel-shoes) were put on the dead so that they could go to Valhöll. ... Megingjord was a belt which gave the wearer a mystical strength, this is what gave Thor the strength to lift Mjolnir. ... In Norse mythology, the Well of Mimir (so named for the god charged with guarding it) granted the power to see the future. ... Mistilteinn (Mistletoe) is Hrómundr Gripssons sword in Hrómundar saga Gripssonar. ... Mjolnir has inspired many works of art, such as this drawing. ... In Norse mythology, Naglfar was a ship made entirely from the nails of the dead. ... In Norse mythology, Óðrerir, Óðrørir or ÓðrÅ“rir refers either to one of the vessels that contain the mead of poetry (along with Boðn and Són) or to the mead itself. ... In Norse mythology, Reginnaglar were nails that decorated sacred columns. ... Hringhorni was the name of the Norse god Baldrs ship, the largest ever built. ... In Norse mythology, Skíðblaðnir (the name can be anglicized as Skídbladnir, Skídhbladhnir, Skíthblathnir, Skidbladnir, Skithblathnir or Skidhbladhnir) is the ship of Freyr. ... For other uses see Tyrfing (disambiguation) Tyrfing or Tirfing was a magic sword which figures in a poem from the Elder Edda called The Waking of Angantýr, and in Hervarar saga. ... The Well of Urd (ON: Urðarbrunnr) is from Norse Mythology as the well in Asgard which fed one of the roots of the Yggdrasil. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... In Norse paganism, hörgr was a type of altar, constructed of piled stones. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... Symbel (from Proto-Germanic *sumlan banquet, continuing *sm-lo-, i. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... For other uses, see Mjolnir (disambiguation). ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... The Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain from southern Scandinavia, the Netherlands and northern Germany, thus the Anglo-Saxon gods were originally the same gods as those in Germanic mythology and in the better-known version Norse mythology. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ...


Norse mythology is a collection of beliefs and stories shared by Northern Germanic tribes. It had no one set of doctrinal beliefs. The mythology was orally transmitted in the form of poetry and our knowledge about it is mainly based on the Eddas and other medieval texts written down during and after Christianization. The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the...


Some aspects of Norse mythology passed into Scandinavian folklore and have survived to modern day times. Others have recently been reinvented or reconstructed as Germanic neopaganism. The mythology also remains as an inspiration in literature (see Norse mythological influences on later literature) as well as on stage productions and movies. Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Swedish speaking parts of Finland. ... The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Norse mythology provides a rich and diverse source which many later writers have borrowed from or built upon. ...

Contents

Sources

Most of the existing records on Norse mythology date from the 12th to 18th century, having gone through more than two centuries of oral preservation in what was at least officially a Christian society. At this point scholars started recording it, particularly in the Eddas and the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, who believed that pre-Christian deities trace real historical people. There is also the Danish Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus, where the Norse gods are more strongly Euhemerized. The Prose or Younger Edda was written in the early 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, who was a leading poet, chieftain, and diplomat in Iceland. It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring poets. It contains prose explications of traditional "kennings," or compressed metaphors found in poetry. These prose retellings make the various tales of the Norse gods systematic and coherent. The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Euhemerus (Ευήμερος) (working late 4th century BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article is about negotiations. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ...


The Poetic Edda (also known as the Elder Edda) was committed to writing about 50 years after the Prose Edda. It contains 29 long poems, of which 11 deal with the Germanic deities, the rest with legendary heroes like Sigurd the Volsung (the Siegfried of the German version Nibelungenlied). Although scholars think it was transcribed later than the other Edda, the language and poetic forms involved in the tales appear to have been composed centuries earlier than their transcription. The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... The Ramsund carving depicting Sigurd and the Saga of the Völsungs In Norse mythology, Sigurd (also Siegfried) was a legendary hero, as well as the central character in the Volsunga saga, Nibelungenlied and Richard Wagners opera, Siegfried, which see for more details. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


Besides these sources, there are surviving legends in Scandinavian folklore. Some of these can be corroborated with legends appearing in other Germanic literatures e.g. the tale related in the Anglo-Saxon Battle of Finnsburgh and the many allusions to mythological tales in Deor. When several partial references and tellings survive, scholars can deduce the underlying tale. Additionally, there are hundreds of place names in Scandinavia named after the gods. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Finnsburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem, found in the Exeter Book. ... Deor (or The Lament of Deor) is an Old English poem from the 10th century, preserved in the Exeter Book. ...


A few runic inscriptions, such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet, make references to the mythology. There are also several runestones and image stones that depict scenes from Norse mythology, such as Thor's fishing trip, scenes depicting Sigurd (Sigfried) the dragon slayer, Odin and Sleipnir, Odin being devoured by Fenrir, and one of the surviving stones from the Hunnestad Monument appears to show Hyrrokkin riding to Baldr's funeral (DR 284). A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ... The Kvinneby amulette invokes Thor to protect its wearer with his hammer. ... A rune stone Rune stones are somewhat flat standing stones with runic stone carvings from the Iron Age (Viking Age) and early middle ages found in most parts of Scandinavia. ... A rune stone Rune stones are somewhat flat standing stones with runic stone carvings from the Iron Age (Viking Age) and early middle ages found in most parts of Scandinavia. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... Ole Worms depiction of the monument before it was destroyed. ... In Norse mythology, Hyrrokkin is a giantess. ... Balder redirects here. ...


In Denmark, one image stone depicts Loki with curled dandy-like mustaches and lips that are sewn together and the British Gosforth cross shows several intriguing images. There are also smaller images, such as figurines depicting the god Odin (with one eye), Thor (with his hammer) and Freyr (with his erect phallus). For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... The Gosforth cross is a large stone cross in Gosforth, Cumbria. ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ...


Cosmology

Main article: Norse cosmology

Scandinavians believed there are 'nine worlds' (níu heimar), that many scholars summarize as follows: Norse cosmology has the World Tree Yggdrasill unify nine worlds or nine homelands (Old Norse: níu heimar), that represent all that exists within the infinite abyss of Ginnungagap. ... Yggdrasil (Beneath its roots are the nine worlds of the universe, plus three magic wells) Hvergelmir Mímisbrunnr Urdarbrunnr Highest level Álfheim Asgard Valhalla Vanaheim Middle level Jotunheim Gastropnir Thrymheim Utgard Midgard Nidavellir and Svartalfheim (may be the same) Lower level Helheim Muspelheim Ginnungagap (Former gap between Muspelheim and Niflheim...

Note the boundaries between Niflheim, Jötunheimr, Hel, Niðavellir, Svartálfaheimr, and several other significant places like Utgarðr remain uncertain. Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Æsir, in Norse mythology, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... In Music, Vanaheimr is the name of a goth-metal band from Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... Midgard (the common English transliteration of Old Norse Miðgarðr), Miðgarður (Icelandic), Midjungards (Gothic), Middangeard (Old English), MidgÃ¥rd (common Danish and Swedish), Midgard or MidgÃ¥rd (Norwegian) and Mittilagart (Old High German), from Proto-Germanic *medja-gardaz (*meddila-, *medjan-, projected PIE *medhyo-ghartos), is an old... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel, is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse Mythology. ... HEL can mean: Helsinki-Vantaa Airport Hensall railway station, England; National Rail station code HEL High energy laser (weapon) Hel (band), a Swedish vikingarock band Category: ... Álfheim (Old Norse Álfheimr Elf-home) is the abode of the Álfar Elves in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame, sometimes modernized as Elfland or Elfenland. ... For alternate meanings, see Lightning (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Svartalfheim was the land of the black elves, or svartalfer (the light elves lived in Álfheim). ... Nidavellir is the land of the dwarves in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ... In the late 19th century, this Norwegian mountain district was named Jotunheimen after Jötunheimr of Norse mythology. ...


Each world also had significant places within. Valhalla was Odin's hall located in Asgard. It was also home of the Einherjar, who were the souls of the greatest warriors. These warriors were selected by the Valkyries, Odin's mounted female messengers whose sparkling armor supposedly created the famed Aurora Borealis, or the northern lights. The Einherjar would help defend the gods during Ragnarok, when everyone would die in a great battle between the gods and their iniquitous enemies. A battle, incidentally, emphasising a good versus evil duality common to many ancient mythologies and no less present in Norse mythology. Niflhel was a hellish place in Hel, where oathbreakers and other criminals suffered torments (compare Greek Tartarus). For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... In Norse religion the einherjar or einheriar were spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Niflhel (Misty Hell) is the name of a location in Norse mythology which appears in the eddic poems Vafþrúðnismál and Baldrs draumar, and also in Snorri Sturlusons Gylfaginning. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ...


These worlds were connected by Yggdrasil, or the world ash root, a giant tree with Asgard at its top. Chewing at its roots in Niflheim was Nidhogg, a ferocious serpent or dragon. Asgard can also be reached by Bifrost, the magical rainbow bridge guarded by Heimdall, the mute god of vigilance who could see and hear a thousand miles. For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... Níðhöggr gnaws the roots of Yggdrasill in this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Serpent can be any of the following: The reptile commonly called snake. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... In Norse Mythology, Bifrost Bridge is the bridge leading from the realm of the mortals Midgård to the realm of the gods Asgård, which the gods travel daily to hold their councils under the shade of the tree Yggdrasil. ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... Vigilance is the act of watching for something to happen, of watching for danger. ...


The cosmology of Norse mythology also involves a strong element of duality; for example the night and the day have their own mythological counterparts-- Dagr/Skinfaxi and Nótt/Hrímfaxi, the sun Sól and the chasing wolf Skoll, the moon Mani and its chasing wolf Hati, and the total opposites of Niflheim and Muspell in the origin of the world. This might have reflected a deeper metaphysical belief in opposites as the foundation of the world. Look up duality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dagr rides his horse in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ... In Norse mythology, Skinfaxi was Dagurs horse. ... Nótt rides her horse in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ... In Norse mythology, Hrímfaxi is the horse which Nótt rides. ... In Norse mythology, Sköll was a wolf that chased the sun (Sol) through the sky every day, trying to eat her. ... In Norse mythology, Máni was the god of the moon and a son of Mundilfari and Glaur. ... In Norse mythology, Hati (Hateful) is a wolf that according to Gylfaginning chases the Moon across the night sky, just as the wolf Sköll chases the Sun during the day, until the time of Ragnarök when they will swallow these heavenly bodies, after which Fenrir will break free... Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse mythology. ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel, is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ...


Supernatural beings

There are several "clans" of Vættir or animistic nature spirits: the Æsir and Vanir, understood as gods, plus the Jötnar, the Álfar and Dvergar. To this list can be added the dead in the Underworld. The distinction between Æsir and Vanir is relative, for the two are said to have made peace, exchanged hostages, intermarried and reigned together after a prolonged war, which the Æsir had finally won. Some gods belong in both camps. Some authorities (compare Mircea Eliade and J.P. Mallory) consider the Æsir/Vanir division to be simply the Norse expression of a general Indo-European division of divinities, parallel to that of Olympians and Titans in Greek mythology and to a similar structure in parts of the Mahabharata. Wight is an obsolete word for a human or other intelligent being (cognate to modern German Wicht, meaning small person, dwarf, and also unpleasant person). It is used only comparatively recently to give an impression of archaism and mystery, for example in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... In Norse mythology, the Light Elves (Old Norse: Liósálfar) live in Álfheim. ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ... Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... Olympians can refer to any of the following: The Twelve Olympians of Ancient Greek mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...

Thor often fought the giants.
Thor often fought the giants.

Generally, despite ambiguity, the Æsir and their allies represent the natural forces of cosmic order, whereas the Jötnar represent the natural forces of destructive chaos. The Jötnar compare to the Titans and Gigantes of Greek mythology and generally translated as "giants", although "trolls" and "demons" have been suggested as suitable alternatives. Notably, a foreboding figure like Loki was the child of two giants, and likewise Hel his daughter. Even so, the Æsir frequently intermarry the Jötnar, and themselves for the most part descend from them. Loki himself is thought to be the blood brother of Óðinn and thus counted as one of the Æsir. Some of the giants are mentioned by name in the Eddas, and they seem to be representations of natural forces. There are two general types of giant: Thurses and the normal thuggish giant, but there was also a giant made of stone and a giant made of fire. There were also elves and dwarfs, whose role is shadowy but who are generally thought to side with the gods. Thors battle against the giants (1872), by Mårten Eskil Winge. ... Thors battle against the giants (1872), by Mårten Eskil Winge. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Gigantomachia: Dionysos attacking a Gigante, Attic red-figure pelike, ca. ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1866). ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ...


In addition, there are many other supernatural beings: Fenrir the gigantic wolf, and Jörmungandr the sea-serpent (or "worm") that is coiled around Midgard. These two monsters are described as the progeny of Loki, the trickster-god, and a giant (Hel is the third of these offspring). More benevolent creatures are Hugin and Munin (thought and memory, respectively), the two ravens who keep Odin, the chief god, apprised of what is happening on earth, since he gave his eye to the Well of Mimir in his quest for wisdom, Sleipnir, Loki's eight legged horse son belonging to Odin and Ratatosk, the squirrel which scampers in the branches of Yggdrasil. Fenrir may refer to: Fenrisulfr, a Norse mythological wolf. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Thor goes fishing for the Midgard Serpent in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In Norse mythology, the Well of Mimir (so named for the god charged with guarding it) granted the power to see the future. ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... This image from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript shows Ratatoskr with a horn. ...


Along with many other polytheistic religions, this mythology lacks the good-evil dualism of the Middle Eastern tradition. Thus, Loki is not primarily an adversary of the gods, though he is often portrayed in the stories as the nemesis to the protagonist Thor, and the giants are not so much fundamentally evil, as rude, boisterous, and uncivilized (except in the case of the Thurses who were not quite so uncivilized). The dualism that exists is not good vs. evil, but order vs. chaos. The gods represent order and structure whereas the giants and the monsters represent chaos and disorder. Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ...


Völuspá: the origin and end of the world

The origin and eventual fate of the world are described in Völuspá ("Prophecy [spá] of the völva"), one of the most striking poems in the Poetic Edda. These haunting verses contain one of the most vivid creation accounts in all of religious history and a representation of the eventual destruction of the world that is unique in its attention to detail. Völuspá (The Prophecy of the Seeress) is the first poem in the Poetic Edda. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ...


In the Völuspá, Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future. She is reluctant: "What do you ask of me? Why tempt me?"; but since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him: "Well, would you know more?" But Odin insists: if he is to fulfill his function as king of the gods, he must possess all knowledge. Once the völva has revealed the secrets of past and future, she falls back into oblivion: "I sink now".


The beginning

The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world.
The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world.

According to Norse myth, the beginning of life was fire and ice, with the existence of only two worlds: Muspelheim and Niflheim. When the warm air of Muspelheim hit the cold ice of Niflheim, the giant Ymir and the icy cow Audhumbla were created. Ymir's foot bred a son and a man and a woman emerged from his armpits, making Ymir the progenitor of the Jotun, or giants. Whilst Ymir slept, the intense heat from Muspelheim made him sweat, and he sweated out Surtr, a giant of fire. Later Ymir woke and drank Audhumbla's milk. Whilst he drank, the cow Audhumbla licked on a salt stone. On the first day after this a man's hair appeared on the stone, on the second day a head and on the third day an entire man emerged from the stone. His name was Búri and with an unknown giantess he fathered Bor, the father of the three gods Odin, Vili and Ve. Image File history File links The Norns spin their tapestry at the roots of Yggdrasil. ... Image File history File links The Norns spin their tapestry at the roots of Yggdrasil. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... Ymir is killed by the sons of Borr in this artwork by Lorenz Frølich In Norse mythology, Ymir, also named Aurgelmir (Old Norse gravel-yeller) among the giants themselves, was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology. ... In Norse mythology, Audumla (also Audhumla, Audhumbla) was the primeval cow who came into existence at the beginning of time through shaping of the melted Ginnungagap ice. ... Categories: Stub | Municipalities of Libya ... Búri is licked out of a salty ice-block by the cow Auðumbla in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ...


When the gods felt strong enough they killed Ymir. His blood flooded the world and drowned all of the giants, except two. But giants grew again in numbers and soon there were as many as before Ymir's death. Then the gods created seven more worlds using Ymir's flesh for dirt, his blood for the Oceans, rivers and lakes, his bones for stone, his brain as the clouds, his skull for the heaven. Sparks from Muspelheim flew up and became stars.

Creation of Ask and Embla, on a Faroese stamp
Creation of Ask and Embla, on a Faroese stamp

One day when the gods were walking they found two tree trunks. They transformed them into the shape of humans. Odin gave them life, Vili gave them mind and Ve gave them the ability to hear, see, and speak. The gods named them Ask and Embla and built the kingdom of Middle-earth for them and to keep the giants out the gods placed a gigantic fence made of Ymirs eye-lashes around Middle-earth. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ask and Embla on a postage stamp of the Faroe Islands, 2003 by Anker Eli Petersen. ...


The völva goes on to describe Yggdrasil and the three norns (female symbols of inexorable fate; their names - Urðr (Urd), Verðandandi (Verdandi), and Skuld - indicate the past, present, and future), who spin the threads of fate beneath it. She then describes the war between the Æsir and Vanir and the murder of Baldr, Odin's handsome son whom everyone but Loki loved. (The story is that everything in existence promised not to hurt him except mistletoe. Taking advantage of this weakness, Loki made a mistletoe spear and tricked Höðr, Odin's blind son and Baldr's brother, into using it to kill Baldr. Hel said she would revive him if everyone in the nine worlds wept. A giantess - Thokk, who may have been Loki in shape-shifted form - did not weep. After that she turns her attention to the future. For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... Look up Norns in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Norse Mythology Urd (ON: Urðr) is one of the three Norns (old crones). ... In Norse mythology, Verdandi (ON: Verðandi), also known as Verthandi, is one of the three norns, along with Urd and Skuld. ... In Norse mythology, Skuld was one of the Norns, and she was also one of the Valkyries. ... Balder redirects here. ... Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe is a plant parasitic on the branches of a tree or shrub. ... Loki tricks Höðr into shooting Baldr. ... HEL can mean: Helsinki-Vantaa Airport Hensall railway station, England; National Rail station code HEL High energy laser (weapon) Hel (band), a Swedish vikingarock band Category: ... In Norse mythology, Thokk (actually Loki in disguise) was the giantess who refused to weep for the slain Baldur, thus forcing him to stay dead until Ragnarok. ...


The end times (Eschatological beliefs)

Main article: Ragnarök

The Old Norse vision of the future is bleak. Norse mythology's vision of the end times is stark and pessimistic: not only are the Norse gods capable of being defeated by residents of Yggdrasil's other branches, but in fact are destined to be defeated, and have always lived with this knowledge. In the end, it was believed, the forces of chaos will outnumber and overcome the divine and human guardians of order. Loki and his monstrous children will burst their bonds; the dead will sail from Niflheim to attack the living. Heimdall, the watchman of the gods, will summon the heavenly host with a blast on his horn. Then a final battle will ensue between order and chaos (Ragnarök), which the gods will lose, as is their fate. The gods, aware of this, will gather the finest warriors, the Einherjar, to fight on their side when the day comes, but in the end they will be powerless to prevent the world from descending into the chaos out of which it has once emerged; the gods and their world will be destroyed. There are two optimistic facts, however: Not only will chaos also be defeated, but a new, better world will emerge from the ashes of the old one. Odin will be swallowed by Fenrir. Thor will kill Jörmungandr, but will drown in its venom. Loki will be the last to die, having taken a wound from Heimdall that, although was taken at the same time as Loki's wound on Heimdall, did not kill the god of chaos and fire in that instance. For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ...


And although the Gods were destined to be defeated and killed, Baldr and Hodr, along with the new world, will be born again.


Kings and heroes

Main article: Legendary sagas
The Ramsund carving depicting passages from the Völsunga saga
The Ramsund carving depicting passages from the Völsunga saga

The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings, as well as supernatural creatures. These clan and kingdom founding figures possessed great importance as illustrations of proper action or national origins. The heroic literature may have fulfilled the same function as the national epic in other European literatures, or it may have been more nearly related to tribal identity. Many of the legendary figures probably existed, and generations of Scandinavian scholars have tried to extract history from myth in the sagas. A Fornaldarsaga deals with matter that took place in Scandinavia (and a few distant places) before the colonization of Iceland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Ramsund carving of Sigurd and the passages from the Volsunga saga The Ramsund carving also known as the Sigurd carving is a runic carving with the official name Södermanlands runinskrifter 101. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ...


Sometimes the same hero resurfaces in several forms depending on which part of the Germanic world the epics survived such as Weyland/Völund and Siegfried/Sigurd, and probably Beowulf/Bödvar Bjarki. Other notable heroes are Hagbard, Starkad, Ragnar Lodbrok, Sigurd Ring, Ivar Vidfamne and Harald Hildetand. Notable are also the shieldmaidens who were ordinary women who had chosen the path of the warrior. These women function both as heroines and as obstacles to the heroic journey. Weyland (also spelled Wayland, Weland and Watlende) is the mythical smith-god of the Saxon immigrants into Britain. ... Weyland (also spelled Wayland, Weland and Watlende) is the mythical smith-god of the Saxon immigrants into Britain. ... Siegfried could refer to: The opera by Richard Wagner; see Siegfried (opera). ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... Bödvar Bjarki is the hero appearing in tales of Hrólf Kraki in the Saga of Hrölf Kraki, in the Latin epitome to the lost Skjöldunga saga, and as Biarco in Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum. ... Hagbard, son of Haamund, was a hero from Scandinavian mythology. ... Starkad, Starkotter, Starkodder, Starkadhr (ice. ... Aella murdering Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Sigurðr hringr, Sigurd Ring (ca 750) was a Swedish king mentioned in sources such as the Heimskringla, Gesta Danorum, Hervarar Saga and Sögubrot af Nokkrum. ... Ívarr inn víðfaðmi or Ivar Vidfamne was a semi-legendary king of Sweden c. ... Harald Hildetand at the Battle of Bråvalla Haraldr hilditönn, Harald Wartooth or Harald Hildetand was the king of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Wendland. ... Hervor dying after the battle with the Huns. ...


Norse worship

Main articles: Norse paganism and Blót

Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ...

Centres of faith

Gamla Uppsala, the centre of worship in Sweden until the temple was destroyed in the late 11th century.
Gamla Uppsala, the centre of worship in Sweden until the temple was destroyed in the late 11th century.

The Germanic tribes rarely or never had temples in a modern sense. The Blót, the form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian people resembled that of the Celts and Balts : it could occur in sacred groves. It could also take place at home and/or at a simple altar of piled stones known as a "horgr". However, there seems to have been a few more important centres, such as Skiringssal, Lejre and Uppsala. Adam of Bremen claims that there was a temple in Uppsala (see Temple at Uppsala) with three wooden statues of Thor, Odin and Freyr. Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... http://www. ... Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ... . The origin of modern place names such as Harrow in England and Harge in Sweden. ... Kaupang is the name of a town with roots from the Viking Age, situated in Vestfold county in Norway. ... Lejre is a municipality in east Denmark, in the county of Roskilde on the peninsula of Zealand. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ...


Priests

While a kind of priesthood seems to have existed, it never took on the professional and semi-hereditary character of the Celtic druidical class. This was because the shamanistic tradition was maintained by women, the Völvas. It is often said that the Germanic kingship evolved out of a priestly office. This priestly role of the king was in line with the general role of godi, who was the head of a kindred group of families (for this social structure, see norse clans), and who administered the sacrifices. In the Celtic religion, the modern words Druidry or Druidism denote the practices of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering because of a special relationship with, or control over, spirits. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... The Germanic king originally had three main functions. ... The term gothi (goði), in Norse mythology, refers to the person who administered the Blóts. ... The Scandinavian clan or ætt in Old Norse, was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a þing. ...


Despite the shamanistic Völvas, this religion was not a form of shamanism. This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


Human sacrifice

Carl Larsson, "Midwinter Sacrifice", 1915: the sacrifice of King Domalde at Gamla Uppsala.

A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial, where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world. More indirect accounts are given by Tacitus, Saxo Grammaticus and Adam von Bremen. the sacrifice of king Domalde, by Carl Larsson. ... the sacrifice of king Domalde, by Carl Larsson. ... Carl Larsson (May 28, 1853 – January 22, 1919) was a Swedish painter and interior designer. ... Domalde was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, in Norse mythology. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العباس ابن رشيد ابن حماد ابن فضلان) was a tenth-century Arab scholar who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Caliph... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ...


However, the Ibn Fadlan account is actually a burial ritual. Current understanding of Norse mythology suggests an ulterior motive to the slave-girl's 'sacrifice'. It is believed that in Norse mythology a woman who joined the corpse of a man on the funeral pyre would be that man's wife in the next world. For a slave girl to become the wife of a lord was an obvious increase in status. Although both religions are of the Indo-European tradition, the sacrifice described in the Ibn Fadlan account is not to be confused with the practice of Sati. Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العباس ابن رشيد ابن حماد ابن فضلان) was a tenth-century Arab scholar who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Caliph... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العباس ابن رشيد ابن حماد ابن فضلان) was a tenth-century Arab scholar who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Caliph... // Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ...


The Heimskringla tells of Swedish King Aun who sacrificed nine of his sons in an effort to prolong his life until his subjects stopped him from killing his last son Egil. According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the Yule sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala. The Swedes had the right not only to elect kings but also to depose them, and both king Domalde and king Olof Trätälja are said to have been sacrificed after years of famine. Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling, the ancestors of Norways first king, Harald Fairhair. ... Ongenþeow, Ongentheow, Ongendþeow, Egil, Egill, Eigil, or Angantyr (- ca 515) was the name of one or two semi-legendary Swedish kings of the house of Scylfings, who appear in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian sources. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Domalde was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, in Norse mythology. ... Olaf Tree Feller (Old Norse: Ólafr trételgja, Swedish: Olof Trätälja, Norwegian: Olav Tretelgja) was the son of the Swedish king Ingjald Ill-ruler of the House of Yngling according to Ynglingatal. ...


Odin was associated with death by hanging, and a possible practice of Odinic sacrifice by strangling has some archeological support in the existence of bodies perfectly preserved by the acid of the Jutland peatbogs, into which they were cast after having been strangled. An example is Tollund Man. However, we possess no written accounts that explicitly interpret the cause of these stranglings, which could obviously have other explanations. Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Preserved full length corpse of the Tollund Man, with rope around neck The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ...


Interactions with Christianity

An 1830 portrayal of Ansgar, a Christian missionary invited to Sweden by its king Björn at Hauge in 829.
See also: Christianization of Scandinavia

An important note in interpreting this mythology is that often the closest accounts that we have to "pre-contact" times were written by Christians. The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized. This results in Snorri's works carrying a large amount of Euhemerism. Hugo Hamilton 1830 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Hugo Hamilton 1830 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For the city in Iowa, see St. ... King Björns barrow in Håga (Old Norse name: Haug)near Uppsala. ... Events Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Euhemerus (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ...


Virtually all of the saga literature came out of Iceland, a relatively small and remote island, and even in the climate of religious tolerance there, Snorri was guided by an essentially Christian viewpoint. The Heimskringla provides some interesting insights into this issue. Snorri introduces Odin as a mortal warlord in Asia who acquires magical powers, settles in Sweden, and becomes a demi-god following his death. Having undercut Odin's divinity, Snorri then provides the story of a pact of Swedish King Aun with Odin to prolong his life by sacrificing his sons. Later in the Heimskringla, Snorri records in detail how converts to Christianity such as Saint Olaf Haraldsson brutally converted Scandinavians to Christianity. Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... A demigod, a half-god, is a person whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was a human. ... Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling, the ancestors of Norways first king, Harald Fairhair. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ...

One gruesome form of execution occurred during the Christianization of Norway. King Olaf Tryggvason had male völvas (sejdmen) tied and left on a skerry at ebb. (1897 illustration by Halfdan Egedius)
One gruesome form of execution occurred during the Christianization of Norway. King Olaf Tryggvason had male völvas (sejdmen) tied and left on a skerry at ebb. (1897 illustration by Halfdan Egedius)

Trying to avert civil war, the Icelandic parliament voted in Christianity, but for some years tolerated heathenry in the privacy of one's home. Sweden, on the other hand, had a series of civil wars in the 11th century, which ended with the burning of the Temple at Uppsala.[citation needed] In England, on the other hand, Christianization occurred earlier and sporadically, rarely by force. Conversion by coercion was sporadic throughout the areas where Norse gods had been worshipped. However, the conversion did not happen overnight. Christian clergy did their utmost to teach the populace that the Norse gods were demons, but their success was limited and the gods never became evil in the popular mind in most of Scandinavia. Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877 Execution... Olav Tryggvason (969 - September 9, 1000) was a great-grandson of Harald Hairfair He began his meteoric career in exile as his ancestors fled from the executions of the royal family by Eric Bloodaxe. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Look up skerry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The length of time Christianization took is illustrated by two centrally located examples: Lovön and Bergen. Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of Lovön have shown that the Christianisation took 150-200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops. Likewise in the bustling trading town of Bergen, many runic inscriptions have been found from the 13th century, among the Bryggen inscriptions. One of them says may Thor receive you, may Odin own you, and a second one is a galdra which says I carve curing runes, I carve salvaging runes, once against the elves, twice against the trolls, thrice against the thurs. The second one also mentions the dangerous Valkyrie Skögul. Lovön is an island located in the Swedish lake Mälaren in Ekerö Municipality of Stockholm County. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Bryggen inscriptions are a find of some 600 runic inscriptions on wood (mostly pine) and bone found from 1955 and forth at Bryggen (and its surroundings) in Bergen, Norway. ... Seid (also seiðr, seidhr) was the form of shamanism practised by pre-Christian Norse and other Germanic cultures and continued in modern times by people who practice the reconstructionist beliefs of Ásatrú or heathenry. ... In Norse mythology, Jotuns, Jötunn or Jotnar of Utgard, Jötunnheim were the race of Gods called giants (thurs), separated into categories such as frost giants (rime giants, hrimthurs), fire giants, sea giants and storm giants. ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... In Norse mythology, Skögul or Geirskögul is one of the valkyries. ...


Otherwise there are few accounts from the 14th to the 18th century, but the clergy, such as Olaus Magnus (1555) wrote about the difficulties of extinguishing the old beliefs. The story related in Þrymskviða appears to have been unusually resilient, like the romantic story of Hagbard and Signy, and versions of both were recorded in the 17th century and as late as the 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th century Swedish folklorists documented what commoners believed, and what surfaced were many surviving traditions of the gods of Norse mythology. However, the traditions were by then far from the cohesive system of Snorri's accounts. Most gods had been forgotten and only the hunting Odin and the giant-slaying Thor figure in numerous legends. Freyja is mentioned a few times and Baldr only survives in legends about place names. Olaus Magnus, or Magni (Magnus, Latin for the Swedish Stora -- great -- is the family name, and not a personal epithet), reported as born in October 1490 in Linköping, and died on August 1, 1557, was a Swedish ecclesiastic and writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of Nordic... Thor dresses up as a bride and Loki as a bridesmaid. ... Signhild Hagbard and Signy (Signe) (the Viking Age) or Habor and Sign(h)ild (the Middle Ages and later) were a pair of lovers in Scandinavian mythology and folklore whose legend was widely popular. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ...


Other elements of Norse mythology survived without being perceived as such, especially concerning supernatural beings in Scandinavian folklore. Moreover, the Norse belief in destiny has been very firm until modern times. Since the Christian hell resembled the abode of the dead in Norse mythology one of the names was borrowed from the old faith, Helvíti i.e. Hel's punishment. Many elements of the Yule traditions persevered, such as the Swedish tradition of slaughtering the pig at Christmas (Christmas ham), which originally was part of the sacrifice to Freyr. Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Swedish speaking parts of Finland. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Julskinka Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Christmas ham A Christmas Ham is a traditional ingredient in the Finnish and Swedish Christmas celebrations. ...


Modern influences

Day (Old Norse) Meaning
Mánadagr Moon's day
Týsdagr Tyr's day
Óðinsdagr Odin's day
Þórsdagr Thor's day
Frjádagr Day of Freyr/Freyja
Laugardagr Washing day
Sunnudagr/Dróttinsdagr Sun's day/The Lord's day

The Germanic gods have left numerous traces in modern vocabulary and elements of every day western life in most Germanic language speaking countries. An example of this is some of the names of the days of the week: modelled after the names of the days of the week in Latin (named after Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn), the names for Tuesday through to Friday were replaced with Germanic equivalents of the Roman gods. In English, Saturn was not replaced, while Saturday is named after the sabbath in German. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Viking revival

Main article: Viking revival

Early modern editions of Old Norse literature begins in the 16th century, e.g. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (Olaus Magnus, 1555) and the first edition of the 13th century Gesta Danorum (Saxo Grammaticus), in 1514. The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda (notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of 1665). Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had political implications: A myth about a glorious and brave past was needed to give the Swedes the courage to retake Finland, which had been lost in 1809 during the war between Sweden and Russia. The Geatish Society, of which Geijer was a member, popularized this myth to a great extent. Romantics redirects here. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Geatish Society, or Götiska förbundet in the Swedish language, was a social club for literature studies among academics in Sweden created by a number of poets and authors in 1811. ...


A focus for early British enthusiasts was George Hicke, who published a Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus in 17035. In the 1780s, Denmark offered to cede Iceland to Britain in exchange for Crab Island (West Indies), and in the 1860s Iceland was considered as a compensation for British support of Denmark in the Slesvig-Holstein conflicts. During this time, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and nordic culture grew dramatically. Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Crab Island may refer to: Crab Island, Guyana, is at the mouth of the Berbice River Crab Island, Australia, is in the western Torres Strait Crab Island (West Virginia), lies on the Ohio River An island in Lake Champlain near Plattsburgh, New York Crab Island, one of the San Juan... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Germanic neopaganism

Main article: Germanic neopaganism

Romanticist interest in the Old North gave rise to Germanic mysticism involving various schemes of occultist "Runology", notably following Guido von List and his Das Geheimnis der Runen (1908) in the early 20th century. The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... Armanenschaft jewellery and ritual items from England, including the Armanen runes, ring and stick; Fyrfos pin; Schwarze Sonne ear-rings and pin (and Zierscheiben necklace); Mjollnir ear-rings and necklace; Wolfsangel pin; Unicursal Hexagram necklace; and Sidereal Pendulum. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cover of the new German reprint published by Adolf Schleipfer Das Geheimnis der Runen (English: The Secret of the Runes ) is a book by the highly respected Austrian mystic Guido von List, in which he presents his Armanen Futharkh. It was published in Leipzig and Vienna in 1908 by the...


Since the 1970s, there have been revivals of the old Germanic religion as Germanic neopaganism (Ásatrú) in both Europe and the United States. The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Modern popular culture

Norse mythology also influenced Richard Wagner's use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that make up Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung). Norse mythology has left a lot of influences in popular culture, common elements of daily life in many countries, in literature and modern fiction and particularly in fantasy role-playing games. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...


Subsequently, J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, especially The Silmarillion, were heavily influenced by the indigenous beliefs of the pre-Christian Northern Europeans. As the related Tolkien's novel The Lord of the Rings became popular, elements of its fantasy world moved steadily into popular perceptions of the fantasy genre. In nearly any modern fantasy novel today can be found such Norse creatures as elves, dwarves, and frost giants. Subsequently, Norse mythology has also greatly influenced popular culture, in literature and modern fiction. (See Marvel Comics' The Mighty Thor or Neil Gaiman's The Sandman (Vertigo)) Tolkien redirects here. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... This article is about the novel. ... Thor battles his evil step-brother, Loki. ... The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman. ...


Stargate SG-1, a television series, features a race known as the Asgard, in particular a member known as Thor, who ally themselves with Earth. There are also members of the Asgard race that take names throughout the series such as Hermiod, an Asgard engineer. Planet names such as Cimmeria, Valhalla, Othalla and Orilla are also used. Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ...


Bibliography

Primary sources

General secondary works

  • Aðalsteinsson, Jón Hnefill (1998). A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources (translated by Terry Gunnell & Joan Turville-Petre). Reykjavík: Félagsvísindastofnun. ISBN 9979542640.
  • Andrén, Anders, Kristina Jennbert & Catharina Raudvere, editors (2006). Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions. Lund: Nordic Academic Press. ISBN 918911681X.
  • Branston, Brian (1980). Gods of the North. London: Thames and Hudson. (Revised from an earlier hardback edition of 1955). ISBN 0-500-27177-1.
  • Clunies Ross, Margaret (1994). Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse Myths in Medieval Northern Society, vol. 1: The Myths. Odense: Odense Univ. Press. ISBN 8778380081.
  • Davidson, H R Ellis (1964). Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. Baltimore: Penguin. New edition 1990 by Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013627-4. (Several rune stones)
  • —— (1969). Scandinavian Mythology. London and New York: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-87226-041-0. Reissued 1996 as Viking and Norse Mythology. New York: Barnes and Noble.
  • —— (1988). Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. ISBN 0815624387.
  • —— (1993). The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415049377.
  • de Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 2 vols., 2nd. ed., Grundriss der germanischen Philogie, 12–13. Berlin: W. de Gruyter. (Generally considered the most authoritative current standard reference.)
  • DuBois, Thomas A. (1999). Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812217144.
  • Dumézil, Georges (1973). Gods of the Ancient Northmen. Ed. & trans. Einar Haugen. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03507-0.
  • Grimm, Jacob (1888). Teutonic Mythology, 4 vols. Trans. S. Stallybras. London. Reprinted 2003 by Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-7742-4, ISBN 0-7661-7743-2, ISBN 0-7661-7744-0, ISBN 0-7661-7745-9. Reprinted 2004 Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43615-2 (4 vols.), ISBN 0-486-43546-6, ISBN 0-486-43547-4, ISBN 0-486-43548-2, ISBN 0-486-43549-0.
  • Lindow, John (1988). Scandinavian Mythology: An Annotated Bibliography, Garland Folklore Bibliographies, 13. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-9173-6.
  • —— (2001). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0. (A dictionary of Norse mythology.)
  • Mirachandra (2006). Treasure of Norse Mythology Volume I ISBN 978-3-922800-99-6.
  • Motz, Lotte (1996). The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth. Wien: Fassbaender. ISBN 3900538573.
  • O'Donoghue, Heather (2007). From Asgard to Valhalla  : the remarkable history of the Norse myths. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1845113578.
  • Orchard, Andy (1997). Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36385-5.
  • Page, R. I. (1990). Norse Myths (The Legendary Past). London: British Museum; and Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75546-5.
  • Price, Neil S. (2002). The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. Uppsala: Dissertation, Dept. Archaeology & Ancient History. ISBN 9150616269.
  • Simek, Rudolf (1993). Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Trans. Angela Hall. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-369-4. New edition 2000, ISBN 0-85991-513-1.
  • Simrock, Karl Joseph (1853–1855) Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie.
  • Svanberg, Fredrik (2003). Decolonizing the Viking Age. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 9122020063(v. 1); 9122020071(v. 2).
  • Turville-Petre, E O Gabriel. (1964). Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Reprinted 1975, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-7420-1.

Romanticism

Further information: Viking revival
  • Anderson, Rasmus (1876). Norse Mythology, or, The Religion of Our Forefathers. Chicago: S.C. Griggs.
  • Guerber, H A (1909). Myths of the Norsemen: From the Eddas and Sagas. London: George G. Harrap. Reprinted 1992, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover. ISBN 0-486-27348-2.
  • Keary, A & E (1909), The Heroes of Asgard. New York: Macmillan Company. Reprinted 1982 by Smithmark Pub. ISBN 0-8317-4475-8. Reprinted 1979 by Pan Macmillan ISBN 0-333-07802-0.
  • Mable, Hanilton Wright (1901). Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas. Mead and Company. Reprinted 1999, New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0770-0.
  • Mackenzie, Donald A (1912). Teutonic Myth and Legend. New York: W H Wise & Co. 1934. Reprinted 2003 by University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 1-4102-0740-4.
  • Rydberg, Viktor (1889). Teutonic Mythology, trans. Rasmus B. Anderson. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Reprinted 2001, Elibron Classics. ISBN 1-4021-9391-2. Reprinted 2004, Kessinger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7661-8891-4.
  • Waddell, L. A. (1930). The British Edda. London: Chapman & Hall.

Modern retellings

Further information: Norse mythology in popular culture
  • Colum, Padraic (1920). The Children of Odin: A Book of Northern Myths, illustrated by Willy Pogány. New York, Macmillan. Reprinted 2004 by Aladdin, ISBN 0-689-86885-5.
  • Crossley-Holland, Kevin (1981). The Norse Myths. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-74846-8. Also released as The Penguin Book of Norse Myths: Gods of the Vikings. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025869-8.
  • d'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar (1967). "d'Aulaire's Book of Norse Myths". New York, New York Review of Books.
  • Munch, Peter Andreas (1927). Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes, Scandinavian Classics. Trans. Sigurd Bernhard Hustvedt (1963). New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation. ISBN 0-404-04538-3.

The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Hilda Roderick Ellis Davidson, British antiquarian. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... Edward Oswald Gabriel Turville-Petre F.B.A. (known as Gabriel) (March 25, 1908 – February 17, 1978) was Professor of Ancient Icelandic Literature and Antiquities at University of Oxford. ... Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ... Rydberg in 1876. ... Norse mythology has left a lot of influences in popular culture, common elements of daily life in many countries, in literature and modern fiction and particularly in fantasy role-playing games. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Norse mythology

Spelling of names in Norse mythology often varies depending on the nationality of the source material. For more information see Old Norse orthography. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The orthography of the Old Norse language since the introduction of the Latin alphabet in Iceland is a thorny subject. ...

The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... Numbers are significant in Norse mythology although not to the extent which they are in some traditions e. ... Project Runeberg is an initiative patterned after Project Gutenberg that publishes freely available electronic versions of books significant to the culture and history of the Nordic countries . ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ...

External links


H.A. Guerber, more commonly known as (Hélène Adeline Guerber), born 1859 , died 1929 [1], is a British historian most well known for her written histories of Germanic mythology. ... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including the jötnar (giants), the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... In Norse mythology, the Light Elves (Old Norse: Liósálfar) live in Álfheim. ... ... In Norse mythology, the dwarves (Old Norse: dvergar, sing. ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... In Norse religion the einherjar or einheriar were spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Frigg (disambiguation). ... Heimdall returns Brisingamen to Freya Heimdall (Old Norse Heimdallr, the prefix Heim- means world, the affix -dallr is of uncertain origin, perhaps it means pole, bright, or valley) is one of the Æsir in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... Balder redirects here. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript in the care of the Árni Magnússon Institute, shows Ullr on his skis and with his bow. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap (seeming emptiness or gaping gap) was a vast chasm that existed before the ordering of the world. ... For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Mjollnir_icon. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... The Volsung Cycle is the name of a series of Germanic legends based on the same matter as Niebelungenlied, and which were recorded in medieval Iceland. ... The Tyrfing Cycle is a collection of legends united by the magic sword Tyrfing. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The orthography of the Old Norse language since the introduction of the Latin alphabet in Iceland is a thorny subject. ... Norse mythology provides a rich and diverse source which many later writers have borrowed from or built upon. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... Numbers are significant in Norse mythology although not to the extent which they are in some traditions e. ... // Places Asgard Bifröst Bilskirnir Breidablik Elivagar Fyris Wolds Gandvik Ginnungagap Helgardh Hlidskjalf Hvergelmir Jötunheimr Leipter River Kormet Midgard Muspelheim Nastrond Nidavellir Niflheim Ormet Reidgotaland Slidr River Svartalfheim Utgard Valhalla Vanaheim Vimur Yggdrasil Events Fimbulwinter Ragnarök Artifacts Balmung Brisingamen Draupnir Dromi Eitr Mjolnir Skíðblaðnir Gram Gungnir...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Norse mythology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4123 words)
Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled.
In Norse mythology, the earth is represented as a flat disc.
Norse mythology also influenced Richard Wagner's use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m