FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Norovirus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Norovirus
Norovirus
Transmission electron micrograph of noroviruses. The bar = 50 nm
Transmission electron micrograph of noroviruses. The bar = 50 nm
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Caliciviridae
Genus: Norovirus

Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. The viruses are transmitted by faecally contaminated food or water and by person-to-person contact.[4] http://www. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Vesivirus Lagovirus Norovirus Sapovirus The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Vesivirus; type species: Swine vesicular exanthema virus Genus Lagovirus; type species: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Vesivirus Lagovirus Norovirus Sapovirus The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Vesivirus; type species: Swine vesicular exanthema virus Genus Lagovirus; type species: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ... Human Feces (also faeces — see spelling differences), also known as stools, is the waste product of the human digestive system and varies significantly in appearance, depending on the state of the whole digestive system, influenced by diet and health. ...


After infection, immunity to norovirus is not complete nor long-lasting.[5] There is an inherited predisposition to infection and people whose blood type can be detected in their saliva are more often infected.[1] An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ...


Outbreaks of norovirus disease often occur in closed or semi-closed communities, such as long-term care facilities, hospitals, prisons, dormitories, and cruise ships where once the virus has been introduced, the infection spreads very rapidly by either person-to-person transmission or through contaminated food.[6] Many norovirus outbreaks have been traced to food that was handled by one infected person.[7] This article is about the medical term. ...


Norovirus is rapidly killed by chlorine-based disinfectants, but because the virus particle does not have a lipid envelope, it is less susceptible to alcohols and detergents.[8] Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Some common lipids. ... Many viruses (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


There are different genogroups of norovirus and the majority of noroviruses that infect humans are classified into genogroup G1 and G2.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

History

Originally, norovirus was named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred among children at an elementary school in November 1968. In 1972, immune electron microscopy on stored stool samples identified a virus, which was given the name Norwalk virus. Numerous outbreaks with similar symptoms have been reported since. The cloning and sequencing of the Norwalk virus genome showed that these viruses have a genomic organization consistent with viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae.[10] The name norovirus (Norovirus for the genus) was approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in 2002. [11] Norwalk is a city in Huron County, Ohio, United States. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Human Feces (also faeces — see spelling differences), also known as stools, is the waste product of the human digestive system and varies significantly in appearance, depending on the state of the whole digestive system, influenced by diet and health. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Genera Vesivirus Lagovirus Norovirus Sapovirus The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Vesivirus; type species: Swine vesicular exanthema virus Genus Lagovirus; type species: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ...


Common names of the illness caused by noroviruses are winter vomiting disease, viral gastroenteritis and acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis[4], also colloquially known as "stomach flu" (a broad name which can also refer to gastric inflammation caused by other viruses and bacteria). See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, is an illness of fever, diarrhoea and/or vomiting caused by an infectious virus, bacterium or parasite. ...


Some previously used names which can be used for PubMed and other internet searches are Norwalk virus, Norwalk-like virus, SRSVs (Small Round Structured Viruses), Sapporo virus and Snow Mountain.[12] Medline is a comprehensive literature database of life sciences and biomedical information. ...


Signs and symptoms

The disease is usually self-limiting, and characterised by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. General lethargy, weakness, muscle aches, headache, and low-grade fever may occur. Symptoms may persist for several days and may become life-threatening in the young, the elderly, and the immune-compromised if dehydration is ignored or not treated.[4] In biology, a self-limiting organism or colony of organisms limits its own growth by its actions. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Diagnosis

Specific diagnosis of norovirus is routinely made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays or real-time PCR assays, which give results within a few hours. These assays are very sensitive and can detect concentrations as low as 10 virus particles.[13] “PCR” redirects here. ... An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ... In molecular biology, real-time polymerase chain reaction, also called quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) or kinetic polymerase chain reaction, is a laboratory technique used to simultaneously quantify and amplify a specific part of a given DNA molecule. ...


Tests such as EIA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially but lack specificity and sensitivity.[14] EIA may refer to the following: Electronic Industries Alliance Energy Information Administration Environmental Impact Assessment Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Equity Indexed Annuity Exercise-induced anaphylaxis This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ...


Prevention and infection control

Hand washing remains an effective method to reduce the spread of norovirus pathogens. Norovirus can be aerosolized when those stricken with the illness vomit. Surface sanitizing is recommended in areas where the Norovirus may be present on surfaces. Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... http://visibleearth. ...


In health care environments, the prevention of nosocomial infections involves routine and terminal cleaning. Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 systems are used in health care environments where medical electronics would be adversely affected by aerosolized chlorine or other caustic compounds.[15] // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... Terminal Cleaning describes a cleaning method used in healthcare environments to control the spread of infections. ... Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 (NAV-CO2) systems use carbon dioxide (CO2) as a propellant to dispense concentrated alcohols in a stream of CO2 gas. ...


Ligocyte is working on a vaccine and has already started phase 1 trials. http://www.ligocyte.com/pdf/norovirus.pdf


Associated foods

Noroviruses are transmitted directly via person to person or indirectly via contaminated water and foods. A CDC study of eleven outbreaks in New York State lists the suspected mode of transmission as person-to-person in seven outbreaks, foodborne in two, waterborne in one, and one unknown. The source of waterborne outbreaks may include water from municipal supplies, wells, recreational lakes, swimming pools and ice machines. [16] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... This article is about the state. ... In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ...


Shellfish and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated in Norwalk outbreaks. Ingestion of raw or insufficiently steamed clams and oysters poses a high risk for infection with the Norwalk virus. Foods other than shellfish are contaminated by ill food handlers.[17] Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... This article deals with food. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ...


Relative frequency of disease

Only the common cold is reported more frequently than viral gastroenteritis as a cause of illness in the U.S. Although viral gastroenteritis is caused by a number of viruses, it is estimated that noroviruses are responsible for about 1/3 of the cases over the 6-to-24-month age group. In developing countries the percentage of individuals who have developed immunity at an early age is very high. In the U.S. the percentage increases gradually with age, reaching 50% in the population over 18 years of age. Immunity, however, is not permanent and reinfection can occur. Recent studies demonstrate that blood types B and AB confer partial protection against symptomatic infection.[18][19] Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ...


Course of disease and complications

Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis that develops between 24 and 48 hours after exposure with a median of 33-36 hours, and lasts for 24-60 hours.[2] Severe illness is rare: although people are frequently treated in emergency rooms/A&E, they are rarely admitted to the hospital. The number of deaths from norovirus in the US is estimated to be around 300 each year, with most of these occurring in the very young, elderly and persons with weakened immune systems. See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...


Detection of norovirus in foods

Routine protocols to detect norovirus (norovirus RNA) in clams and oysters by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) are being employed by governmental laboratories such as the FDA in the USA. However, routine methods to detect the virus on other food items are not readily available due to the variable nature of different food items affecting concentration and extraction of the virus and presence of factors that make PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) analysis techniques ineffective.[20]


Outbreaks

  • In April of 2008, about 70 students at the University of Denver contracted norovirus. Investigation into cause of infection showed the cause to be ill-handled Sodexho cafeteria food.

67 die and about 300,000 people are affected by floods in Ethiopias Somali Region of Ogaden after the Shabelle River bursts its banks. ... Carnival Cruise Lines is a cruise line operating a large number of cruise ships. ... The Carnival Liberty is a cruise ship in the fleet of Carnival Cruise Lines. ... For the events of May 4, 1970, see Kent State shootings Kent State University (also known as Kent, Kent State or KSU) is one of America’s largest university systems, the third largest university in Ohio after Ohio State University (57,748) and the University of Cincinnati (35,364), and...

Microbiology

Classification

Transmission electron micrograph of Norovirus particles in faeces
Transmission electron micrograph of Norovirus particles in faeces

Noroviruses can genetically be classified into 5 different genogroups (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV) which can be further divided into different genetic clusters or genotypes. For example genogroup II, the most prevalent human genogroup, presently contains 19 genotypes. Genogroups I, II and IV infect humans, whereas genogroup III infects bovine species and genogroup V has recently been isolated in mice.[23] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ...


Noroviruses from Genogroup II, genotype 4 (abbreviated as GII.4) account for the majority of adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis and often sweep across the globe. Recent examples include US95/96-US strain, associated with global outbreaks in the mid- to late-90s, Farmington Hills virus associated with outbreaks in Europe and the United States in 2002 and in 2004 Hunter virus was associated with outbreaks in Europe, Japan and Australasia. In 2006 there was another large increase in NoV infection around the globe.[24] In December, 2007 there was an outbreak at a country club in northern California where around 80-100 people were infected. Two new GII.4 variants caused around 80% of those Norovirus associated outbreaks and they have been termed 2006a and 2006b.[citation needed] Recent reports have shown a link between blood group and susceptibility to infection by norovirus.[25][26][27] See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Farmington Hills is a city located in Oakland County, Michigan. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Virus structure

Noroviruses contain a positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.5 kbp, encoding a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2).[28] The virus particles demonstrate an amorphous surface structure when visualized using electron microscopy and are between 27-38 nm in size.[29] Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Possible meanings: Kachin Defense Army Kentucky Distillers Association Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Lindesmith L, Moe C, Marionneau S, et al (2003). "Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection". Nat. Med. 9 (5): 548–53. doi:10.1038/nm860. PMID 12692541. 
  2. ^ a b Norovirus: Technical Fact Sheet. National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.
  3. ^ Widdowson MA, Sulka A, Bulens SN, et al (2005). "Norovirus and foodborne disease, United States, 1991-2000". Emerging Infect. Dis. 11 (1): 95–102. PMID 15705329. 
  4. ^ a b c Goodgame R (2006). "Norovirus gastroenteritis". Curr Gastroenterol Rep 8 (5): 401–8. doi:10.1007/s11894-006-0026-4. PMID 16968608. 
  5. ^ Lindesmith L, Moe C, Lependu J, Frelinger JA, Treanor J, Baric RS (2005). "Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge". J. Virol. 79 (5): 2900–9. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.5.2900-2909.2005. PMID 15709009. 
  6. ^ Noda M, Fukuda S, Nishio O (2007). "Statistical analysis of attack rate in norovirus foodborne outbreaks". Int J Food Microbiol: 216. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.11.073. PMID 18177970. 
  7. ^ Koopmans M, Duizer E (2004). "Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00169-7 . PMID 14672828. 
  8. ^ Jimenez L, Chiang M (2006). "Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus". Am J Infect Control 34 (5): 269–73. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2005.11.009. PMID 16765204. 
  9. ^ Vinjé J, Green J, Lewis DC, Gallimore CI, Brown DW, Koopmans MP (2000). "Genetic polymorphism across regions of the three open reading frames of "Norwalk-like viruses"". Arch. Virol. 145 (2): 223–41. PMID 10752550. 
  10. ^ Kapikian AZ (1996). "Overview of viral gastroenteritis". Arch. Virol. Suppl. 12: 7–19. PMID 9015097. 
  11. ^ ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.012.0.03. Norovirus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA
  12. ^ Appleton H (1987). "Small round viruses: classification and role in food-borne infections". Ciba Found. Symp. 128: 108–25. PMID 3036438. 
  13. ^ Marshall JA, Bruggink LD (2006). "Laboratory diagnosis of norovirus". Clin. Lab. 52 (11-12): 571–81. PMID 17175887. 
  14. ^ Wilhelmi de Cal I, Revilla A, del Alamo JM, Román E, Moreno S, Sánchez-Fauquier A (2007). "Evaluation of two commercial enzyme immunoassays for the detection of norovirus in faecal samples from hospitalised children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis". Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13 (3): 341–3. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01594.x. PMID 17391396. 
  15. ^ Chadwick PR, Beards G, Brown D, Caul EO, Cheesbrough J, Clarke I, Curry A, O'Brien S, Quigley K, Sellwood J, Westmoreland D (2000). "Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small roundstructured viruses". J. Hosp. Infect. 45 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1053/jhin.2000.0662. PMID 10833336. 
  16. ^ Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT (1993). "Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 6 (3): 199–210. PMID 8395330. 
  17. ^ Parashar UD, Monroe SS (2001). ""Norwalk-like viruses" as a cause of foodborne disease outbreaks". Rev. Med. Virol. 11 (4): 243–52. doi:10.1002/rmv.321. PMID 11479930. 
  18. ^ "Norwalk Virus Infection and Disease Is Associated with ABO Histo-Blood Group Type", The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
  19. ^ "Binding of Norwalk Virus-Like Particles to ABH Histo-Blood Group Antigens Is Blocked by Antisera from Infected Human Volunteers or Experimentally Vaccinated Mice", Journal of Virology, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
  20. ^ Shieh Y, Monroe SS, Fankhauser RL, Langlois GW, Burkhardt W, Baric RS (2000). "Detection of norwalk-like virus in shellfish implicated in illness". J. Infect. Dis. 181 Suppl 2: S360–6. PMID 10804149. 
  21. ^ Investigation Update on the Carnival Liberty. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). United States Department of Health and Human Services (25 November 2006).
  22. ^ Chipotle: Claims program set up to reimburse those sickened at Kent restaurant. WKYC (22 April 2008).
  23. ^ Ramirez S, Giammanco GM, De Grazia S, Colomba C, Martella V, Arista S (2008). "Genotyping of GII.4 and GIIb norovirus RT-PCR amplicons by RFLP analysis". J. Virol. Methods 147 (2): 250–6. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2007.09.005. PMID 17953996. 
  24. ^ Tu ET, Bull RA, Greening GE, Hewitt J, Lyon MJ, Marshall JA, McIver CJ, Rawlinson WD, White PA (2008). "Epidemics of gastroenteritis during 2006 were associated with the spread of norovirus GII.4 variants 2006a and 2006b". Clin. Infect. Dis. 46 (3): 413–20. doi:10.1086/525259. PMID 18177226. 
  25. ^ Huang P, Farkas T, Marionneau S, Zhong W, Ruvoën-Clouet N, Morrow AL, Altaye M, Pickering LK, Newburg DS, LePendu J, Jiang X (2003). "Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis, and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns". J. Infect. Dis. 188 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1086/375742. PMID 12825167. 
  26. ^ Huang P, Farkas T, Zhong W, Tan M, Thornton S, Morrow AL, Jiang X (2005). "Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens: demonstration of a wide spectrum of strain specificities and classification of two major binding groups among multiple binding patterns". J. Virol. 79 (11): 6714–22. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.11.6714-6722.2005. PMID 15890909. 
  27. ^ Rockx BH, Vennema H, Hoebe CJ, Duizer E, Koopmans MP (2005). "Association of histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to norovirus infections". J. Infect. Dis. 191 (5): 749–54. doi:10.1086/427779. PMID 15688291. 
  28. ^ Clarke IN, Lambden PR (2000). "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". J. Infect. Dis. 181 Suppl 2: S309–16. PMID 10804143. 
  29. ^ Prasad BV, Crawford S, Lawton JA, Pesavento J, Hardy M, Estes MK (2001). "Structural studies on gastroenteritis viruses". Novartis Found. Symp. 238: 26–37; discussion 37–46. PMID 11444031. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases is peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Journal of Virology (J Virol or JVI; 0022-538X) is an academic journal that covers research concerning viruses, using cross-disciplinary approaches including biochemistry, biophysics, cell and molecular biology, genetics, immunology, morphology, physiology and pathogenesis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WKYC-TV is Clevelands affiliate for NBC and is owned by Gannett. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
HPA | Norovirus | FAQs (624 words)
Norovirus often causes outbreaks because it is easily spread from one person to another and the virus is able to survive in the environment for many days.
Outbreaks of norovirus are reported frequently in semi-closed institutions such as hospitals, schools, residential and nursing homes and hotels.
Norovirus is not a notifiable disease so reporting is done on a voluntary basis.
ICCL - Cruise Industry Policies: Norovirus (1074 words)
A common type of gastrointestinal virus called norovirus, sometimes referred to as the "stomach flu," is the second most prevalent illness in the general population behind the common cold.
Norovirus can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact, eating or drinking foods and liquids infected with norovirus, or indirectly from transfer of the virus to surfaces that are then touched by another person.
In most cases of norovirus reported on cruise ships, the CDC has determined that the increased incidents of norovirus were sourced from passengers bringing the illness on board and transmitting it through direct or indirect contact - not from food or water sources.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m