FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Norodom Sihanouk
HM King-Father Norodom Sihanouk
(Khmer pronunciation: /nɔɾoːdɔm siːhanuʔ/)
(French pronunciation: Image:ltspkr.png/noʀodɔm sjanuk/)
Time in office: Apr. 25, 1941Mar. 2, 1955 (King)
Mar. 2, 1955June 5, 1960 (Prime Minister under the kingship of his father)
June 5, 1960Mar. 18, 1970 ("Head of State" under the queenship of his mother)
Aug. 19, 1975Apr. 2, 1976 (Head of State)
Nov. 14, 1991Sept. 24, 1993 (Head of State)
Sept. 24, 1993Oct. 7, 2004 (King, Khmer: Preahmâhaksat)
Oct. 20, 2004–present ("King-Father", Khmer: Preahmâhaviraksat)
Predecessor: Sisowath Monivong (till 1941);
Chea Sim (till 1991)
Successor: Norodom Suramarit (in 1955);
Norodom Sihamoni (in 2004)
Date of Birth: October 31, 1922
Place of Birth: Phnom Penh

King-Father Norodom Sihanouk (Khmer: Mul script ; regular script ; born October 31, 1922), King of Cambodia until his abdication on October 7, 2004, is now "King-Father (Khmer: Preahmâhaviraksat, see Names and titles section below) of Cambodia," a position in which he retains many of his former prerogatives as constitutional king. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... Sisowath Monivong (born 1875, died 1941) was the king of Cambodia from 1927 until his death in 1941. ... Samdech Chea Sim (born November 15, 1932 in Romeas Hek district, Svay Rieng province, Cambodia) is a Cambodian politician. ... Norodom Suramarit (Preach Reach Brhat Pada Samdach Brhat Naradhama Suramarta) (March 6, 1896 - April 3, 1960) was King of Cambodia from 1955 until his death. ... Time in office: Since October 14, 2004 Predecessor: Norodom Sihanouk Date of Birth: May 14, 1953 Place of Birth: Phnom Penh His Majesty King Norodom Sihamoni of Cambodia (Khmer: Mul script ; regular script , pronounced ) is the King of Cambodia, the son of King Father Norodom Sihanouk and Queen Mother Monineath. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... City motto: No motto City proper Province Phnom Penh Mayor Kep Chuktema ( ) Area 290 km² Population 862,000 Density 3446. ... Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) is one of the main Austroasiatic languages. ... The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog translated into Khmer. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Norodom Sihanouk Categories: GFDL images ... The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog translated into Khmer. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Norodom Sihanouk Categories: GFDL images ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This is a complete list of Kings of Cambodia 6th century: The GAY nub 6th century: Mahendravarman 7th century: Isanavarman I 7th century: Bhavavarman II 7th century: Jayavarman I 8th century: Queen Jayavedi REIGN UNKNOWN: Sambhuvarman REIGN UNKNOWN: Pushkaraksha 8th century: Sambhuvarman 8th century: Rajendravarman I REIGN UNKNOWN: Mahipativarman 802... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in...


The son of King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Sisowath Kossamak, Sihanouk has held so many positions since 1941 that the Guinness Book of World Records identifies him as the politician who has occupied the world's greatest variety of political offices. These included two terms as king, two as sovereign prince, one as president, two as prime minister, and one as Cambodia's non-titled head of state, as well as numerous positions as leader of various governments-in-exile. Norodom Suramarit (Preach Reach Brhat Pada Samdach Brhat Naradhama Suramarta) (March 6, 1896 - April 3, 1960) was King of Cambodia from 1955 until his death. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics to the extent of holding or running for public office. ... This is a list of prime ministers of Cambodia. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ...


Most of these positions were only honorific, including the last position as constitutional king of Cambodia. Nordom Sihanouk's actual period of effective rule over Cambodia was from November 9, 1953 (full independence granted to Cambodia) to March 18, 1970 (Lon Nol and the National Assembly depose Sihanouk). November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... General Lon Nol General Lon Nol (November 13, 1913 - November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician who served two times as Prime Minister of Cambodia in addition to serving other times as Defence Minister. ...

Contents


Names and titles

Since his abdication, Sihanouk's official Cambodian title (short version, the most-widely used) is:
Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Preahmâhaviraksat


In Khmer:
Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) is one of the main Austroasiatic languages. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Norodom Sihanouk Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Norodom Sihanouk Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Politics of Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk Cambodia Categories: GFDL images ...


The literal translation of the title :

  • Preah ("sacred," cognate of the Indian word ब्राह्मण, "brahmin")
  • Karuna ("compassionate," referring to the Buddhist concept karuna)
  • Preah ("sacred")
  • Bat ("foot", from Sanskrit pāda, cognate of Latin pes, pedis, French pied)
  • Sâmdech ("lord, prince, excellency")
  • Preah ("sacred")
  • Norodom (given name of Norodom of Cambodia, used as a family name by his descendants)
  • Sihanouk (given name of Sihanouk; it is a contraction of siha-, "lion," from Sanskrit siṃha, cognate of singa- in Singapore; and -hanouk, from Sanskrit hanu, "jaws")
  • Preahmâhaviraksat (preah, "sacred"; -mâha-, Sanskrit "great," cognate with maha- in maharaja; -vira-, Sanskrit vīra "brave or eminent man; hero; chief," cognate of Latin vir, viris, English virile; -ksat, "warrior, ruler," cognate of the Indian word Kshatriya).

The word "father" does not appear in the Cambodian title, but in western languages his title is translated as "his Majesty King-Father Norodom Sihanouk," to distinguish from the title of his son the new king, which is "his Majesty King Norodom Sihamoni." To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karuna (Pali) is the Jainist concept of love. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Norodom (1834-1904) succeeded his father Ang Duong as King of Cambodia, ruling from 1860 until his death. ... The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ... Kshatriya is the title of the Hindu military order. ...


Despite the great ritualism surrounding the Cambodian monarchy, Sihanouk has always favored informal relations with the Cambodian people, and when addressing him, or talking about him, they most often call him , Sâmdech Euv, which literally means "Prince Dad," "My Lord Dad" (French: Monseigneur Papa). File links The following pages link to this file: Norodom Sihanouk Categories: GFDL images ...


Early life

Norodom Sihanouk received his primary education in a Phnom Penh primary school, the École François Baudoin. He pursued his secondary education in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City), Vietnam and then attended military school in Saumur, France. When his maternal grandfather, King Sisowath Monivong, died on April 23, 1941, the Crown Council selected Prince Sihanouk as king of Cambodia. Primary or elementary education consist of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... City motto: No motto City proper Province Phnom Penh Mayor Kep Chuktema ( ) Area 290 km² Population 862,000 Density 3446. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ... Sisowath Monivong (born 1875, died 1941) was the king of Cambodia from 1927 until his death in 1941. ...


His coronation took place in September 1941. Rumors abounded during this period that the influence of France (the regional colonial power) accounted for his accession. Norodom Sihanouk is well-known for leading what some have termed an extravagant lifestyle, and being an unabashed "ladies' man." He married his sixth wife, Monique, an Italian-Cambodian, in 1952. Ladies man - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Leadership turmoil

After World War II and into the early 1950s, King Sihanouk's politics became more nationalistic and he began demanding that the French grant the country independence and depart, echoing the sentiments of many nations in Indochina, including Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. He went into exile in Thailand in 1952 and refused to return until independence was granted. He returned when his overtures met with success and Cambodia became independent on November 9, 1953. On March 2, 1955, King Sihanouk abdicated in favor of his father, taking the post of prime minister a few months later. Following his father's death in 1960, he gained election as head of state, but received the title of prince rather than king. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... This is a list of prime ministers of Cambodia. ...


While the Vietnam War raged, Sihanouk promoted policies he claimed would preserve Cambodia's neutrality. Alternately taking sides with the People's Republic of China, supporting the United States and espousing Third Way policies. In the spring of 1965, he made a deal with China and North Vietnam to allow the presence of permanent Vietnamese bases in eastern Cambodia and to allow military supplies from China to reach Vietnam by Cambodian ports. Cambodia and Cambodian individuals were compensated by Chinese purchases of the Cambodian rice crop by China at inflated prices. He also at this time made any number of speeches calling the triumph of Communism in Southeast Asia inevitable and suggesting Maoist ideas were worthy of emulation. In 1966 and 1967, Sihanouk unleashed a wave of political repression that drove many on the left out of mainstream politics. His policy of friendship with China collapsed due to the extreme attitudes in China at the peak of the Cultural Revolution. The combination of political repression and problems with China made his balancing act impossible to sustain. He had alienated the left, allowed the Vietnamese to establish bases within Cambodia and staked everything on China's good will. On March 18, 1970, while he was travelling out of the country, Lon Nol, the prime minster, convened the National Assembly which voted to depose Sihanouk as head of state and give emergency powers to Lon Nol. Prince Sirik Matak, a royal prince who in 1941, had been passed over by the French government in favor of his cousin Norodom Sihanouk's leadership role, retained his post as Deputy Prime Minister. After the coup Prince Sihanouk fled to Beijing and began to support the Khmer Rouge in their struggle to overthrow the Lon Nol government in Phnom Penh. When the Khmer Republic fell to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975, Prince Sihanouk became the symbolic head of state of the new régime while Pol Pot remained in power. The next year, on April 4, 1976, the Khmer Rouge forced Sihanouk out of office again and into political retirement. He then sought refuge in China and in North Korea. Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution. ... General Lon Nol General Lon Nol (November 13, 1913 - November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician who served two times as Prime Minister of Cambodia in addition to serving other times as Defence Minister. ... (help· info) (IPA peiË© tɕɪŋ˦), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... City motto: No motto City proper Province Phnom Penh Mayor Kep Chuktema ( ) Area 290 km² Population 862,000 Density 3446. ... Insurrection and War, 1967-75 By the mid-1960s, Norodom Sihanouks delicate balancing act was beginning to go awry. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leadership during their period in power. ... A rare government portrait of Pol Pot. ...


The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in December 1978 ousted the Khmer Rouge. Although claiming to be wary of the Khmer Rouge, Prince Sihanouk was more than willing to again join forces with them in order to provide a united front against the Vietnamese. In 1982, he became president of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK), which consisted of his own Funcinpec party, Son Sann's KPNLF, and the Khmer Rouge. The Vietnamese withdrew in 1989, leaving behind a pro-Vietnamese government under Prime Minister Hun Sen to run the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) was a coalition government in exile composed of Norodom Sihanouks FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer Peoples National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982. ... Funcinpec is a royalist Cambodian political party. ... (1911-2000) Son Sann was a Cambodian politician born in Pnomh Penh on October 5th 1911. ... Sâmdech (Lord) Hun Sen Chinese: 雲升(born April 4, 1951) is the Prime Minister of Cambodia. ... The Peoples Republic of Kampuchea, The Vietnamese Occupation On January 10, 1979, the Vietnamese installed Heng Samrin as head of state in the new Peoples Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). ...


Restoration

Peace negotiations between the CGDK and the PRK commenced shortly thereafter and continued until 1991 when all sides agreed to a comprehensive settlement which they signed in Paris. Prince Sihanouk returned once more to Cambodia on November 14, 1991 after thirteen years in exile.


In 1993, Sihanouk became once again king of Cambodia. During the restoration, however, he suffered from ill health and traveled repeatedly to Beijing for medical treatment.


Although the king had very limited political power, in mid-February 2004, after watching scenes of same-sex marriages in San Francisco, California (which were later declared invalid by State officials), he announced that Cambodia should recognize same-sex marriage. In the same statement, he also expressed support for transvestites. While carrying no legal force, this proclamation (in which he states that God loves a "wide range of tastes") held considerable moral weight in a nation where the King continued to enjoy substantial popularity. However, the only real legal power presently lies in the hands of Hun Sen, the Prime Minister, who does not support same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ... Nickname: The City by the Bay Official website: http://www. ... For a discussion of the history and current usage of the term transvestite, see transvestism. ...


Sihanouk's leisure interests include music and films. He has become a prodigious filmmaker over the years, directing many movies and orchestrating musical compositions. He became one of the first heads of state in the region to have a personal website, which has proven a cult hit, drawing more than a thousand visitors a day, a substantial portion of his nation's Internet users. Royal statements are posted there on a daily basis.


King Sihanouk went into self-imposed exile in January 2004, taking up residence in Pyongyang and later in Beijing. Citing reasons of ill health, he announced his abdication of the throne on October 7, 2004. The constitution of Cambodia made no provision for such a move. Chea Sim, the President of the Senate assumed the title of acting Head of State (a title he has held many times before), until the throne council met on October 14 and appointed Norodom Sihamoni, one of Sihanouk's sons, as the new king. EXILE is a 6-member Japanese pop music band. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → January 31, 2004 The United States defence budget is set to exceed US$400 billion next year—an almost 7% increase—according to budget proposals inadvertently posted on the Pentagons website. ... Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one) is the act of renouncing and resigning from a formal office, especially from the supreme office of state. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... Samdech Chea Sim (born November 15, 1932 in Romeas Hek district, Svay Rieng province, Cambodia) is a Cambodian politician. ... The President of the Senate is the title often given to the presiding officer, or chairman, of a senate. ... Acting is the work off an actor, a person in theatre, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time in office: Since October 14, 2004 Predecessor: Norodom Sihanouk Date of Birth: May 14, 1953 Place of Birth: Phnom Penh His Majesty King Norodom Sihamoni of Cambodia (Khmer: Mul script ; regular script , pronounced ) is the King of Cambodia, the son of King Father Norodom Sihanouk and Queen Mother Monineath. ...


Books

  • Norodom Sihanouk My war with the CIA (1973, ISBN 0713904496, ISBN 0394485432)

The CIAs seal features an eagle atop a sixteen-point compass. ...

See also

  • Cambodia under Sihanouk (1954-1970)
  • History of Cambodia (1979-present)

// First administration of Sihanouk, 1954-1970 Norodom Sihanouk continues to be one of the most controversial figures in Southeast Asias turbulent, and often tragic, postwar history. ... // The Peoples Republic of Kampuchea, The Vietnamese Occupation On January 10, 1979, the Vietnamese installed Heng Samrin as head of state in the new Peoples Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). ...

External links

  • Official site
  • Review of his memoirs
  • Norodom Sihanouk's movies and music
  • News release regarding gay marriage
  • News release regarding his website
Preceded by:
Sisowath Monivong
King of Cambodia
1941-1955
Succeeded by:
Norodom Suramarit
Preceded by:
Norodom Suramarit
Prince of Cambodia
1960-1970
Succeeded by:
Vacant
Preceded by:
Vacant
King of Cambodia
1993-2004
Succeeded by:
Norodom Sihamoni

  Results from FactBites:
 
Norodom Sihanouk - definition of Norodom Sihanouk in Encyclopedia (996 words)
Preah Bat Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Varman (born October 31, 1922 in Phnom Penh, the son of King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Sisowath Kossamak) reigned as King of Cambodia until he announced his abdication on October 7 2004.
Norodom Sihanouk received his primary education in a Phnom Penh primary school, the École François Baudoin.
After World War II and into the early 1950s, King Sihanouk's politics became more nationalistic and he began demanding that the French grant the country independence and depart, echoing the sentiments of many nations in the region, including Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m