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Encyclopedia > Norn language
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Norn (Norn)
Spoken in:
Region:
Total speakers: extinct
Ranking: not in top 100
Genetic classification: Indo-European
 Germanic
  North Germanic
   West Scandinavian
    Norn
Official status
Official language of: none
Regulated by: none
Language codes
ISO 639-1 none
ISO 639-2 none
SIL none
See also: LanguageList of languages

Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. After the islands were ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland in the 15th century, its use was discouraged by the Scottish government and the Church of Scotland (the national church), and was gradually replaced by Lowland Scots over time. Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language familiesfuck of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... This list of languages is alphabetical by English name. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Jump to: navigation, search Shetland Islands The Shetland Islands (also sometimes spelled Zetland or Hjaltland) are one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and also form a traditional county and Lieutenancy area. ... The Orkney Islands are one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and form a traditional county and Lieutenancy area. ... Timeline of Scottish history Caledonia List of not fully sovereign nations Subdivisions of Scotland National parks (Scotland) Traditional music of Scotland Flower of Scotland Wars of Scottish Independence National Trust for Scotland Historic houses in Scotland Castles in Scotland Museums in Scotland Abbeys and priories in Scotland Gardens in Scotland... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS sometimes known as the Kirk) is the national church of Scotland. ... Jump to: navigation, search Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic of the Highlands, is a language used in Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as...


It is not known exactly when Norn became extinct. The last report of Norn speakers are claimed to be from the early 19th century, but it is more likely that the language died out sometime during the 18th century at the latest. Fragments of the language and loan-words adopted into the local Lowland Scots and Scottish English survived the death of the main language and remain to this day. Jump to: navigation, search Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic of the Highlands, is a language used in Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ...


Dialects of Norse had also been spoken on mainland Scotland — for example, in Caithness — but here they became extinct many centuries before Norn died on Orkney and Shetland. Hence, some scholars also speak about "Caithness Norn", but others avoid this. Even less is known about "Caithness Norn" than about Orkney and Shetland Norn. Relatively little written Norn has survived. What remains includes a version of the Lord's Prayer, ballads and official documents such as diplomas as well as several rune inscriptions. Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county and former administrative county within the Highland area of Scotland. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Lords Prayer (sometimes known by its first two Latin words as the Pater Noster, in Greek as the , or the English equivalent Our Father) is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. ... A ballad is a story in a song, usually a narrative song or poem. ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a document issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that is one of the following: A certificate testifying that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, A deed conferring an academic degree. ... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ...

Contents


Classification and related languages

Norn is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. Together with Faroese, Icelandic and Norwegian it belongs to the West Scandinavian group, separating it from the East Scandinavian group consisting of Swedish and Danish. More recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into an Insular Scandinavian and Mainland Scandinavian languages, grouping Norwegian with Danish and Swedish based on mutual intelligibility and the fact that Norwegian has been heavily influenced in particular by Danish during the last millennium and has diverged from Faroese and Icelandic. Norn is generally considered to have been fairly similar to Faroese, sharing many phonological and grammatical traits with this language. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ...


Sounds

The phonology of Norn can never be determined with much precision due to the lack of source material, but the general aspects can be extrapolated from the few written sources that do exist. Norn shared many traits with the dialects of south-west Norway. This includes a devoicing of /p, t, k/ to /b, d, g/ before or between vowels and a reduction of /θ/ and /ð/ ("thing" and "that" respectively) to /t/ and /d/. For unknown reasons the i-mutation so common in Germanic languages (the Umlaut in the singular/plural English "foot" - "feet" and German "Fuß" - "Füße") was not present in Norn. Phonology (Greek phone = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics closely associated with phonetics. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ...


Grammar

The features of Norn grammar were very similar the other Scandinavian languages. There were two numbers, three genders and four cases (nominative, accusative, genitive and dative). The two main conjugations of verbs in present and past tense were also present and like almost all other Scandinavian languages, it used a suffix instead of a prepositioned article to indicate definiteness as in Danish/Norwegian/Swedish man(n) ("man"), mannen ("the man"). Though it is difficult to be certain of much of the aspects of Norn grammar, documents indicate that it may have featured subjectless clauses, which are common in the West Scandinavian languages. Number, in linguistics, is a grammatical category relevant to certain lexemes such as nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The dative case is a grammatical case for nouns and/or pronouns. ... Jump to: navigation, search A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present // English present tense... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics, nomenclature and computer science. ... An article is a word that is put next to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made to the noun. ...


Sample text

The following are Norn versions of the Our Father (a Christian prayer): [1]
Jump to: navigation, search Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, or another form of spiritual entity, or otherwise, either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions. ...

Favor i ir i chimrie, / Helleur ir i nam thite,
gilla cosdum thite cumma, / veya thine mota vara gort
o yurn sinna gort i chimrie, / ga vus da on da dalight brow vora
Firgive vus sinna vora / sin vee Firgive sindara mutha vus,
lyv vus ye i tumtation, / min delivera vus fro olt ilt, Amen.
Fy vor or er i Chimeri. / Halaght vara nam dit.
La Konungdum din cumma. / La vill din vera guerde
i vrildin sindaeri chimeri. / Gav vus dagh u dagloght brau.
Forgive sindorwara / sin vi forgiva gem ao sinda gainst wus.
Lia wus ikè o vera tempa, / but delivra wus fro adlu idlu.
For do i ir Kongungdum, u puri, u glori, Amen

The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ...

References

  • Barnes, Michael P. The Norn Language of Orkney & Shetland. Lerwick: Shetland Times 1998. ISBN 1-898852-29-4

Further reading

  • Barnes, Michael P. "Orkney and Shetland Norn". In Language in the British Isles, ed. Peter Trudgill, 352-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  • Jakobsen, Jakob. An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland. 2 vols. London/Copenhagen: David Nutt/Vilhelm Prior, 1928-32 (reprinted 1985).
  • Low, George. A Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Schetland. Kirkwall: William Peace, 1879.
  • Marwick, Hugh. The Orkney Norn. London: Oxford University Press, 1929.
  • Rendboe, Laurits. "The Lord's Prayer in Orkney and Shetland Norn 1-2". North-Western European Language Evolution 14 (1989): 77-112 and 15 (1990): 49-111.
  • Wallace, James. An Account of the Islands of Orkney. London: Jacob Tonson, 1700.

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Norn language
  • Ethnologue report on Norn

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orkneyjar - Norn, the language of Orkney (625 words)
For almost 1,000 years, the language of the people of Orkney was a variant of Old Norse known as Norrœna, or Norn.
The sheer scale of the Norse settlement of Orkney saw their language obliterate whatever indigenous language was spoken in Orkney.
Norn remained the language of Orkney until the early 15th century, but, contrary to popular belief, its decline began well before the islands were annexed to Scotland in 1468.
Norn language at AllExperts (676 words)
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the north coast of mainland Scotland.
Fragments of the language and loan-words adopted into the local Lowland Scots and Scottish English survived the death of the main language and remain to this day.
Norn is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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