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Encyclopedia > Normative

In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. Descriptive (or constative) statements are falsifiable statements that attempt to describe reality. Normative statements, on the other hand, affirm how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, which actions are right or wrong. Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ... In common usage positive is sometimes used in affirmation, as a synonym for yes or to express certainty. Look up Positive on Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a number is called positive if it is bigger than zero. ... A description consists of an enumeration of the quantitative and qualitative parameters which define something, that is, what something looks like, sounds like, feels like. ... An explanation is a statement which points to causes, context and consequences of some object (or process, state of affairs etc. ... Theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: belief Belief is usually defined as a conviction to the truth of a proposition. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... In science and the philosophy of science, falsifiability, contingency, and defeasibility are roughly equivalent terms referring to the property of empirical statements that they must admit of logical counterexamples. ... Reality in everyday usage means everything that exists. The term Reality, in its widest sense, includes everything that is, whether it is observable, accessible or understandable by science, philosophy, theology or any other system of analysis. ... In meta-ethics, the is-ought problem was raised by David Hume (Scottish philosopher and historian, 1711-1776), who noted that many writers make claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is. ... Value is worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies, actions, beliefs or emotions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bad is a word used to describe undesirable circumstances, objects, or events. ... An action, as philosophers use the term, is a certain kind of thing a person can do. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... A wrong is a concept in law and ethics. ...


It is only with David Hume in the 18th century that philosophers began to take cognizance of the logical difference between normative and descriptive statements and thinking. There are several schools of thought regarding the status of normative statements and whether they are rational and can be rationally discussed or defended, for example the tradition of practical reason going from Aristotle through Kant to Habermas, which asserts that they can, or that of logical positivism, which maintained that they were merely the expression of emotions and had no rational content. David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian who is one of the most important figures of Western philosophy and of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the faculty of the human mind that creates and operates with abstract concepts. ... -- Jan L. A. van de Snepscheut In philosophy, practical reason is the application of reason to real-world decision-making (ie. ... Media:Example. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Jürgen Habermas (born June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf, Germany) is a philosopher and social theorist in the tradition of critical theory. ... Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, or neo-positivism) is a philosophy that combines positivism—which states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge—with a version of apriorism—the notion that some propositional knowledge can be had without, or “prior to”, experience. ...


Normative statements and norms, as well as their meanings, are an integral part of our lives, acquired through our native language learning process and other experience, in terms of prioritizing our goals, and organizing and planning thought, belief, emotion and action and are the basis of much of ethical and political discourse. Norms are a sort of sentences or sentence meanings, the most common of which are commands and permissions. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: belief Belief is usually defined as a conviction to the truth of a proposition. ... It has been suggested that Feeling be merged into this article or section. ... An action, as philosophers use the term, is a certain kind of thing a person can do. ...

Contents


Standards

In standards terminology, "normative" means "considered to be a prescriptive part of the standard". For example, many standards have an introduction, preface, or summary that are considered non-normative, as well as a main body that is considered normative. "Compliant" is defined as "complies with the normative sections of the standard"; an object that complies with the normative sections but not the non-normative sections of a standard is still considered to be in compliance. Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules of the language. ...


Normative means "of or related to a norm or standard". For example, this Appendix is a normative (mandatory) part of this standard.


Social sciences

In social sciences the term "normative" is used to describe the effects of those structures of culture which regulate the function of social activity. While there are always anomalies in social activity (typically described as "crime") the normative effects of popularly-endorsed beliefs (such as "family values" or "common sense") push most social activity towards a generally homogenous set, resulting in varying degrees of social stability. The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The article is about functionalism in sociology; for other uses, see functionalism. ... This article discusses family values as a moral and political concept. ... Look up Common sense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Normative behavior is a term used in sociology to describe actions intended to normalize something, or make it acceptable. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ...


See also

Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. ... Norms are a sort of sentences or sentence meanings, the most common of which are commands and permissions. ... Normative economics is the branch of economics that incorporates value judgments about what the economy should be like or what particular policy actions should be recommended to achieve a desirable goal. ... Normative ethics (cf. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for the investigation of phenomena and the acquisition of new knowledge of the natural world, as well as the correction and integration of previous knowledge, based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning. ... Value is worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies, actions, beliefs or emotions. ... Georges Canguilhem (Castelnaudary 1904-1995) was a French philosopher and member of the Collège de France, who specialized in the philosophy of science. ... Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ...

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
USCCB - Committee on the Liturgy - Norms for the Distribution and Reception of Holy Communion Under Both Kinds in the ... (6053 words)
The purpose of these norms is to ensure the reverent and careful distribution of Holy Communion under both kinds.
Norms established by the diocesan bishop must be observed wherever the Eucharist is celebrated in the diocese, "even in the churches of religious orders and in celebrations with small groups."
The norms and directives established by the Church for the celebration of any liturgical rite always have as their immediate goal the proper and careful celebration of those rites.
Norm (sociology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1148 words)
In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a rule that is socially enforced.
Norms with common sense origins may, over time, lose their original context as society changes: an action that was once performed because it was necessary to survive may over the years become a social norm, even once the circumstances that made it necessary for survival are no longer applicable.
As a series of examples that are under tremendous contemporary pressure as norms evolve: the term "lover" once was presumed to denote a person of the opposite sex; a "mature" adult once was presumed to be or have been married; and a "couple" once was presumed to have or want children.
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