FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Normans" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Normans
Norman conquests in red.
Norman conquests in red.

The Normans were a people from medieval northern France, deriving to a large extent their aristocratic origins from Scandinavia (the name is adapted from the name "Northmen" or "Norsemen"). They played a major political, military and cultural role in the northern and Mediterranean parts of medieval Europe and the Near East, eg. the colonisation (and naming) of Normandy, the "Norman Conquest" of England, the establishment of states in Sicily and southern Italy, and the crusades. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1400x1018, 1176 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1400x1018, 1176 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England initiated by the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) in 1066 and his success at the Battle of Hastings resulted in the Norman control of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... The Kingdom of Sicily (in green) in 1154, representing the extent of Norman conquest in Italy. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


In fact, by the time of the invasion of England, most "Normans" derived from the indigenous populations of eastern Brittany and western Flanders, but their lords retained a memory of their own Viking origins. They began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. In 911, Charles the Simple, king of France, granted the invaders the small lower Seine area, which expanded over time to become the Duchy of Normandy. The invaders were under the leadership of Rollo, who swore allegiance to Charles the Simple. Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D.; for the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ...


The Norman people adopted Christianity and the Gallo-Romance language and created a new cultural identity separate from that of their Scandinavian forebears and French neighbours. Norman culture, like that of many other migrant communities, was particularly enterprising and adaptable. For a time, it led them to occupy widely dispersed territories throughout Europe. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ...

Contents

Norman characteristics

Normans should not be confused with "Viking" groups, such as the Scandinavians known as Danes in England and those known as Rus in Russia. The term "Norman", however, is often used for these groups, as for example in the term "Normanist theory". The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ...


Geoffrey Malaterra characterized the Normans as "specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, that is, perhaps uniting, as they certainly did, these two seemingly opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report. They were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the very boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held firmly down by the yoke of justice. They were enduring of toil, hunger, and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, and of all the weapons and garb of war."[1] Goffredo (Geoffrey) Malaterra was an eleventh century Benedictine monk and chronicler. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ...


That quick adaptability Geoffrey mentions expressed itself in the shrewd Norman willingness to take on local men of talent, to marry the high-born local women; confidently illiterate Norman masters used the literate clerks of the church for their own purpose. Their success at assimilating was so thorough, few modern traces remain, whether in Palermo or Kiev. For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2005)  - City 3,950,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


Normans and Normandy

Geographically, Normandy was approximately the same region as the old church province of Rouen and what was called Brittania Nova as well as western Flanders. It had no natural frontiers and was previously merely an administrative unit. Historically, its population was mostly French. Added on top of that were the Viking settlers who had begun arriving in the 880s, and who were divided between a small colony in Upper (or eastern) Normandy and a larger one in Lower (or western) Normandy. Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jean dArc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s - 920s - 930s Years: 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 Events and trends 885: Vikings lay siege for Paris 886: Alfred the Great of Wessex captures London Important people Charles...


In the course of the 10th century the initial destructive incursions of Norse war bands into the rivers of Gaul evolved into more permanent encampments that included women and chattel. The pagan culture was driven underground by the Christian faith and Gallo-Romance language of the local people. The small group of Vikings that settled there adopted the language and culture of the French majority. After a generation or two, the Normans were generally indistinguishable from their French neighbours. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ...


In Normandy they adopted the growing feudal doctrines of the rest of northern France, and worked them, both in Normandy and in England, into a functional hierarchical system. The Norman warrior class was new and different from the old French aristocracy, many of whom could trace their families back to Carolingian times, while the Normans could seldom cite ancestors before the beginning of the 11th century. Most knights remained poor and land-hungry; by 1066, Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation. Knighthood before the time of the Crusades held little social status, and simply indicated that a man was a professional warrior and wealthy enough to own a war horse. Many Normans of France and Britain would eventually serve as avid Crusaders. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... This article is about historical Crusades . ...


The Norman language was forged by the adoption of the indigenous oïl language by a Norse-speaking ruling class developed into the regional language which survives today. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... There are a number of languages of France. ...


Normans in England

See also: Norman conquest of England, Anglo-Norman, Norman Yoke, Norman architecture, and Domesday Book
Siege of a motte-and-bailey castle from the Bayeux Tapestry.
Siege of a motte-and-bailey castle from the Bayeux Tapestry.

The Normans were in contact with England from an early date. Not only were their original pagan Viking brethren still ravaging the English coasts, but they occupied most of the important ports opposite England across the Channel. This relationship eventually produced closer ties of blood through the marriage of Emma, sister of Duke Richard II of Normandy, and King Ethelred II of England. Because of this, Ethelred fled to Normandy in 1013, when he was forced from his kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard. His stay in Normandy (until 1016) influenced him and his sons by Emma, who stayed in Normandy after Canute the Great's conquest of the isle. When finally Edward the Confessor returned from his father's refuge in 1041, at the invitation of his half-brother Hardecanute, he brought with him a very Norman-educated mind. He also brought many Norman counsellors and fighters. He even hired a small number of Normans to train and establish an English cavalry force. This concept never really took root, but it is a typical example of the attitudes of Edward. He appointed Robert of Jumièges archbishop of Canterbury and made Ralph the Timid earl of Hereford. He invited his brother-in-law Eustace II of Boulogne to his court in 1051, an event which resulted in the greatest of early conflicts between Saxon and Norman and ultimately resulted in the exile of Earl Godwin of Wessex. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England initiated by the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) in 1066 and his success at the Battle of Hastings resulted in the Norman control of England. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Norman Yoke is term that emerged in English Nationalist discourse in the mid-17th century. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to, as well as, the Norman invasion of England in 1066. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Known as Richard The Good, (French, Le Bon). He was the son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and the Duchess Gunnor. ... Ethelred II or Æþelræd Unræd (c. ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Robert of Jumièges (d. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Ralph the Timid was the earl of Hereford from before 1050 until his death in 1057. ... The title of Earl of Hereford was created several times in the Peerage of England. ... Eustace II, (d. ... -1... Godwin (sometimes Godwine) (c. ...


In 1066, the most famous Norman leader, Duke William II of Normandy, conquered England. The invading Normans and their descendants replaced the Anglo-Saxons as the ruling class of England. After an initial period of resentment and rebellion, the two populations largely intermarried and merged, combining languages and traditions. Normans began to identify themselves as Anglo-Norman.Eventually, even this distinction largely disappeared in the course of the Hundred Years war, with the Anglo-Norman aristocracy increasingly identifying themselves as English. The Anglo-Norman language was considerably distinct from the French language; this was the subject of some humour by Geoffrey Chaucer. The Anglo-Norman and Anglo-Saxon languages eventually merged to form Middle English. Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... William I of England (c. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


Even after the dukedom of Normandy was lost by the English Crown (although the Channel Islands were retained), and there were several changes of dynasty, the connection to modern France was long maintained. The nobility of England were part of a single French-speaking culture, and many had lands on both sides of the channel and owed fealty to kings of France and of England. The Kings of England included parts (often large parts) of modern France in their dominions, did not necessarily consider England their most important holding (although it brought the title of King - an important status symbol). King Richard I (the Lionheart) is often thought to epitomise a medieval English King, but spent more time in Aquitaine or on Crusade than in England, and was not brought up to speak English: in fact, no English King until Richard II was a native speaker. Most medieval English Kings had a claim to the throne of France.


Normans in Wales

See also: Cambro-Norman
Chepstow Castle in Wales, first built by William fitzOsbern in 1067.

Even before the Norman Conquest of England, the Normans had come into contact with Wales. Edward the Confessor had set up the aforementioned Ralph as earl of Hereford and charged him with defending the Marches and warring with the Welsh. In these original ventures, the Normans failed to make any headway into Wales. Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 886 KB)Interior of Chepstow Castle You may choose which license (of the two) to use. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 886 KB)Interior of Chepstow Castle You may choose which license (of the two) to use. ... Chepstow Castle from the old Wye Bridge Interior of Chepstow Castle Chepstow Castle, located in Chepstow on top of cliffs overlooking the River Wye, was built by the Norman lord William FitzOsbern from 1067. ... William fitzOsbern (died February 22, 1071) was a relative and close counselor of William the Conqueror who became one of the great magnates of early Norman England. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... This article is about the country. ...


Subsequent to the Conquest, however, the Marches came completely under the dominance of William's most trusted Norman barons, including Roger of Montgomery in Shropshire and Hugh Lupus in Cheshire. These Normans began a long period of slow conquest during which almost all of Wales was at some point subject to Norman interference. Norman words, such as baron (barwn), first entered Welsh at that time. Known as Robert the Great of Montgomery (English). ... Shropshire (alternatively Salop or abbreviated Shrops) is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Hugh dAvranches, 1st Earl of Chester (died July 27, 1101) was one of the great magnates of early Norman England. ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Normans in Scotland

See also: Scotland in the High Middle Ages and Scoto-Norman

One of the claimants of the English throne opposing William the Conqueror, Edgar Atheling, eventually fled to Scotland. King Malcolm III of Scotland married Edgar's sister Margaret, and came into opposition to William who had already disputed Scotland's southern borders. William invaded Scotland in 1072, riding as far as the Abernethy where he met up with his fleet of ships. Malcolm submitted, paid homage to William, and surrendered his son Duncan as a hostage, beginning a series of arguments as to whether the Scottish Crown owed allegiance to the English King. Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... William I of England (c. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Abernethy is a village in Perthshire, Scotland, situated eight miles south east of Perth. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald...


Normans came into Scotland, building castles and founding noble families who would provide some future kings such as Robert the Bruce as well as founding some of the Scottish clans. King David I of Scotland was instrumental in introducing Normans and Norman culture to Scotland, part of the process some scholars call the "Davidian Revolution". Having spent time at the court of Henry I of England (married to David's sister Maud of Scotland), and needing them to wrestle the kingdom from his half-brother Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair, David had to reward many with lands. The process was continued under David's successors, most intensely of all under William the Lion. The Norman-derived feudal system was applied to varying degrees to most of Scotland. Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of... Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair or Máel Coluim mac Alasdair (Malcolm, Alexanders son) was the son of King Alexander I of Scotland and enemy of King David I of Scotland, his uncle. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Normans in Ireland

See also: Norman Ireland, Castles in the Republic of Ireland, and Hiberno-Norman

The Normans had a profound effect on Irish culture and history. While initially, in the twelfth century, the Normans maintained a distinct culture and ethnicity, they came to be subsumed into Irish culture, to the point that it has been said that they became "more Irish than the Irish themselves." The Normans settled mostly in an area in the east of Ireland, later known as the Pale, and also built many fine castles and settlements, including Trim Castle and Dublin Castle. Both cultures intermixed, borrowing from each other's language, culture and outlook. A tower house near Quin. ... Castles in the Republic of Ireland is a link page for any castle in the Republic of Ireland. ... The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers in England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 500 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Normans ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 500 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Normans ... The keep of Scarborough Castle Rochester Castle featuring a massive turreted keep Early 13th century keep (Rouen, France) The 14th century residential keep at Largoët A keep is a strong central tower which normally forms the heart of a castle. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... More Irish than the Irish themselves was a phrase used in the Middle Ages to describe the phenomenon whereby foreigners who came to Ireland attached to invasion forces tended to be subsumed into Irish social and cultural society, adopted the Irish language, Irish culture, style of dress and a wholesale... The Pale refers to at least two geographic areas: The Pale of Settlement in which imperial Russia allowed Jews to live. ... Trim Castle (Dublin Side) Trim Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Atha Troim in Irish), Trim, County Meath, Ireland, on the shores of the Boyne has an area of 30,000 m². It is the remains of the largest Norman castle in Europe, and Irelands largest castle. ... Dublin Castle. ...


Normans in the Mediterranean

See also: Norman conquest of southern Italy and Italo-Norman

Opportunistic bands of Normans successfully established a foothold far to the south of Normandy. Probably the result of returning pilgrims' stories, the Normans entered the Mezzogiorno as warriors in 1017 at the latest. In 999, according to Amatus of Montecassino, pilgrims returning from Jerusalem called in at the port of Salerno, when a Saracen attack occurred. The Normans fought so valiantly that Prince Guaimar IV begged them to stay, but they refused and instead offered to tell others back home of the prince's request. William of Apulia tells that, in 1016, pilgrims to the shrine of the Archangel Michael at Monte Gargano were met by Melus of Bari, a Lombard freedom-fighter, who persuaded them to return with more warriors to help throw off the Byzantine rule, and so they did. The Kingdom of Sicily (in green) in 1154, representing the extent of Norman conquest in Italy. ... Palazzo dei Normanni, the palace of the Norman kings in Palermo. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Amatus of Montecassino (Amatus Casinensis), a Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Montecassino is one of three Italo-Norman chroniclers, the others being William of Apulia and Goffredo Malaterra. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Guaimar IV (also Waimar, Gaimar, Guaimaro, or Guaimario) (c. ... William of Apulia was a Norman chronicler, writing in the 1090s. ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Gargano landscape. ... Melus (also Milus or Meles) (d. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The two most prominent families to arrive in the Mediterranean were the descendants of Tancred of Hauteville and the Drengots, of whom Rainulf Drengot received the county of Aversa, the first Norman toehold in the south, from Duke Sergius IV of Naples in 1030. The Hautevilles achieved princely status when they proclaimed Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno "Duke of Apulia and Calabria". He promptly awarded their elected leader, William Iron Arm, with the title of count with his capital of Melfi. Soon the Drengots had attained unto the principality of Capua and the Emperor Henry III had legally ennobled the Hauteville leader, Drogo, as dux et magister Italiae comesque Normannorum totius Apuliae et Calabriae in 1047. Tancred of Hauteville (Hauteville-la-Guichard) was a norman noble, about whom little is known  ; his historical importance comes entirely from the accomplishments of his sons and later descendants. ... The Drengots were a Norman family of mercenaries, one of the first to head to the Mezzogiorno to fight in the service of the Lombards. ... Rainulf Drengot (also Ranulph, Ranulf, or Rannulf) was a Norman adventurer and the first count of Aversa (1030–1045). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Sergius IV (d. ... Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... The family of the Hauteville (French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa dAltavilla) was a petty baronial Norman family from the Cotentin which rose to prominence in Europe, Asia, and Africa through its conquests in the Mediterranean, especially Southern Italy and Sicily. ... Guaimar IV (also Waimar, Gaimar, Guaimaro, or Guaimario) (c. ... William, called Iron Arm; also called Guillaume Bras-de-fer in French and Guglielmo Braccio-di-ferro in Italian; was a Norman adventurer, the eldest of 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville, who, along with his two younger brothers Drogo and Humphrey, journeyed to the Mezzogiorno in the first half... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. ... Henry III (1017-1056) was a member of the Salian (sometimes Franconian) dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. ... Drogo of Hauteville, called Drogon de Hauteville in French and Drogone DAltavilla in Italian, succeeded his brother, with whom he arrived in southern Italy c. ... Events William the Conqueror, with assistance from King Henry I of France, secured control of Normandy by defeating the rebel Norman barons at Caen the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes Births Deaths October 9 - Pope Clement II Categories: 1047 ...

Cathedral at Cefalù, note the combined Arab and Norman influences.
Cathedral at Cefalù, note the combined Arab and Norman influences.

From these bases, the Normans were eventually able to capture Sicily and Malta from the Saracens under the famous Robert Guiscard, a Hauteville, and his young brother Roger the Great Count. Roger's son, Roger II, was crowned king in 1130 (exactly one century after Rainulf was "crowned" count) by Pope Anacletus II. The kingdom of Sicily lasted until 1194, when it fell to the Hohenstaufens through marriage. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 1506 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cefalù, Italy Cathedral, front view File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 1506 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cefalù, Italy Cathedral, front view File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierloni, (died January 25, 1138) was an Antipope that ruled between 1131 to his death, in a schism against the contested hasty election of Pope Innocent II. Pietro was born in a powerful Roman family and, as second son, was destined to the church. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


The Normans left their mark however in the many castles, such as the Iron Arm's fortress at Squillace, and cathedrals, such as Roger II's at Cefalù, which dot the landscape and give a wholly distinct architectural flavour to accompany its unique history. Institutionally, the Normans combined the administrative machinery of the Byzantines, Arabs, and Lombards with their own conceptions of feudal law and order to forge a completely unique government. Under this state, there was great religious freedom, and alongside the Norman nobles existed a meritocratic bureaucracy of Jews, Moslems, and Christians, both Catholic and Orthodox. Coat of arms of Comune di Squillace Squillace (Latin: Scyllaceum or Scalacium) is an ancient seaside town in the southern Italian region of Calabria facing the Golfo di Squillace. ... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ...


Architectural heritage

Main article: Norman architecture in Italy

The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... Monreale (contraction of monte-reale, so-called from a palace built here by Roger I of Sicily) is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called La Conca doro (the Golden Shell... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Venosa is a town in the Potenza in the Basilicata region in southern Italy, with a population of around 12,500. ... View of Canosa Canosa is a town in Apulia, population 30,374, in southern Italy, between Bari and Foggia, located in the Province of Bari. ...

Rulers

This is a list of Counts and Dukes of Apulia and Calabria in Southern Italy from the 11th century to the 12th century. ... In 1130, the first Norman foothold in the Mezzogiorno was created when Sergius IV of Naples gave the town and vicinity of Aversa as a county to Ranulf Drengot. ... This is as list of the Princes of Capua. ... This is a list of the hypati, patricians, consuls, and dukes of Gaeta. ... The history of Taranto dates back to the 8th century BC when it was founded as a Greek colony. ... The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily: // Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071–1130 Roger I 1071–1101 Simon 1101–1105 Roger II 1105–1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130–1198 Roger II 1130–1154 William I 1154–1166 William II 1166–1189 Tancred...

Other famous Normans of the South

Gilbert Buatère (c. ... Osmond Drengot (c. ... Peter (born before 1020) was the first Norman lord of Trani, a town on the Adriatic near Barletta. ... Hugh Tubœuf or Tudebusis (French: , Italian: ) was a Norman adventurer who went to Southern Italy around 1030 in search of glory and riches. ... Tristan (before 1020) was the first lord of Montepeloso from 1042. ... Asclettin was the first count of Acerenza, one of the twelve leaders of the Norman mercenaries of Guaimar IV of Salerno who conquered much of Apulia between 1038 and 1042. ... Mauger of Hauteville (also Latin Malgerius or Italian Maugerio) was a younger (probably the second) son of Tancred of Hauteville by his second wife, Fressenda. ... William of Hauteville (c. ... Geoffrey of Hauteville (also Gottfried, Godfrey, Goffredo, or Gaufrido) was the second youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville by his first wife Muriella. ... Serlo II (also Sarlo, Serlone in Italian and Serlon in French), son and namesake of Serlo of Hauteville and grandson of Tancred of Hauteville, went to seek his fortunes in the Mezzogiorno along with his numerous uncles and cousins, following Roger around 1056, for he is found in Calabria in... Roussel de Bailleul (also Roscelin or Roskelin de Baieul), a Norman adventurer (or exile), travelled to Byzantium and there receievd employ as a soldier and leader of men from the Emperor Romanus IV. He may have been a Frank, but whatever the case he joined the Normans of the Mediterranean... Guy of Hauteville (French: , Italian: , Latin: ) (c. ... Robert of Hauteville (c. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... Jordan of Hauteville (died 12, 18, or 19 September 1091 or 1092) was the eldest son and bastard of Roger I of Sicily. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Jordan (died 12 August 1127), count of Ariano (from 1102), was a petty baron in Apulia during the reign of the Duke William II. He was the son and successor of Count Eribert and Altrude of Buonalbergo. ... Alfonso of Hauteville (died 10 October 1144), second son of Roger II of Sicily and Elvira of Castile, was the prince of Capua from 1135 to his death. ... Goffredo (or Geoffrey) Malaterra was an eleventh century Benedictine monk and chronicler of Norman origin. ... William of Apulia was a Norman chronicler, writing in the 1090s. ... The ruins of the castle at Raviscanina. ... Tancred, depicted as a monkey, enjoys the imprisonment of Roger, his chief enemy in this illumination from the Liber ad honorem Augusti of Peter of Eboli (1196). ...

Normans in the East

Soon after the Normans first began to enter Italy, they entered the Byzantine Empire and soon thereafter Armenia against the Pechenegs, Bulgars, and especially Seljuk Turks. The Norman mercenaries first encouraged to come to the south by the Lombards to act against the Byzantines were soon fighting in Byzantine service in Sicily. They were prominent alongside Varangian and Lombard contingents in the Sicilian campaign of George Maniaches of 1038-40. There is some debate concerning whether the Normans in Greek service were mostly or at all from Norman Italy and it now seems likely that only a few came from there. It is also unknown how many of the "Franks", as the Byzantines called them, were Normans and not other Frenchmen. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Door of the Abbey of S. Maria di Maniace. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ...


One of the first Norman mercenaries to serve as a Byzantine general was Hervé in the 1050s. By then however there were already Norman mercenaries serving as far away as Trebizond and Georgia. They were based at Malatya and Edessa, under the Byzantine duke of Antioch, Isaac Comnenus. In the 1060s, one Robert Crispin led the Normans of Edessa against the Turks. Roussel de Bailleul even tried to carve out an independent state in Asia Minor and had the support of the local population, but he was stopped by the Byzantine general Alexius Comnenus. Hervé was a Norman mercenary general in Byzantine service during the 1050s. ... 1050 Hedeby is sacked by King Harald Hardraade of Norway during the course of a conflict with King Eric Estridsson of Denmark. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Malatia can also be a misspelling of the medical term Malacia. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus was the nephew of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac I Komnenos (1057-1059) and the duke of Antioch, thus leader of the eastern army. ... 1061 Normans conquer Messina in Sicily 1062 Founding of Marrakech 1066 Normans conquer England William the conquerer was crowned King of England on Christmas Day in Westminster Abbey. ... Robert Crispin (French: ; died 1071), called Frankopoulos, as a Norman mercenary and the leader of a corps of his countrymen stationed at Edessa under the command of the Byzantine general Isaac Komnenos, Duke of Antioch, in the 1060s. ... Roussel de Bailleul (also Roscelin or Roskelin de Baieul), a Norman adventurer (or exile), travelled to Byzantium and there receievd employ as a soldier and leader of men from the Emperor Romanus IV. He may have been a Frank, but whatever the case he joined the Normans of the Mediterranean... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ...


Some Normans joined Turkish forces and aided in the destruction of the Armenians vassal-states of Sassoun and Taron in far eastern Anatolia. Later, many took up service with the Armenian states further south in Cilicia and the Taurus Mountains. A Norman named Oursel led a force of "Franks" into the upper Euphrates valley in northern Syria. From 1073 to 1074, 8,000 of the 20,000 troops of the Armenian general Philaretus Brachamius were Normans — formerly of Oursel — led by Raimbaud. They even lent their ethnicity to the name of their castle: Afranji, meaning "Franks." The known trade between Amalfi and Antioch and between Bari and Tarsus may be related to the presence of Italo-Normans in those cities while Amalfi and Bari were under Norman rule in Italy. The District of Sason highlighted within the Batman Province. ... Taron was a region of old region of Armenia divised in four districts: Mamikonian, Palauni, (Belabitene), Artokh (Ardjish or Artzike, North of Van Lake) and Olnut or Enut Categories: Regions of old Armenia ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Seal of Philaretos Brachamios, Protokuropalates and Domestic of the Scholae. ... Raimbaud was a Italo-Norman chief who served under Philaretus Brachamius from 1073 to 1074. ... Italy, and the Duchy of Amalfi (a small state in bright yellow), at the close of the tenth century. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ...


Several families of Byzantine Greece were of Norman mercenary origin during the period of the Comnenian Restoration, when Byzantine emperors were seeking out western European warriors. The Raoulii were descended from an Italo-Norman named Raoul, the Petraliphae were descended from a Pierre d'Aulps, and that group of Albanian clans known as the Maniakates were descended from Normans who served under George Maniaches in the Sicilian expedition of 1038. The Komnenian restoration is the term used by Byzantinists to describe the military, financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081, to the death of Manuel I Komnenos in 1180. ... Door of the Abbey of S. Maria di Maniace. ...


Normans on Crusade

Crusader States after 1099. Antioch in orange.
Crusader States after 1099. Antioch in orange.

The legendary religious zeal of the Normans was exercised in religious wars long before the First Crusade carved out a Norman principality in Antioch. They were major foreign participants in the Reconquista in Spain. In 1018, Roger de Tony travelled to Spain to carve out a state for himself from Moorish lands, but failed. In 1064, during the War of Barbastro, William of Montreuil led the papal army and took a huge booty. Download high resolution version (454x1114, 156 KB)Crusader states, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911), at http://www. ... Download high resolution version (454x1114, 156 KB)Crusader states, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911), at http://www. ... The Crusader states, c. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... The War of Barbastro was an international expedition, sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Barbastro from the Moors. ... William of Montreuil (French: ) was an Italian Norman freebooter of the mid-eleventh century. ...


In 1096, Crusaders passing by the siege of Amalfi were joined by Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred with an army of Italo-Normans. Bohemond was the de facto leader of the Crusade during its passage through Asia Minor. After the successful Siege of Antioch in 1097, Bohemond began carving out an independent principality around that city. Tancred was instrumental in the conquest of Jerusalem and he worked for the expansion of the Crusader kingdom in Transjordan and the region of Galilee. Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ...


References

  1. ^ Geoffrey of Malaterra. In Gunn, Peter. Normandy: Landscape with Figures

Bibliography

  • David Bates, Normandy before 1066, London 1982
  • Chalandon, Ferdinand. Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie. Paris, 1907.
  • Chibnall, Marjorie. The Normans, The Peoples of Europe, Oxford 2000
  • Crouch, David. The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. Hambledon & London, 2003.
  • Gillingham, John. The Angevin Empire, end ed., London 2001.
  • Gravett, Christopher, and Nicolle, David. The Normans: Warrior Knights and their Castles. Osprey Publishing: Oxford, 2006.
  • Green, Judith A. The Aristocracy of Norman England. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Gunn, Peter. Normandy: Landscape with Figures. London: Victor Gollancz, Ltd, 1975.
  • Harper-Bill, Christopher and Elisabeth Van Houts, eds. A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World Boydell Press. 2003
  • Haskins, Charles H. Norman Institutions, 1918
  • Maitland, F. W. Domesday Book and Beyond: Three Essays in the Early History of England. 2d ed. Cambridge University Press, 1988. (feudal Saxons)
  • R. Mortimer, Angevin England 1154—1258, Oxford 1994.
  • Muhlbergher, Stephen, Medieval England (Saxon social demotions)
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longman: London, 1970.
  • Robertson, A. J., ed. and trans. Laws of the Kings of England from Edmund to Henry I. AMS Press, 1974. (Mudrum fine)
  • Painter, Sidney. A History of the Middle Ages 284−1500. New York, 1953.

Christopher Gravett is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages, with an interest in the arms and armour of the period. ... David Nicolle is an historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Sidney Painter (1902-1960) was a twentieth-century American medievalist at Johns Hopkins University. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Primary sources

The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ...

External links

The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NIPPY NORMANS - the No. 1 supplier of BMW motorcycle accessories! (861 words)
The book is now available from Nippy Normans - see under the BOOKS heading on the left
"Hello Norman, To give you a short feedback.Yesterday the widescreen arrived.
I received the parcel, delivery fast mercy Norman, Soon I will order a again!
Family Ancestry History Normans (512 words)
The Normans are descendants of the indigenous population that lived in the area of Scandinavia.
The Normans, in contrast, were unable to trace back their ancestors to the 11th century in most cases.
The connection between the Normans and native population were cemented through the marriage of Emma to Ethelred II.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m