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Encyclopedia > Normandy
Map of Normandy
Map of Normandy

Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is situated along the coasts of the south of the English Channel between Brittany (to the west) and Picardy (to the east) and comprises territory in northern France and the Channel Islands. The territory is divided between French and British sovereignty. The continental territory under French sovereignty covers 30,627 km²[1] and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions: Basse-Normandie and Haute-Normandie. The Channel Islands (referred to as Iles Anglo-Normandes in French) comprise two bailiwicks: Guernsey and Jersey. In addition to referring to the region and former country of Normandy, and (in the context of World War II) the 1944 Normandy invasion there, Normandy is the name of: Normandy, England Normandy, Missouri Normandy, Tennessee Normandie is also the name of a famous ocean liner, the SS Normandie, whose... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1470, 264 KB) Summary Carte présentant quelques villes normandes/ Carte réalisée par lutilisateur fr:Utilisateur:Urban Anglicised by User:Man vyi Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Normandy Norman language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1470, 264 KB) Summary Carte présentant quelques villes normandes/ Carte réalisée par lutilisateur fr:Utilisateur:Urban Anglicised by User:Man vyi Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Normandy Norman language ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... wazzup Categories: | ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Caen Land area¹ 17,589 km² Regional President Philippe Duron (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Capital Rouen Land area¹ 12,318 km² Regional President Alain Le Vern (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ...


Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie) consists of the French départements of Seine-Maritime and Eure, and Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie) of the départements of Orne, Calvados, and Manche. The former province Normandy comprised present-day Upper and Lower Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements of Eure-et-Loir, Mayenne, and Sarthe. Capital Rouen Land area¹ 12,318 km² Regional President Alain Le Vern (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Seine-Maritime is a French département in Normandy. ... Eure is a département in the north of France named after the Eure River. ... Capital Caen Land area¹ 17,589 km² Regional President Philippe Duron (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Orne is a department in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ... For the apple brandy produced in the region, see Calvados (spirit). ... Manche is a French département in Normandy named after La Manche (the sleeve), which is the French name of the English Channel. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Eure-et-Loir is a French département, named after the Eure and Loir rivers. ... Mayenne is a département in northwest France named after the Mayenne River. ... The Château de Boisclaireau, residence of the Gueroust family, Counts of Boisclaireau, in Sarthe. ...


The name of Normandy is derived from the settlement and conquest of the territory by Vikings ("Northmen") from the 9th century, and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century. For a century and a half following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman rulers, but following 1204 the continental territory was ultimately held by France.


The population of Normandy is around 3.45 million people. The continental population of 3.26 million accounts for 5.5% of the population of France (in 2005).


Basse-Normandie is predominantly agricultural in character, with cattle breeding the most important sector (although in decline from the peak levels of the 1970s and 1980s). The bocage is a patchwork of small fields with high hedges, typical of western areas. Haute-Normandie contains a higher concentration of industry. Normandy is a significant cider-producing region, and and also produces calvados, a distilled cider or apple brandy. Other activities of economic importance are dairy produce, flax (60% of production in France), horse breeding (including two French national stud farms), fishing, seafood, and tourism. The region contains three French nuclear power stations. Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Brandy pot stills at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—fire wine) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Normandy

In 27 BC, Emperor Augustus reorganized the Gallic territories by adding Calètes and Véliocasses to the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, which had its capital at Lyon. The Romanization of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanization. The Coat of Arms of Normandy Normandy was a province in the North-West of France under the Ancien Régime. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... This article is about the French city. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... A Roman road in Pompeii The Romans, as a military, commercial and political expedient, became adept at constructing roads; many long sections of them are ruler-straight, but it should not be thought that all of them were. ...


The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Viking leader Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy). Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks Charles the Simple through the Treaty of Saint Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory he and his Viking allies had previously conquered. The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking (i.e. "Northman") origins. The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 8th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D.. For the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Frankish Empire after the treaties of Verdun and Meerssen. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romantic language and intermarried with the area’s previous inhabitants and became the Normans – a Norman French-speaking mixture of Scandinavians, Hiberno-Norse, Orcadians, Anglo-Danish, and indigenous Franks and Gauls. The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Hiberno-Norse were a mix of Irish and Norwegians who inhabited certain settlements in Ireland in the 900s. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

Roman theatre in Lillebonne
Roman theatre in Lillebonne

Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy became king of England in 1066 in the Norman Conquest culminating at the Battle of Hastings while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roman theatre, Lillebonne, Normandie / Personal picture taken by user Urban 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roman theatre, Lillebonne, Normandie / Personal picture taken by user Urban 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... William I of England (c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4,000, but...


Norman expansion

Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ...


Tancred's sons William Iron Arm, Drogo of Hauteville, Humphrey of Hauteville, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count conquered the Emirate of Sicily and additional territories in Southern Italy and carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader States of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. William, called Iron Arm; also called Guillaume Bras-de-fer in French and Guglielmo Braccio-di-ferro in Italian; was a Norman adventurer, the eldest of 12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville, who, along with his two younger brothers Drogo and Humphrey, journeyed to the Mezzogiorno in the first half... Drogo of Hauteville, called Drogon de Hauteville in French and Drogone DAltavilla in Italian, succeeded his brother, with whom he arrived in southern Italy c. ... Humphrey of Hauteville, called Onfroi de Hauteville in French and Umfredo DAltavilla in Italian, succeeded his older brother Drogo as count of Apulia and Calabria in 1051. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Italy in 1000. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... The Crusader states, c. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ...


15th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom on the Canary Islands. Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands but recognized Henry III of Castile, who had provided aid during the conquest, as his overlord. One of ships departing for the 1402 norman expedition (from Le Canarien). Jean de Béthencourt (c. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Henry III (October 4, 1379 — 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Spanish: Enrique el Doliente) was the son of John I and succeeded him as King of Castile and León in 1390. ...


Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville played important parts in the Crusades. Tancred of Hauteville (Hauteville-la-Guichard) was a norman noble, about whom little is known  ; his historical importance comes entirely from the accomplishments of his sons and later descendants. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Division of Normandy

In 1204, during the reign of King John, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under Philip II while insular Normandy (the Channel Islands) remained under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris . His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland French Normandy. This article is about the King of England. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259. ...


The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 (and later re-confirmed in 1339), like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204, guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...


French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1346-1360 and again in 1415-1450. Afterwards, prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion when many Norman towns (Alençon, Rouen, Caen, Coutances, Bayeux) joined the Reformation and battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Reformation redirects here. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...


During the French Revolution, Normandy generally supported the idea of a Federal republic against the highly centralized conception championed by the Jacobins in Paris. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ...


World War II

During World War II, following the armistice of 22 June 1940 continental Normandy was part of the German occupied zone of France. The Channel Islands were occupied by German forces between 30 June and 4 July. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... Location of Vichy France (green). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The town of Dieppe was the site of the ill-fated Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces. Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured wounded or not; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or...


During the Second World War, the D Day landings on the Normandy beaches under the code name Operation Overlord were a massive invasion of German-occupied France by Allied troops. Caen, Cherbourg, Carentan, Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the Battle of Normandy, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Montormel, then liberation of Le Havre. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Battle plans for the Normandy Invasion, the most famous D-Day. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Carentan is a town and commune of the Manche département in Normandy, France. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants North:  United Kingdom  Canada Polish forces South:  United States  Free French Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Harry Crerar Philippe Leclerc StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Bernard Montgomery George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength ~at least 500,000 Casualties Canadian: 1,470 killed Polish: 325 killed ~50,000 killed... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ...


This led to the restoration of the French Republic, and a significant turning point in the war. The remainder of Normandy was only liberated on 9 May 1945 at the end of the war, when the Occupation of the Channel Islands ended. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel...


Geography

A typical Normandy village
A typical Normandy village

The historical Duchy of Normandy was a formerly independent duchy occupying the lower Seine area, the Pays de Caux and the region to the west through the Pays d'Auge as far as the Cotentin Peninsula. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... This article is about the river in France. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... The Pays dAuge is an area in Normandy, straddling the départements of Calvados and Orne (plus a small part of the territory of Eure). ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ...


The region is bordered along the northern coasts by the English Channel. There are granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. There are also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. The bocage typical of the western areas caused problems for the invading forces in the Battle of Normandy. There are meanders of the Seine as it approaches its estuary which form a notable feature of the landscape. “Precipice” redirects here. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... A meander is a bend in a river, also known as an oxbow loop. ...


The highest point is the Signal d'Écouves (427m) in the Suisse Normande.


Normandy is sparsely forested[2]: 12.8% of the territory is wooded, compared to a French average of 23.6%, although the proportion varies between the departments. Eure has most cover (21%) while Manche has least (4%), a characteristic shared with the Islands.


Regions

Former Cistercian Abbey of Gruchet-le-Valasse.

Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 628 KB)Abbey of Gruchet-le-Valasse, Near Le Havre, Normandy, France / Photo taken by Urban, december 2004/ GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 628 KB)Abbey of Gruchet-le-Valasse, Near Le Havre, Normandy, France / Photo taken by Urban, december 2004/ GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... The Roumois is a region of plateau located in the northwestern part of the Eure département in Normandy. ... The Lieuvin is a plateau region in the western part of the Eure département in Normandy. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... La Hague is a region on the tip of the Cotentin peninsula in Normandy, France. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasse tribe of Celts who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin. ... The Pays dOuche is a wooded plateau southeast of Evreux in the department of Eure, one of two departments in the Haute-Normandie region, extending into the neighboring Orne department in the Basse-Normandie region. ... The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin (Vexin normand) and the French Vexin (Vexin français). ... // Etymology Etymologically, the name of Bray comes from a Gaulish word for mud. ...

Channel Islands

The Channel Islands, although British crown dependencies, are considered culturally and historically a part of Normandy. The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to...


Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands (except for Chausey) remain Crown dependencies of the British Crown in the present era. Thus the Loyal Toast in the Channel Islands is La Reine, notre Duc ("The Queen, our Duke"). The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of 1259, the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Chausey forms part of the Channel Islands from a geographical point of view, but because it is under French jurisdiction it is almost never mentioned in the context of the other Channel Islands. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... The Loyal Toast is the first toast to be given at a formal gathering to the presiding person. ... The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


Rivers

Rivers in Normandy include: For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ...

This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... Orne is the name of two rivers in France: one in Normandy and one in Lorraine. ... The River Vire is a river in Normandy in France whose 118 km course crosses the départements of Calvados and Manche, flowing through the towns of Vire, Saint-Lô and Isigny-sur-Mer, finally flowing out into the English Channel. ... The Eure River is a river in northern France. ... Risle (or Rille) is a 140 km long river in Normandy. ... Robec is a small river in Normandy, France. ... Touques is a small coastal river that starts in Perche in Pays dAuge in Normandy, France. ... The Couesnon river, near the town of Pontorson, leads directly to Mont Saint-Michel, seen in the distance. ... The Duchy of Brittany was an independent state from 841 to 1532. ...

Towns

See: Category:Towns in Normandy

The principal cities (population at the 1999 census) are Rouen (518,316 inhabitants in the metropolitan area), the capital of Upper Normandy and formerly of the whole province; Caen (370,851 inhabitants in the metropolitan area), the capital of Lower Normandy; Le Havre (296,773 inhabitants in the metropolitan area); and Cherbourg (117,855 inhabitants in the metropolitan area). Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ...


Food and drink

Abroad, Camembert cheese is thought of as typically French, but is specifically a Norman dairy product.
Abroad, Camembert cheese is thought of as typically French, but is specifically a Norman dairy product.

Parts of Normandy consist of rolling countryside typified by pasture for dairy cattle and apple orchards. A wide range of dairy products are produced and exported. Norman cheeses include Camembert, Livarot, Pont l'Evêque, Brillat-Savarin, Neufchâtel, Petit Suisse and Boursin.[3] [4] Normandy butter and Normandy cream are lavishly used in gastronomic specialties. Download high resolution version (837x800, 53 KB) Camembert, a type of Protected Designation of Origin cheese made in France. ... Download high resolution version (837x800, 53 KB) Camembert, a type of Protected Designation of Origin cheese made in France. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurised Not normally Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ... Livarot is a French cheese of the Normandy region, originating in the commune of Livarot, and protected by an AOC since 1975. ... Pont-lÉvêque is the name of two communes of France: Pont-lÉvêque, in the Calvados département - which gave its name to the Pont-lÉvêque cheese Pont-lÉvêque, in the Oise département This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles... Brillat-Savarin is a soft, white-crusted cows milk cheese named after the 18th century French gourmet and political figure Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. ... (no photo as yet) Country of origin France Region, town Haute-Normandie, Neufchâtel-en-Bray Source of milk Cows Pasteurized No Texture Soft Aging time 8-10 weeks Certification AOC, 1969 Neufchâtel is a semi-soft French cheese from the Normandy region of France. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy , Auvilliers Source of milk Cows Pasteurised Yes Texture smooth, creamy Aging time  ? Certification N/A For the region of Luxembourg called Petit Suisse, see Little Switzerland (Luxembourg). ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy Source of milk Cows Pasteurised Yes Texture Soft Aging time Certification French AOC 1963 Boursin Cheese is a soft creamy cheese available in a variety of flavors. ...


Fish and seafood are of superior quality in Normandy. Turbot and oysters from the Cotentin Peninsula are major delicacies throughout France. Normandy is the chief oyster-cultivating, scallop-exporting, and mussel-raising region in France. For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ...


Normandy is a major cider-producing region (very little wine is produced). Perry is also produced, but in less significant quantities. Apple brandy, of which the most famous variety is calvados, is also popular. The mealtime trou normand, or Norman break, is a pause between meal courses in which diners partake of a glassful of calvados, and is still observed in many homes and restaurants. Pommeau is an aperitif produced by blending unfermented cider and apple brandy. Another aperitif is the kir normand, a measure of cassis topped up with cider. Bénédictine is produced in Fécamp. Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Pommeau is an alcoholic drink made in northern France by mixing apple juice with apple brandy. ... Kir Kir is a cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liquor) topped up with white wine. ... Bénédictine is a brandy-based herbal liqueur beverage produced in France. ... Palais de la Bénédictine Fécamp is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, in France. ...


Apples are also used in cooking: for example, moules à la normande are mussels cooked with apples and cream, bourdelots are apples baked in pastry, partridges are flamed with reinette apples, and localities all over the province have their own variation of apple tart. A classic pastry dish from the region is flan Normand a pastry-based variant of the apple tart. Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Flan Normand is a flaky pastry-based (pâte-sablée) variant of the apple tart made in Normandy which is essentially a creamy egg custard tart topped with apples, sliced almonds and sugar and baked until the topping is slightly caramelised. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ...


Other regional specialities include tripes à la mode de Caen, andouilles and andouillettes, salt meadow (pré salé) lamb, seafood (mussels, scallops, lobsters, mackerel…), and teurgoule (spiced rice pudding). Tripe in an Italian market Look up tripe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cajun Andouille, From Wayne Jacobs Smokehouse in La Place, Louisiana. ... Genera See text. ... Teurgoule is a cinnamon-flavoured rice pudding that is a speciality of Normandy. ...


Normandy dishes include duckling à la rouennaise, sautéed chicken yvetois, and goose en daube. Rabbit is cooked with morels, or à la havraise (stuffed with truffled pigs' trotters). Other dishes are sheep's trotters à la rouennaise, casseroled veal, larded calf's liver braised with carrots, and veal (or turkey) in cream and mushrooms. Species Morchella angusticeps Morchella conica Morchella costata Morchella crassipes Morchella elata Morchella esculenta Morchella gigas Morchella semilibera Morchella spongiola Morchella spongiola var. ...


Normandy is also noted for its pastries. It is the birthplace of brioches (especially those from Évreux and Gisors) and also turns out douillons (pears baked in pastry), craquelins, roulettes in Rouen, fouaces in Caen, fallues in Lisieux, sablés in Lisieux. Confectionery of the region includes Rouen apple sugar, Isigny caramels, Bayeux mint chews, Falaise berlingots, Le Havre marzipans, Argentan croquettes, and Rouen macaroons. Brioche Brioche des Rois (served around Epiphany, esp. ...


Normandy is the native land of Taillevent, cook of the kings of France Charles V and Charles VI. He wrote the earliest French cookery book named Le Viandier. Confiture de lait was also made in Normandy around the 14th century. Taillevent alias Guillaume Tirel (1310-1395) was the cook of the kings of France Charles V and Charles VI. He wrote a famous book on cookery named Le Viandier. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Confiture de lait (pronounced ) is a thick, sweet caramel sauce prepared from milk and sugar. ...


Culture

Symbols

"Two-leopard" provincial flag
"Two-leopard" provincial flag

The traditional provincial flag of Normandy, gules, two leopards passant or, is used in both modern regions. Image File history File links Basse-Normandie_flag. ... Image File history File links Basse-Normandie_flag. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ...


The historic three-leopard version (known in the Norman language as les treis cats, "the three cats") is used by some associations and individuals, especially those who support reunification of the regions and cultural links with the Channel Islands and England. Jersey and Guernsey use three leopards in their national symbols. The three leopards represents the strength and courage Normandy has towards the neighbouring provinces.


The unofficial anthem of the region is the song "Ma Normandie". Ma Normandie is the anthem of the Bailiwick of Jersey, a British Crown dependency in the Channel Islands, and was written and composed by Frédéric Bérat. ...


Literature

See also: Anglo-Norman literature and Gesta Normannorum Ducum

The Dukes of Normandy commissioned and inspired epic literature to record and legitimise their rule. Wace, Orderic Vitalis and Étienne of Rouen were among those who wrote in the service of the Dukes. Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ... Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes) is a written work originally created by the monk William of Jumièges just before 1060. ... Wace (c. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


After the division of 1204, French literature provided the model for the development of literature in Normandy. Olivier Basselin wrote of the Vaux de Vire, the origin of literary vaudeville. Olivier Basselin (c. ...


The Corneille brothers, Pierre and Thomas, born in Rouen, were great figures of French classical literature, while David Ferrand (1591-1660) in his Muse Normande established a landmark of Norman language literature. Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ... Thomas Corneille at the age of 81 Thomas Corneille (August 20, 1625 - December 8, 1709) was a French dramatist. ...

Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant

Image File history File links GDMaupassant. ... Image File history File links GDMaupassant. ...

Painting

Romanticism drew painters to the Channel coasts of Normandy. Richard Parkes Bonington and J. M. W. Turner crossed the Channel from Great Britain, attracted by the light and landscapes. Théodore Géricault, a native of Rouen, was a notable figure in the Romantic movement. The competing Realist tendency was represented by Jean-François Millet, a native of La Hague. Romantics redirects here. ... Richard Parkes Bonington (December 25, 1802 - September 28, 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. ...


From the 1860s, plein-air painters, who worked outside the studio, were attracted to Normandy by the ease of railway access from Paris and the development of a market among the growing number of affluent tourists visiting the coasts of Calvados. Eugène Boudin's paintings of fashionable seaside scenes are typical of this period. Rivage de Portrieux, Cotes-du-Nord by Eugène Boudin. ...


Claude Monet's waterlily garden at Giverny is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the region, and his series of views of Rouen Cathedral are major works of Impressionism. It was Impression, Sunrise, a painting by Monet of Le Havre, that led to the movement being dubbed "Impressionism". Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Giverny (IPA ) is a village and commune of the Eure département, in France. ... Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) is a painting by Claude Monet, for which the Impressionist movement was named. ...


The Société normande de peinture moderne was founded in 1909. Among members were Raoul Dufy, a native of Le Havre, Albert Marquet, Francis Picabia and Maurice Utrillo. Also in this movement were the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp. Raoul Dufy (June 3, 1877 – March 23, 1953) was a French Fauvist painter. ... Albert Marquet (27 March 1875, Bordeaux – 13 June 1947, Paris) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvism current. ... Francis Picabia in his studio. ... Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, (December 25, 1883 - November 5, 1955) was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes. ... Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 - June 9, 1963) was a French Cubist painter and printmaker. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the...


Languages

Main article: Norman language

French is the only official language in continental Normandy. English is also an official language in the Channel Islands. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


The Norman language, a regional language, is spoken by a minority of the population in the continent and the Islands, with a concentration in the Cotentin Peninsula in the far West (the Cotentinais dialect), and in the Pays de Caux in the East (the Cauchois dialect). Many place names demonstrate the Norse influence in this Oïl language; for example -bec (stream), -fleur (river), -hou (island), -tot (homestead). There are a number of languages of France. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Map of Cotentin peninsula Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... Les Histouères de Thanase Pèqueu, published Rouen in 1933, a collection of stories in Cauchois by Gabriel Benoist. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... This is a map of the Bailiwick of Guernsey -hou is a suffix found commonly in Channel Islands and Norman names. ...


Architecture

Chateau d'Etelan (1494)

Architecturally, Norman cathedrals, abbeys (such as the Abbey of Bec) and castles characterise the former Duchy in a way that mirrors the similar pattern of Norman architecture in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. The architecture of Normandy spans a thousand years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2976x2232, 153 KB) Description ! Château dEtelan en Normandie (76) Crédit Auteur : Alain BOUDIER Photo personnelle du propriétaire du monument Sans droits dauteurs (Mention crédit obligatoire) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2976x2232, 153 KB) Description ! Château dEtelan en Normandie (76) Crédit Auteur : Alain BOUDIER Photo personnelle du propriétaire du monument Sans droits dauteurs (Mention crédit obligatoire) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... The Abbey of Bec (French: Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec) in Le Bec-Hellouin, Normandy, France, is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure département, in a valley, midway between the cities of Rouen and Le Havre. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ...


Domestic architecture in upper Normandy is typified by half-timbered buildings that also recall vernacular English architecture, although the farm enclosures of the more harshly landscaped Pays de Caux are a more idiosyncratic response to socio-economic and climatic imperatives. Much urban architectural heritage was destroyed during the Battle of Normandy in 1944 - post-war urban reconstruction, such as in Le Havre and Saint-Lô, could be said to demonstrate both the virtues and vices of modernist and brutalist trends of the 1950s and 1960s. Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret, was added to Unesco’s World Heritage List in 2005. Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the Modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. ... St. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vernacular architecture in lower Normandy takes its form from granite, the predominant local building material. The Channel Islands also share this influence - Chausey was for many years a source of quarried granite, including that used for the construction of Mont Saint-Michel. Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Chausey forms part of the Channel Islands from a geographical point of view, but because it is under French jurisdiction it is almost never mentioned in the context of the other Channel Islands. ... For the car ferry, see MV Mont St Michel. ...


The south part of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne is filled with bourgeois villas in Belle Époque style with polychrome façades, bow windows and unique roofing. This area, built between 1886 and 1914, has an authentic “Bagnolese” style and is typical of high-society country vacation of the time. Bagnoles-de-lOrne is a commune of the Orne département, in France. ... The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed...


Religion

The Abbey of Jumièges

The Chapel of Saint Germanus (Chapelle Saint-Germain) at Querqueville with its trefoil floorplan incorporates elements of one of the earliest surviving places of Christian worship in the Cotentin - perhaps second only to the Gallo-Roman baptistry at Port-Bail. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1307x1188, 297 KB)Abbey of Jumièges, Normandy, France. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1307x1188, 297 KB)Abbey of Jumièges, Normandy, France. ... Querqueville is a commune in the French département of Manche. ... Architecture Architectural Trefoil (also a Christian symbol) Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, three-leaved plant, French trèfle, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen) is a term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, etc. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Christian missionaries implanted monastic communities in the territory in the 5th and 6th centuries. Some of these missionaries came from across the Channel. The influence of Celtic Christianity can still be found in the Cotentin. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx (the inhabitants of the British...


By the terms of the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo, a Viking pagan, accepted Christianity and was baptised. The Duchy of Normandy was therefore formally a Christian state from its foundation.


The cathedrals of Normandy have exerted influence down the centuries in matters of both faith and politics. Henry II, King of England, did penance at the cathedral of Avranches on 21 May 1172 and was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of Thomas Becket. Mont Saint-Michel is a historic pilgrimage site. For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ... For the car ferry, see MV Mont St Michel. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...


Normandy does not have one generally-agreed patron saint, although this title has been ascribed to Saint Michael, and to Saint Ouen. Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... Saint-Ouen is the name of several communes in France: Saint-Ouen, in the Charente-Maritime d partement Saint-Ouen, in the Loir-et-Cher d partement Saint-Ouen, in the Somme d partement Saint-Ouen, in the Seine-Saint-Denis d partement It is also part of the name...


Prominent Protestants ministers include Pierre Allix, Jacques Basnages, and Samuel Bochart. Pierre Allix (1641 - March 3, 1717), French Protestant pastor and author. ... Jacques Basnages De Beauval (1653 - September 23, 1723) was a celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a History of the Reformed Churches and on Jewish Antiquities. ... Samuel Bochart (30 May 1599 - 16 May 1667) was a French scholar born in Rouen. ...


Saints

Many saints have been revered in Normandy down the centuries, including: For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ...

  • Aubert who is remembered as the founder of Mont Saint-Michel
  • Marcouf and Laud who are important saints in Lower Normandy
  • Helier and Samson of Dol who are evangelizers of the Channel Islands
  • Thomas Becket, an Anglo-Norman whose parents were from Rouen, who was the object of a considerable cult in mainland Normandy following his martyrdom
  • Joan of Arc who was martyred in Rouen, and who is especially remembered in that city
  • Thérèse de Lisieux whose former home in Lisieux is a focus for religious devotion

Aubert was ordered by the archangel Michael to start construction of what became Mont Saint Michel St. ... Saint Marcouf (also called Marculf, Marcoul or Marcou) is a saint born in Bayeux in Normandy who is best known for the healing of scrofula. ... Saint Laud of Coutances, also known as Saint Lô, is a Christian saint. ... The face of Saint Helier is sculpted on the 1978 monument La Croix de la Reine in St. ... Samson of Dol (born 486?) was a Christian religious figure of the fifth century. ... St. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... For other women with similar names, see Saint Teresa Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy...

Population

In January 2006 the population of Normandy (including the part of Perche which lies inside the Orne département but excluding the Channel Islands) was estimated at 3,260,000 with an average population density of 109 inhabitants per km², just under the French national average, but rising to 147 for Upper Normandy. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Percheron draft horse Perche is a region of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Sarthe. ... Orne is a department in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Capital Rouen Land area¹ 12,318 km² Regional President Alain Le Vern (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ...


People from Normandy

See Category:People from Normandy

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Comité Régional de Tourisme de Normandie
  2. ^ Normandie, Bonneton, Paris 2001 ISBN 286253272X
  3. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/entertainment/2006-03/24/content_551886.htm
  4. ^ http://www.fromages.org/fdn/fdn_histoire_en.html

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Normandy

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... The COGEMA La Hague site is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant near La Hague on the French Cotentin Peninsula that currently has over half of the worlds light water reactor spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. ...

External links

  • Normandy Heritage
  • The Norman Worlds
  • Gallery of photos of Normandy
  • Normandy official tourism office
  • FrenchEntrée Normandy: Life, Property & Holidays
  • A History of Normandy/Normandie Contains a useful list of and detail about the rulers of Normandy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Normandy (12326 words)
The Allied buildup was proceeding at a frenzied pace, mainly in the south of England opposite Normandy.
Since the regions near the mouths of Normandy's rivers and streams were often reclaimed marshlands, the field marshal had his engineers return them to their natural state by opening dikes and floodgates that held in check spring overflows.
If the approach of the Normandy invasion thus evoked anxiety on the part of the Germans, it was also a source of high expectation.
Normandy - LoveToKnow 1911 (3107 words)
From the confluence of the Epte and Seine to Ivry, the boundary between Normandy and the Ile-de-France is artificial; it is afterwards practically determined by the course of the Eure and the Sarthe.
But from there to the sea Normandy is separated by no natural boundary either from Maine or afterwards from Brittany; it lies fairly regularly in the direction from E. to W. The boundary between the coast of Normandy and that of Brittany is formed by the mouth of the Couesnon.
In 1329 the duchy of Normandy was revived in favour of John, son of King Philip VI.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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