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Encyclopedia > Norman language
Norman
Normand
Spoken in:
Flag of Normandy Normandy
Flag of Guernsey Guernsey
Flag of Jersey Jersey 
Region: Normandy and the Channel Islands
Total speakers:
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Gallo-Rhaetian
        Oïl
         Norman 
Writing system: Latin (French variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: roa
ISO 639-3: – 
Areas where the Norman language is strongest include Jersey, Guernsey, the Cotentin and the Pays de Caux.

Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The name Norman-French is sometimes used to describe not only the modern Norman language, but also the administrative languages of Anglo-Norman and Law French used in England. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guernsey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jersey. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1470, 264 KB) Summary Carte présentant quelques villes normandes/ Carte réalisée par lutilisateur fr:Utilisateur:Urban Anglicised by User:Man vyi Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Normandy Norman language ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geographical distribution

Norman is spoken in mainland Normandy in France where it has no official status, but is classed as a regional language. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... There are a number of languages of France. ...


In the Channel Islands, the Norman language has developed separately, but not in isolation, to form what are recognised as Jèrriais (in Jersey), Dgèrnésiais or Guernsey French (in Guernsey) and Sercquiais (or Sarkese, in Sark). Jèrriais and Dgèrnésiais are recognised as regional languages by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council. This article is about the British dependencies. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Dgèrnésiais, also known as Guernésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... For other uses, see Sark (disambiguation). ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ...


Sercquiais is in fact a descendant of the 16th century Jèrriais used by the original colonists from Jersey who settled the then uninhabited island. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The last native speakers of Auregnais, the Norman language of Alderney, died during the 20th century, although some rememberers still exist. The dialect of Herm also lapsed, at an unknown date. Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Pound sterling (GBP). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article is about the island. ...


An isogloss termed the ligne Joret separates the northern and southern dialects of the Norman language (the line is from Granville to the Belgian border). There are also dialectal differences between western and eastern dialects. Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... The Joret line or ligne Joret is an isogloss used in the linguistics of the Oïl languages. ...


Three different standardised spellings are used: continental Norman, Jèrriais, and Dgèrnésiais. These represent the different developments and particular literary histories of the varieties of Norman. Norman may therefore be described as a pluricentric language. A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ...


Today, the Norman language is strongest in the less accessible areas of the former Duchy of Normandy: the Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula (Cotentinais) in the West, and the Pays de Caux (Cauchois) in the East. Ease of access from Paris and the popularity of the coastal resorts of central Normandy, such as Deauville, in the 19th century led to a significant loss of distinctive Norman culture. The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Map of Cotentin peninsula Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... Les Histouères de Thanase Pèqueu, published Rouen in 1933, a collection of stories in Cauchois by Gabriel Benoist. ... Deauville is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ...


The Anglo-Norman dialect of Norman was a language of administration in England following the Norman Conquest. This left a legacy of Law French in the language of English courts (though it was also influenced by Parisian French). In Ireland, Norman remained strongest in the area of south-east Ireland where the Normans invaded in 1169. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers in England. ...


Literature

Le Coup d'œil purin is a polemical satire in verse published in Rouen in 1773
Le Coup d'œil purin is a polemical satire in verse published in Rouen in 1773

Among representative writers of the early Anglo-Norman literary tradition, the Jersey-born poet and chronicler Wace is considered as the founding figure of literature in Jèrriais. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1195x1979, 1613 KB) Summary First page of Le Coup doeil purin, a polemic satire in the Norman language, published in Rouen, Normandy, in 1773 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Norman language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1195x1979, 1613 KB) Summary First page of Le Coup doeil purin, a polemic satire in the Norman language, published in Rouen, Normandy, in 1773 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Norman language ... Wace (c. ... Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais. ...


In the 16th and 17th centuries, the workers and merchants of Rouen established a tradition of polemical and satirical literature in a form of language called the parler purin. La Fricassée crotestyllonnée of 1552 and La Farce des Quiolards of 1735 are notable texts. , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


David Ferrand (1590?–1660) published La Muse normande, an anthology of writings in the dialect of the Pays de Caux. Pierre Genty (17061821) represents the Perche dialect. In Calvados, a text entitled L'agréable conférence de deux normands was published around 1650. In 1773 Le Coup d'oeil purin protested against the suppression of the parlement of Rouen. // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the apple brandy produced in the region, see Calvados (spirit). ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ...


Surviving vernacular literature after 1650 in Calvados is sparse, with only a few texts appearing around the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century (authors Bernardin Anquetil 1755–1826 from the Bessin, and Nicolas Lalleman 1764–1814 from Vire). The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasse tribe of Celts who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin. ... Vire is a commune and a canton of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ...


At the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century a new movement arose in the Channel Islands, led by writers such as George Métivier (Guernsey, 17901881 — dubbed the Guernsey Burns) and writers from Jersey. The independent governments, lack of censorship and diverse social and political milieu of the Islands enabled a growth in the publication of vernacular literature — often satirical and political. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ...


Most literature was published in the large number of competing newspapers, which also circulated in the neighbouring Cotentin peninsula, sparking a literary renaissance on the Norman mainland. The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ...


The work of Jersey poet Sir Robert Pipon Marett (18201884, Bailiff of Jersey) was highly regarded, being quoted in François-Victor Hugo’s La Normandie inconnue. Marett’s work also advanced the standardisation of Jèrriais orthography according to basic principles of the French writing system. Sir Robert Pipon Marett Sir Robert Pipon Marett (1820-1884, pseudonym Laelius) was a lawyer, journalist, poet, politician, and Bailiff of Jersey from 1880 until his death. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In the Channel Islands of Guernsey the Bailiff is the first civil officer, serving as president of the legislature and the Royal Court. ...


In exile in Jersey and then Guernsey, Victor Hugo took an interest in the vernacular literature, associating himself with Island writers and introducing Norman expressions to the wider French-speaking readership. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ...


The boom in insular literature in the early 19th century encouraged production especially in La Hague and around Cherbourg, where Alfred Rossel became active.


Literary production revived in Calvados in the late 19th century, under the influence of Arthur Marye.


The typical medium for literary expression in Norman has traditionally been newspaper columns and almanacs — the topicality and satirical nature is typical of the proverbially deadpan Norman character. Poems, songs and tales often appeared in chapbook form between around 1870–1939. The novel Zabeth by André Louis which appeared in 1969 was the first novel published in Norman. Some works originally published in periodicals have been collected in book form, but the ephemeral nature of the publications in which the bulk of Norman literature appears has led to comparative inaccessibility of much of the oeuvre of important writers. The destruction during the Battle of Normandy of departmental and municipal archives meant the loss of many sources of Norman literature from the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. A modern day chapbook. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ...


However, the Norman literary tradition places high value on the written text, as opposed to other cultures (for example, neighbouring Gallo and Breton) which have a livelier tradition of oral performance and spontaneous storytelling. The song tradition is also much less evident than in neighbouring cultures. Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ...


An annual festival of the Norman language brings together enthusiasts and performers from insular and continental Normandy. The festival alternates between the islands and the mainland.


Writers

Literature in Norman is published in magazines, both in mainland Normandy and the Channel Islands, such as Le Pucheux from the Pays de Caux. This 2005 issue highlights language and literature from across the Norman-speaking regions.
Literature in Norman is published in magazines, both in mainland Normandy and the Channel Islands, such as Le Pucheux from the Pays de Caux. This 2005 issue highlights language and literature from across the Norman-speaking regions.

Here is a list of significant writers in Norman (and published works) of more recent times (for Channel Island authors, see Jèrriais literature and Dgèrnésiais) : Image File history File links Le_Pucheux_2005. ... Image File history File links Le_Pucheux_2005. ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais. ... Dgèrnésiais, also known as Guernésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ...

Alfred Rossel (1841-1926, from Cherbourg)
Author of songs, including the Cotentin anthem Sus la mé
Bon-Prosper Lepesqueur (6 August 1846 – 31 January 1921, from Digulleville)
Wrote under the pseudonyms of Boûnnin Poulidot and P. Lecacheux. His prose stories appeared regularly in Le Phare de la Manche 1899–1905, and he was also the author of a number of songs published in sheet form in Cherbourg signed P. Lecacheux.
Charles Lemaître (18541928, from Saint-Georges-d'Aunay)
Author and performer of monologues, published in sheet form and later collected in volumes Les Joyeux Bocains (1917), Hélas qu'c'est drôle (1924), Eiou qui va lés trachi (1912), Bonnes gens de Normandie
Octave Maillot (18611949, from Tinchebray)
One of the less-numerous authors writing in southern Norman (below the ligne Joret), two volumes of his prose stories in Norman were published under the title Contes normands in 1937 and 1948.
Arnould-Désiré Galopin (9 February 1863 – 9 December 1934, from Marbeuf)
Best known as a prolific author in French of popular fiction: adventure stories, historical novels, travel writing and detective fiction, Galopin also wrote the article Le Patois normand published in Le livre du Millénaire de la Normandie, 911–1911 (Paris 1911) and is known to be responsible for the authorship of a small number of poems in the La Hague dialect of Norman.
Louis Beuve (18691949, from Quettreville-sur-Sienne)
Poet, follower of Roussel and friend of Frédéric Mistral, co-founder of Le Bouais-Jan with Enault, manager of Le Courrier de la Manche, collection published in 1950 Œuvres choisies
François Enault (18691918, from the Cotentin)
Born in Varenguebec 28 May 1869, the eldest of twelve children. Went to Paris in 1887 to study for a legal career, but followed his inclination for the visual arts. He became a cartoonist under the pseudonym Mob for a number of publications. In 1900 he drew and wrote for La France Illustrée and, using the pseudonym Jean Frinot, contributed texts in Norman for the Journal de la Manche published in St-Lô. Founder of Le Bouais-Jan with Louis Beuve. He became chief editor of La France Illustrée in 1911. His health suffered during the First World War and he died as a result 24 November 1918. A collection of his stories Les propos de Jean Frinot was published in 1930. His stories about the characters Pierre and Catheraine Loustalot continue to be republished nowadays, notably by the Almanach de la Manche.
Henri Ermice (18701958)
Born 17 September 1870 in Saint-Germain-sur-Ay. After working as a teacher in Vire, he became a bookseller and publisher of postcards on which he printed Gallicised versions of verses in Norman — Monologues humoristiques en patois normand of which more purely Norman forms also exist, but the more French-influenced texts were considered to have wider commercial appeal. Some more purely Norman pieces were published in a collection Choix de poésies normandes et de monologues en patois de notre pays in 1956.
Joseph Mague (18751940, born in Brittany of Norman parents but raised in the Bessin)
Active in literary societies, published Les Chansons du Bessin in 1912 in postcard form for commercial sale.
Louis Gouget (18771915)
Collection Au Val d'Orne (1922)
Maurice Le Sieutre
Maurice Le Sieutre
Maurice Le Sieutre (1879–?, from Le Havre)
Poet and sculptor, who also set his own words to music; songs and poems published in Vie normande, Bulletin des parlers normands, Bulletin des parlers populaires.
Charles Birette (18781941)
Born in Montfarville in the Val de Saire, he published a collection of stories in Norman A l'Entoue de la Cremillie and a number of historical studies. He is best known for his Dialecte et Légendes du Val de Saire. He died in Dinan 18 June 1941.
Charles Le Boulanger (18801929)
Born in Cerisy-la-Salle 20 January 1880, published two collections of poetry in 1908 and 1920 both entitled Ciz nous. He also performed his poems and monologues in public at local fairs around the Cotentin. A friend of Louis Beuve. He died in Touques 29 June 1929.
Alfred Noël (18831918, from Valognes)
A writer and performer of songs.
Gaston Lerévérend (18851962, from Calvados)
Collections of poetry include L'hus entrebâyei (1919), Mei-j'vo-l'dis, and L'hus bâyi (1955)
Gaston Demongé (1888–1973, from the Pays de Caux)
Wrote under the pseudonym Mait' Arsène, published a collection of poetry and prose Les Terreux in 1925 prefaced by a brief overview of Norman literature. A collection of histoires cauchoises titled Aux Gars de Normandie appeared in 1917.
Pierre Gueroult (18901962)
Born in Pont-l'Abbé 11 June 1890, worked as a teacher, and served as deputy mayor of Cherbourg. Published his first pamphlet En Tisounants around 1920. Author of poems, monologues, dramatic works and prose works. Published works include: Vûles gens, vûs métyis (1948), collections Théâtre normand (1972), Poésies et chansons (1974), Contes et récits (1978 and 1980). His dramatic verse monologue La pouore vuule folle du Bouon-Sâoveu is considered a classic of modern Norman literature; it tells of a woman driven to madness waiting years for her soldier son to return from the war in which he died.
Les Histouères de Thanase Pèqueu, published Rouen in 1933, a collection of stories in Cauchois by Gabriel Benoist.
Les Histouères de Thanase Pèqueu, published Rouen in 1933, a collection of stories in Cauchois by Gabriel Benoist.
Gabriel Benoist
Cauchois author of Thanase Pequeu stories of which three volumes were published in the 1930s
Jean-Baptiste Pasturel (18951962, from Périers)
Collection Histouères de tchu nous (1968)
Jean Tolvast (Auguste Toullec 18981945, from Cherbourg)
Wrote regular columns in newspapers Le Réveil and Le Journal de Valognes. Collections of his stories were published as Chroniques normandes (1934 and 1941)
Marceau Rieul (Marcel Sorieul 19001977, from Bolbec)
Author of Arseine Toupétit
Jehan Le Povremoyne (Ernest Coquin 19031970, from Le Havre)
A Cauchois author who wrote mostly in French, but frequently employed dialogue in Norman to a greater or lesser extent in his writings.
Gires Ganne (Fernand Lechanteur 19101971)
Author of La Normandie traditionnelle, a collection of articles on language and traditions, his poetry (Es Set vents du Cotentin, 1972) only became widely known after his death. He worked to unify the orthography of the Norman language, proposing reforms. In 1968, he founded an association Parlers et Traditions Populaires de Normandie. A Viking-boat-shaped stone monument to his memory was erected after his death near the seashore of his native Agon.
Christian Lambert (19122000, from Livarot)
Wrote regular pieces in Norman for the Lisieux nespaper L'Éveil de Lisieux under the title of Radotages de Maît' Jules (collected for publication 1984)
Côtis-Capel (Albert Lohier 19151986, from Cherbourg)
Priest and fisherman, highly influential poet in La Hague, Rocâles (1951), A Gravage (1965), Raz Bannes (1971), Graund Câté (1980), Les Côtis (1985), Ganache (1987); winner of the Prix littéraire du Cotentin in 1964
Aundré-Joseph Desnouettes (André Dupont 1920–200?, from Equeurdreville)
Winner of the Prix littéraire du Cotentin in 1970. As a historian, published a history in French of the département of Manche. His literary career in Norman started in 1952 with the publication of a collection of comic poems En Ritounaunt. A cycle of a hundred sonnets were published as Sonnets cotentinais en parler populaire du pays in 1958 and 1961 in Études normandes. In 1968, he published L'Épopée cotentine, an epic poem of 4628 lines inspired by the models of Wace and other Anglo-Norman poets. His poetry frequently evokes Norman history, but also treats daily life.
Hippolyte Gancel (born 1920)
Flleurs et plleurs dé men villâche (1982 and 1986), winner of the Prix littéraire du Cotentin in 1984
André Louis (1922–1999 from Octeville)
Born 6 February 1922, he was a teacher by profession, wounded in the French Resistance during the Second World War, became president of the Société Alfred Rossel, and president of the Fédération de l'Ouest des Groupes Folkloriques de France. Worked with Fernand Lechanteur on the reform of Norman orthography and became a founder member and secretary of Parlers et Traditions Populaires de Normandie which developed into the magazine Le Viquet. He wrote a novel Zabeth (1969), untypically for Norman literature, a rural love story rather than a light-hearted satire. He was awarded the Prix littéraire du Cotentin in 1971. He died 27 December 1999.
René Saint-Clair (born 1923)
Poet from the Cotentin
Marcel Dalarun (born 1922)
Poet from the Cotentin has produced poems for children and to be set to music, collection A men leisi (2004)

1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... La Hague is a region on the tip of the Cotentin peninsula in Normandy, France. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Quettreville-sur-Sienne is a commune in the French département of Manche. ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... Gallicism is a mode of speech peculiar to the French; a French idiom; also, in general, a French mode or custom. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Maurice_Le_Sieutre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Maurice_Le_Sieutre. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Valognes is a town in Normandy, northwestern France, in the Manche département. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the apple brandy produced in the region, see Calvados (spirit). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Thanase_Pequeu_1933. ... Image File history File links Thanase_Pequeu_1933. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Les Histouères de Thanase Pèqueu, published Rouen in 1933, a collection of stories in Cauchois by Gabriel Benoist. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Périers or Perrières is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Périers, in the Manche département Périers-en-Auge , in the Calvados département Périers-sur-le-Dan, in the Calvados département Perrières, in the Calvados d... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Bolbec is a town of northern France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, on the Bolbec River, 19 m. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Livarot (pro. ... Lisieux is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Lower Normandy région, in France. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

History

See also: Old Norman.

When Norse invaders arrived in the then province of Neustria and settled the land which became known as Normandy, they adopted the Gallo-Romance speech of the existing populations — much as Norman rulers later adopted in England the speech of the administered people. However in both cases the élites contributed elements of their own language to the newly enriched languages that developed in the territories. Old Norman was one of many langue doïl dialects. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ...


In Normandy, the new Norman language inherited vocabulary from Norse. The influence on phonology is more disputed, although it is argued that the retention of aspirated /h/ and /k/ in Norman is due to Norse influence. Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Examples of Norman words of Norse origin:

Norman English Old East Norse French
bel court, yard (cf. bailey?) bǿli cour (cf. bal)
bète bait (borrowed from Norman) bæita appât
canne can (borrowed from Norman) kanna cruche
cat cat (Germanic cognate) kattʀ chat
gardîn garden garðʀ jardin
gradile (black)currant gaddʀ cassis
graie prepare græiða préparer
hardelle girl hóra (whore) fille (cf. hardi)
hèrnais cart (cf. harness) járnaðʀ (shod (horse)) charrette (cf. harnais, harnâcher)
hommet/houmet islet (diminutive of hou) hulmʀ îlot
hou islet ( cf. holm, mainly in placenames) hulmʀ îlot
hougue mound ( cf. howe, high) haugʀ monticule
mauve seagull mávaʀ (pl.) gaviote (Pre-Norman) /
mouette (Post-Norman)
mielle dune mjalʀ dune
mucre damp (cf. muggy) mygla humide
nez headland or cliff (cf. Sheerness, etc.) næs falaise (cf. nez)
pouque pouch, bag (cf. north of England poke
, proverb "pig in a poke"; also pocket)
puki sac (cf. poche)
viquet wicket (borrowed from Norman) víkjas guichet (borrowed from Norman)

In some cases, Norse words adopted in Norman have been borrowed into French - and more recently some of the English words used in French can be traced back to Norman origins. Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... Look up Cf. ... Places In the United Kingdom: Bailey, Lancashire Bailey is the name of one of the British Sea Areas The Bailey, the historic centre of Durham, England In Canada: Bailey, New Brunswick Bailey Corners, Ontario Baileys Beach, Ontario Baileys Brook, Nova Scotia In the United States of America: Bailey... This is a map of the Bailiwick of Guernsey -hou is a suffix found commonly in Channel Islands and Norman names. ... A bowl barrow, sometimes referred to as a cairn circle, cairn ring, howe, kerb cairn, turnp or rotunda grave is a type of tumulus first identified by John Thurman. ... , Sheerness is a town located beside the mouth of the River Medway on the northwest corner of the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, England. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Following the Norman conquest of 1066, the Norman language spoken by the new rulers of England left traces of specifically Norman words which can be distinguished from the equivalent lexical items in French: Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ...

English Norman French
fashion < faichon = façon
cabbage < caboche = chou (cf. caboche)
castle < castel = château, castelet
cauldron < caudron = chaudron
causeway < caucie (now cauchie)[1] = chaussée
catch < cachier (now cachi)[2] = chasser
cater < acater = acheter
mug < mogue/moque[3] = mug, boc
wicket < viquet = guichet (cf. piquet)

Other words such as captain, kennel, cattle and canvas introduced from Norman exemplify how Norman retained a /k/ from Latin that was not retained in French.


There is also some influence from the Breton language, perhaps via Gallo. That is because Gallo is spoken on the border of Normandy and Brittany, south of Mont Saint-Michel and was the language (at least, an earlier form) spoken in the March of Neustria. Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... For the car ferry, see MV Mont St Michel. ...


Norman immigrants to North America, also introduced many "Normanisms" to Quebec French and French in Canada generally. Joual, a working class sociolect of Quebec particularly exhibits strong Norman influence. North American redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... French is the mother tongue of about 6. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a sociolect is the language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


See also

Wikipedia
Norman language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Anglo-Norman literature

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Causeway"
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Catch"
  3. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary. entry on "Mug¹" states that the origin of this word is uncertain—it may have been a borrowing from Norman, or it may have come from another source, and been reinforced through Norman.

References

  • Essai de grammaire de la langue normande, UPN, 1995. ISBN 2-9509074-0-7.
  • V'n-ous d'aveu mei? UPN, 1984.
  • La Normandie dialectale, 1999, ISBN 2-84133-076-1
  • Alain Marie, Les auteurs patoisants du Calvados, 2005. ISBN 2-84706-178-9.
  • Roger Jean Lebarbenchon, Les Falaises de la Hague, 1991. ISBN 2-9505884-0-9.
  • Jean-Louis Vaneille, Les patoisants bas-normands, n.d., Saint-Lô.
  • André Dupont, Dictionnaire des patoisants du Cotentin, Société d'archéologie de la Manche, Saint-Lô, 1992.
The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... Southern Romance languages are parte of Romance languages that includes the Sardinian language and Sicilian language. ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian and Corsican languages, spoken in some areas of the north-western part of Sardinia, in Italy, such as Sassari and a few other places, such as Porto Torres and Sorso. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sardo Campidanese is a diasystem of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Italiano centrale is a group of dialects of Italian spoken in Lazio and areas East of Lazio in Italy. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula, especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... This article is about the Northern Italian language occasionally called Cisalpine. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... Ligurian is a Romance language, consisting of a group of Gallo-Italic dialects currently spoken in Liguria, northern Italy, and parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, and Monaco. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a little part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and... The gallo-siculo dialects represent a group of dialects found in central-eastern Sicily that date back to migrations from Northern Italy during the time of Roger I of Sicily and which continued after his death under his successor Roger II (from around 1080 to 1120). ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... The Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in Southern France, Andorra and Eastern Spain. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Cantabrian language or Mountain language is the name received the language used in the West of Cantabria and some zones of the Valley of Pas and the Valley of Soba, in its Eastern zone. ... Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ... The Leonese language (Llïonés in Leonese) was developed from Vulgar Latin with contributions from the pre-Roman languages which were spoken in the territory of the Spanish provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca and in some villages in the District of Bragança, Portugal. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Barranquenho (Barranquenhu; English: Barrancainian) is a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos (in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal). ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Eonavian or Eonaviego is a term used to refer a set of dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends in the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Barayo rivers). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Caló (originally Zincaló) or Spanish Romani is a jargon spoken by the Gitanos or Zincarli originating from Spain: Caló blends native Romani vocabulary with Spanish grammar,[1] as Spanish Gypsies lost the full use of their ancestral language. ... Aragonese redirects here. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Norman language (7389 words)
In Normandy, the new Norman language inherited vocabulary from Norse.
It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France.
The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal.
Norman language - Biocrawler (988 words)
Norman is spoken in mainland Normandy in France where it has no official status, but is classed as a regional language.
In the Channel Islands, the Norman language has developed separately, but not in isolation, to form what are recognised as Jèrriais (in Jersey), Dgèrnésiais or Guernsey French (in Guernsey) and Sercquiais (or Sarkese, in Sark).
The last native speakers of Auregnais, the Norman language of Alderney, died in the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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