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Encyclopedia > Norman invasion of Wales
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The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman invasion of England. It was not undertaken with the fervor and intentionality of the invasion of England, and, as such, a specific date is difficult to pin down; nonetheless, it can be said that the invasion gradually played itself out through the 1060s into the 1070s, though the situation did not solidify until the early 1200s. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 when the Roman army began a campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. ... Medeival kingdoms of Wales. ... Brecknockshire, also known as Breconshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Frycheiniog is an inland traditional county of Wales, bounded to the north by Radnorshire, to the east by Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, to the south by Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, and west by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. ... Welsh colonization of the Americas began in the 19th century. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the country. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest was the conquest of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Decades: 1010s - 1020s - 1030s - 1040s - 1050s - 1060s - 1070s - 1080s - 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 Events: 1061 Normans conquer Messina in Sicily 1062 Founding of Marrakech 1066, Normans conquer England William the Conqueror was... Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Decades: 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s - 1070s - 1080s 1090s 1100s 1110s 1120s Years: 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 Significant Events and Trends: 1071 Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to...

Contents

Setting the Stage

By the mid-eleventh century, Wales had been united by a king of Gwynedd, Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. Gruffudd pushed into England, burning the city of Hereford, overwhelming border patrols, and proving the English – and by extension, the Normans – entirely inadequate to response to Welsh invasions [1]. Subsequent to his uniting of Wales and his victories over Mercia and other English kingdoms, Gruffudd was turned upon by his own men, who killed him and shipped his head off to Edward the Confessor, a sign of victory over Wales[2]. This left a vacuum of power in Wales in which princes and kings were free to squabble over their land. In addition, they were left without the presence of Gruffudd to ward off English attacks. (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... See also Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... Statistics Population: 50,154 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SO515405 Administration District: Herefordshire Region: West Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Herefordshire Historic county: Herefordshire Services Police force: West Mercia Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: West Midlands Post office and telephone Post town: HEREFORD Postal... Norman conquests in red. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


First Conflicts

It took some time for the Normans to concentrate any level of might against the Welsh, however, as they were more concerned, in the aftermath of Hastings, with England and Normandy[3]. In addition, it was not William’s goal to conquer Wales: He had come to inherit what he believed to be his birthright, the English throne, which entailed the responsibilities of Edward and the Anglo-Saxon kings, thus entailed their relationships with Wales and Scotland. By the late 1060s, however, Wales had begun to force the matter, attacking English soil and supporting English rebellions against the Normans. Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Aquitanians, Flemings Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly higher than the Normans The... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... List of monarchs of the Kingdom of England is a list of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England. ... The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was known as the Bretwalda until Alfred the Great. ...


Norman Response

In response to Welsh advances, William established a series of earldoms in the borderlands, specifically at Chester and Shrewsbury, instilling a great deal of power into each earldom, allowing them control of the surrounding towns and land, rather than retaining it within the kingship. The inspiration for such an action seems to have been the overextended nature of the Norman troops, thus preventing William from exercising his own power in the area[4]. It very well may have been implicit in the power granted the earldoms that they were to attack Wales, and, indeed, they did, beginning with south-east Wales, where many of the previous rebellions against England had begun. However, the attacks in south-east Wales “faltered badly when [the earl of Hereford’s] son … forfeited his estates for treason in 1075 and involved some of his vassals on the Welsh frontier in his downfall” [5]. Nonetheless, the Normans pressed on. In the early 1080s, a castle was established at the mouth of the Wye, and it served as a base from which the Normans continued to expand westward into Wales[6]. This further expansion led to the establishment of a second castle at Caerleon in 1086. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester City (district). ... Shrewsbury (pronounced either or ) is a town of 70,560 inhabitants [1] in Shropshire, England. ... Chepstow Castle from the old Wye Bridge Interior of Chepstow Castle Chepstow Castle, located in Chepstow on top of cliffs overlooking the River Wye, was built by the Norman lord William FitzOsbern from 1067. ... River Wye and Lancat and Ban y Gore Nature Reserve The Wye at Hay-on-Wye The Wye at Tintern This article is about the river that flows along the Anglo-Welsh border. ... Caerleon (Welsh: ) is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport (of which it is also a electoral ward) in south-east Wales. ...


Relations with Henry I

These movements continued well into the twelfth century, into the reign of Henry I. There was relative peace in the early twelfth century, however, with a great deal of English influence over Wales but relatively little conflict. The only real expedition into Wales made by Henry was in 1114, when “he set in motion three separate armies intended to overware the ageing prince of Gwynedd”[7]. The prince, Gruffydd ap Cynan, however, saw fit to make peace with the king rather than engage in open warfare or hostility. Throughout the period, however, Henry exerted a great deal of control over Wales, establishing a series of new castles and placing new Lords into positions of power. Upon Henry’s death, however, revolts once again broke out in parts of Wales. These revolts caused Norman retreat in many areas, most surprisingly in Deheubarth, where, according to R.R. Davies, “the Normans had made their most striking advances in the previous generation”[8]. The period saw a role reversal of sorts, as well, with infighting amongst the Normans, the same sort which had enabled the relative fall of Wales in the previous century. However, by the 1150s, Henry II had set upon fighting back, leading his first expedition into Wales in 1157. Though met with some setbacks, Henry seems to have been primarily successful[9]. He moved into Wales again in 1163, this time showing his true force of political power, forcing homages from the two most powerful princes of Wales, Rhys and Owain (52). Minor changes in power continued into the 1200s, until 1277, with Wales consolidating and retaining their basic political and geographic structure through this period. Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Gruffydd ap Cynan (c. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s - 1150s - 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s Years: 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 Events and Trends Peter Lombard writes his Sentences Eric the Saint, king of Sweden led the first Christian crusade to... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... // Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ...


References

  1. ^ Davies, R.R.. The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415, p. 26
  2. ^ Ibid, p. 24
  3. ^ Ibid p. 27
  4. ^ Ibid, p. 28
  5. ^ Ibid, p. 29
  6. ^ Walker, David. Medieval Wales, p. 22
  7. ^ Ibid, p. 41
  8. ^ Davies, R.R.. The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415, p. 45
  9. ^ Ibid, p. 52

Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ...

Bibliography

  • Carr, A.D. (1995). Medieval Wales. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-3335477-2-1. 
  • Davies, R.R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063-1415. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-1982019-8-2. 
  • Walker, David (1990). Medieval Wales. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5213115-3-5. 

 
 

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