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Encyclopedia > Norman conquest
Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings
Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings

The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. It is an important watershed in English history for a number of reasons. It tied England more closely with Continental Europe and away from Scandinavian influence, created one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe, created the most sophisticated governmental system in Europe, changed the English language and culture, and set the stage for a long future of English-French conflict. It remains the last successful military invasion of England. Image File history File links Bayeuxtap1. ... Image File history File links Bayeuxtap1. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is not actually a tapestry (that is, a weaving), but is embroidery, and dates from 1077. ... The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... The Flag of England The Kingdom of England was a kingdom located in Western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... The Duke of Normandy is a title held (or claimed) by various Norman, English, French and British rulers from the 10th century. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ...

Contents


Origins

Normandy is a region in northwest France which at the time had experienced extensive Viking settlement. About 150 years before the Norman Conquest, in the year 911, French Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple had allowed a group of Vikings, under their leader Rollo, to settle in northern France with the idea that they would provide protection along the coast against future Viking invaders. This proved successful and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen from which Normandy is derived. The Normans quickly adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity; adopting the langue d'oïl of their new home through the introduction of Norse features, transforming it into the Norman language; and intermarrying with the local populations. They also used the territory granted them as a base to extend the frontiers of the Duchy to the west, annexing territory including the Bessin, the Cotentin Peninsula and the Channel Islands. Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... The name Viking is a borrowed word from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D. For other uses, see 911 (disambiguation). ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Charles III the Simple (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Rollo (c. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous Gauls of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Rollo (Gange Rolf). ... Within a Christian context, Paganism (from Latin paganus) and Heathenry are a catch-all terms which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual/religious beliefs and practices of a natural religion, as opposed to the Abrahamic religions. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century. ... The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasse tribe of Celts who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ...


Meanwhile in England, the Viking attacks increased and in 991 the Anglo-Saxon king of England Aethelred II agreed to marry Emma, the daughter of the Duke of Normandy, to cement a blood-tie alliance for help against the raiders. The Viking attacks of England grew so bad that in 1013 the Anglo-Saxon kings fled and spent the next 30 years in Normandy, not returning to England until 1042. Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Ethelred II or Æþelræd Unræd (c. ... Emma (c. ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ...


When the Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Confessor died a few years later in 1066 with no child, and thus no heir to the throne, it created a power vacuum into which three competing interests laid claim to King of England. Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ...


The first was Harald III of Norway who had blood ties to the Anglo-Saxon family. The second was William the Bastard, the Duke of Normandy, because of his blood ties to Aethelred. The third was an Anglo-Saxon by the name of Harold Godwinson who had been elected in the traditional way by the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot of England to be king. The stage was set for a battle between the three. Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardrada (Norse: Harald Harðráði, roughly translated as Harald stern council or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1046 until 1066. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... The Witenagemot (or Witan) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ...


Conquest of England

King Harald of Norway invaded northern England in September 1066 which left Harold of England little time to gather an army. Harold's forces marched north from London and surprised the Vikings at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on September 25th. It was an Anglo-Saxon victory, King Harald was killed and the Norwegians were driven out — it was the last Viking invasion of England. The victory however came at a great cost: the Anglo-Saxon army was left in a battered and weakened state. The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is generally considered to mark the end of the Viking era. ...


Meanwhile William had assembled an invasion fleet of around 600 ships and an army of 7000 men. This was far greater than the reserves of men in Normandy alone: William recruited soldiers from all of Northern France, the low countries, and Germany. Many of his army were second- and third-born sons who had little or no inheritance under the laws of primogeniture. William promised that if they brought their own horse, armour, and weapons to join him, they would be rewarded with lands and titles in the new realm. Primogeniture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


At this daunting task, William showed his best side: that of a supremely able administrator, a skill which was to help bring England under his heel once he was crowned.


After being delayed for a few weeks by unfavorable winds and weather, he finally arrived in the south of England just days after Harold's defeat of the Norwegians. The delay turned out to be crucial: had he landed in August when he originally planned, Harold would have been waiting with a fresh and numerically superior force. William finally landed at Pevensey Sussex on September 28, 1066 and assembled a prefabricated wooden castle near Hastings as a base. Pevensey is a small village (1991 pop. ... Sussex is a traditional county in southern England, divided for administrative purposes into West Sussex and East Sussex and the city of Brighton and Hove. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ...


The choice of landing was a direct provocation to Harold Godwinson as this area of Sussex was Harold's own personal domain. William began immediately to lay waste to the land. It may have prompted Harold to respond immediately and in haste rather than to pause and await reinforcements in London. Again, it was an event that favored William. Had he marched inland, he may have outstretched his supply lines, and possibly have been surrounded by Harold's forces.


They fought at the Battle of Hastings on October 14. It was a close Norman victory but in the final hours Harold was killed and the Saxon army fled. With no living contender for the throne of England to oppose William, this was the defining moment of what is now known as the Norman Conquest. The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After his victory at Hastings, William marched through Kent to London but met fierce resistance at Southwark. He then marched down the old Roman Road of Stane Street to link up with another Norman army on the Pilgrims' Way near Dorking, Surrey. The combined armies then avoided London altogether and went up the Thames valley to the major fortified Saxon town of Wallingford, Oxfordshire, whose Saxon lord, Wigod, had supported William's cause. While there, he received the submission of Stigand, the Archbishop of Canterbury. One of William's favorites, Robert D'Oyley of Lisieux, also married Wigod's daughter, no doubt to secure the lord's continued allegiance. William then travelled north east along the Chiltern escarpment to the Saxon fort at Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire and waited there to receive the submission of London. The remaining Saxon noblemen surrendered to William there, and he was acclaimed King of England around the end of October and crowned on December 25, 1066 in Westminster Abbey. The Borough of Southwark(e) (pronounced ) is the area of London immediately south of London Bridge and part of the larger London Borough of Southwark. ... A Roman road in Pompeii The Romans, for military, commercial and political reasons, became adept at constructing roads. ... Stane Street is the modern name given to an important Roman road in England that linked London to the Roman town of Regnum (near modern Chichester). ... The Pilgrims Way is reputedly the route taken by pilgrims to the shrine of Thomas Becket from Winchester in Hampshire to Canterbury in Kent, England. ... Dorking is a market town nestling under the North Downs approximately 25 miles south of London. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, one of the Home Counties. ... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Latin Oxonia) is a county in South East England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire. ... Wigod was the 11th century thane of the English town of Wallingford. ... Stigand (d. ... Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Chiltern can refer to the following places: Chiltern (district) Chiltern Forest Chiltern Hundreds Chiltern Hills Chiltern Railways Chiltern, Victoria in Australia See also: Chilton. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Arms of Berkhamstead Town Council Berkhamsted (since 1937, former spellings include Berkhampstead, or Berkhamstead, and also known colloquially as Berko) is a historic town of some 19,000 people, situated in the west of Hertfordshire, to the north-west of London, UK. It is in the administrative district of Dacorum. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire or Harfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom, officially part of the East of England Government region. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... Westminster Abbeys western facade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Although the south of England submitted quickly to Norman rule, resistance continued, especially in the North, for six more years until 1072 when William moved north, subduing rebellions by the Anglo-Saxons and installing Norman lords along the way. However, particularly in Yorkshire, he made agreements with local Saxon Lords to keep control of their land (under Norman-named Lords who would "hold" the lands only from a distance) in exchange for avoidance of battle and loss of any controlling share. Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ...


Hereward the Wake led an uprising in the fens and sacked Peterborough (1070). Harold's sons attempted an invasion of the south-west peninsula. Risings also occurred in the Welsh Marches and at Stafford. Most seriously William faced separate attempts at invasion by the Danes and the Scots. William's defeat of these led to what became known as The Harrying of the North in which Northumbria was laid waste to deny his enemies its resources. Hereward the Wake was an 11th century leader in England who led resistance to the Norman Conquest, and was consequently labelled an outlaw. ... Peterborough is a city in the east of England. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... In European history, marches are border regions between centres of power. ... Map sources for Stafford at grid reference SJ9223 Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire in England. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ...


The conquest of Wales took place piecemeal and finished only in 1282, during the reign of King Edward I. Edward also subdued Scotland but did not truly conquer it as it retained a separate monarchy until 1603 and remained an independent kingdom until 1707. National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² Ethnicity: 97. ... Events English conquest of Wales begins under Edward I of England Sicilian Vespers - Sicilians rebel against Charles of Anjou and are aided by Peter III of Aragon Births Pope Innocent VI Deaths August 25 - Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford October 13 - Nichiren December 11 - Llywelyn the Last, Prince of Wales... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Control of England

Once England had been conquered the Normans faced a number of challenges in maintaining control. The Anglo-Norman speaking Normans were in very small numbers compared to the native English population. The Anglo-Saxon lords were accustomed to being fully independent from centralized government, contrary to the Normans who had a centralized system, which the Anglo-Saxons resented. Revolts had sprung up almost at once from the time of William's coronation, led either by members of Harold's family or disaffected English nobles. William dealt with these challenges in a number of ways. New Norman lords constructed a variety of forts and castles (such as the motte-and-bailey) in order to provide a stronghold against a popular revolt (or increasingly rare Viking attacks) and to dominate the nearby town and countryside. Any of the remaining Anglo-Saxon lords who refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of William's accession to the throne or who rose in revolt were summarily stripped of titles and lands, which were then re-distributed to Norman favourites of William. If an Anglo-Saxon lord died without issue the Normans would always choose a successor from Normandy. In this way the Normans displaced the native aristocracy and took control of the top ranks of power. The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... The Alcázar of Segovia, Spain A castle (from the Latin castellum, diminutive of castra, a military camp, in turn the plural of castrum or watchpost), is a fort, a camp and the logical development of a fortified enclosure. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ...


Keeping the Norman lords together and loyal as a group was just as important, as any friction could easily give the English-speaking natives a chance to divide and conquer their minority Anglo-French speaking lords. One way William accomplished this was by giving out land in a piece-meal fashion. A Norman lord typically had property spread out all over England and Normandy, and not in a single geographic block. Thus, if the lord tried to break away from the King, he could only defend a small number of his holdings at any one time. This proved a very effective deterrent from rebellion and kept the Norman nobility loyal to the King.


Significance

The changes that took place as a result of Norman conquest were significant for both English and European development. One of the most obvious changes was the introduction of the Latin-based Anglo-Norman language as the language of the ruling classes in England, displacing the German-based Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Norman retained the status of a prestige language for nearly 300 years and has had a significant influence on modern English. It is through this, the first of several major influxes of Latin or Romance languages, that the predominant spoken tongue of England began to lose much of its Germanic and Norse vocabulary, although it retained Germanic sentence structure in many cases. The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Another direct consequence of the invasion was the near total loss of Anglo-Saxon aristocracy, and Anglo-Saxon control over the Church in England. As William subdued rebels, he confiscated their lands and gave them to his Norman supporters. By the time of the Domesday book, only two English landowners of any note survived the purges. By 1096, no church See or Bishopric was held by any native Englishman, but by Normans. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


No other medieval European conquest had such disastrous consequences for the defeated ruling class. William's prestige among his followers gained a tremendous boost, however, for he was able to award them vast tracts of land with little cost to himself. His awards also had a basis in consolidating his own control: with each gift of land and titles, the newly-created Lord would have to build a castle and subdue the natives. Thus was the conquest self-perpetuating.


Governmental systems

Even before the Normans arrived, the Anglo-Saxons had one of the most sophisticated governmental systems in Western Europe for the time. All of England had been divided into administrative units called shires of roughly uniform size and shape and were run by an official known as a "shire reeve" or "sheriff". The shires tended to be somewhat autonomous and lacked co-ordinated control. Anglo-Saxons made heavy use of written documentation which was unusual for kings in Western Europe at the time and made for more efficient governance than word of mouth. For information on the fictional Shire of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, see Shire (Middle-earth) A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain. ... In England, a reeve was an official appointed to supervise lands for a lord. ... Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or American common law, or the person who holds such office. ...


The Anglo-Saxons also established permanent physical locations of government. Most medieval governments were always on the move, holding court wherever the weather and food or other matters were best at the moment. This practice, however, limited the potential size and sophistication of a government body to whatever could be packed on a horse and cart, including the treasury and library. The Anglo-Saxons established a permanent treasury at Winchester, from which a permanent government bureaucracy and document archive had begun to grow. Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ...


This sophisticated medieval form of government was handed over to the Normans and grew even stronger. The Normans centralized the autonomous shire system. The Domesday Book exemplifies the practical codification which enabled Norman assimilation of conquered territories through central control of a census. It was the first kingdom-wide census taken in Europe since the time of the Romans. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of cesarus vaginius (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...


Systems of accounting grew in sophistication. A government accounting office called the exchequer was established by Henry I; from 1150 onward this was located in Westminster. Accountancy (British English) or accounting (American English) is the process of maintaining, auditing, and processing financial information for business purposes. ... The Exchequer was that part of the government responsible for the management and collection of the royal revenues of the King of England. ... Henry I (c. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Westminster is the area located immediately to the west of the ancient City of London, in the centre of the wider conurbation of London. ...


William disliked the Anglo Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury, Stigand and in 1070 maneuvered to get him replaced with the Italian Lanfranc or proceeded to appoint Normans to church positions. Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Stigand (d. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Lanfranc (d. ...


Anglo-Norman and French relations

Anglo-Norman and French political relations became very complicated and somewhat hostile after the Norman Conquest. The Normans still retained control of the holdings in Normandy and were thus still vassals to the King of France. At the same time, they were the equals as King of England. On the one hand they owed fealty to the King of France, and on the other hand they did not, as they were peers. In the 1150s with the creation of the Angevin Empire the Normans controlled half of France and all of England, dwarfing the power of France. Yet the Normans were still technically vassals to France. A crisis came in 1204 when the French king Philip II seized all Norman and Angevin holdings in mainland France except Gascony. This would later lead to the Hundred Years War when Anglo-Norman English kings tried to regain their dynastic holdings in France. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


During William's lifetime, his vast land gains were a source of great alarm by not only the King of France, but the Counts of Anjou and Flanders. Each did his best to diminish Normandy's holdings and power, creating centuries of skirmishes and battles in the region.


English cultural development

One interpretation of the Conquest maintains that England became a cultural and economic backwater for almost 150 years. Few kings of England actually resided for any length of time in England, preferring to rule from cities in Normandy such as Rouen and concentrate on their more lucrative French holdings. Indeed, a mere four months after the Battle of Hastings, William left his brother-in-law in charge of the country while he returned to Normandy. The country remained an unimportant appendage of Norman lands and later the Angevin fiefs of Henry II. Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Location within France Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northern France, and presently the capital of the Upper Normandy région. ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ...


Another interpretation has it that the Norman Duke-Kings neglected their continental territories, where they in theory owed fealty to the Kings of France, in favor of consolidating their power in their new sovereign realm of England. The resources poured into the construction of cathedrals, castles and the administration of the new realm arguably diverted energy and concentration away from the need to defend Normandy, alienating the local nobility and weakening Norman control over the borders of the territory, while at the same time the power of the Kings of France grew. A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Lutheran or Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... The Alcázar of Segovia, Spain A castle (from the Latin castellum, diminutive of castra, a military camp, in turn the plural of castrum or watchpost), is a fort, a camp and the logical development of a fortified enclosure. ...


The eventual loss of control of continental Normandy divided landed families as members chose loyalty over land or vice-versa. Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ...


Legacy

The extent to which the conquerors remained ethnically distinct from the native population of England varied regionally and along class lines, but as early as the twelfth century, the Dialogue on the Exchequer attests to considerable intermarriage between the native English and French immigrants. Over the centuries, particularly after 1348 when the Black Death pandemic carried off a significant number of the English nobility, the two groups merged and became barely distinguishable. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... This article is about outbreaks of disease. ...


For the importance of the concept in mass culture, note the spoof history book 1066 and All That as well as the iconic status of the Bayeux Tapestry. Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... 1066 and All That is a work of tongue-in-cheek fake history by W. C. Sellar and R. J. Yeatman. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is not actually a tapestry (that is, a weaving), but is embroidery, and dates from 1077. ...


Similar conquests include the Norman conquests of Apulia, Sicily, the Principality of Antioch, and Ireland. Apulia (official Italian name: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...


Alan Ayckbourn wrote a series of plays entitled The Norman Conquests. Their subject matter has nothing to do with the Norman conquest of England. Alan Ayckbourn (born April 12, 1939) is a popular and prolific English playwright. ...


Since that time, perhaps the only two serious attempts to attack England from beyond the British Isles were the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Neither actually deployed ground forces but rather battled for control of the sea and air, respectively. The Spanish Armada (Old Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, large and most fortunate fleet; but called by the English, with ironic intention, la Armada Invencible, the Invincible Fleet) was a fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 in a failed attempt to bring an end to... A major campaign of World War II, the Battle of Britain is the name for the attempt by Germanys Luftwaffe to gain air superiority of British airspace and destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


Bibliography

  • Marjorie Chibnall, Debate on the Norman Conquest, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999
  • David Douglas, William the Conqueror: The Norman impact upon England. University of California Press, 1964.
  • Richard Humble, The Fall of Saxon England,Barnes & Noble, 1992, ISBN 0-88029-987-8

External links

  • The Effect of 1066 on the English Language.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Norman Conquest of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2693 words)
The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England.
About 150 years before the Norman Conquest, in the year 911, French Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple had allowed a group of Vikings, under their leader Rollo, to settle in northern France with the idea that they would provide protection along the coast against future Viking invaders.
The Normans quickly adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity; adopting the langue d'oïl of their new home through the introduction of Norse features, transforming it into the Norman language; and intermarrying with the local populations.
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