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Encyclopedia > Norman architecture
The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the "Gothic" style.
The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the "Gothic" style.

The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. They introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, and at the same time monasteries, abbeys, churches and cathedrals, in a style characterised by rounded arches (particularly over windows and doorways) and massive proportions. Image:Durham Cathedral. ... Image:Durham Cathedral. ... Durham Cathedral silhouetted against the sunset Durham Cathedral from nearby The Rose Window in the Chapel of the Nine Altars. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Norman conquests in red. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The keep of Scarborough Castle Rochester Castle featuring a massive turreted keep Early 13th century keep (Rouen, France) The 14th century residential keep at Largoët A keep is a strong central tower which normally forms the heart of a castle. ... Monastery of St. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... St. ... A cathedral is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishops seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ...


These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe, particularly in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences which is also known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Romanesque St. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Norman dynasty is a series of four monarchs, who ruled England from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, until 1154. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ...

Contents

Origin of the term, development into Gothic

The term may have originated with 18th century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque used of Romance languages in a letter of 1818 by Charles-Alexis-Adrien Duhérissier de Gerville was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, by Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont in his Essaie sur l'architecture du moyen âge, particulièrement en Normandie, 1824. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Thomas Rickman (June 8, 1776 - January 4, 1841), English architect, was born on the 8th of June 1776 at Maidenhead, Berkshire, where he assisted his father (a Quaker) in business as a grocer and druggist until 1797. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Charles-Alexis-Adrien Duhérissier de Gerville (Gerville-la-Forêt (Manche) 19 September 1769 — Valognes (Manche) 26 July 1853) was a scholarly French antiquarian, historian and naturalist, from an aristocratic family of Normandy[1]. His earliest concerns were with natural history and botany and his numismatic collection, but he...


As master masons developed the style and experimented with ways of overcoming the geometric difficulties of groin vaulted ceilings, they introduced features such as the pointed arch which were later characterised as being Gothic in style. Architectural historians and scholars consider that a style must be assessed as an integral whole rather than an aggregate of features, and while some include these developments within the Norman or Romanesque styles, others describe them as transitional or "Norman-Gothic Transitional". A few websites [1], [2], use the term "Norman Gothic", but it is unclear whether they refer to the transitional style or to the Norman style as a whole. Stone masons have existed since the dawn of civilization, constructing some of the most long lasting ancient monuments, artifacts and cities. ... Gårdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. ... Königsberg Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Norman architecture in Normandy

Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen
Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen

Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman Barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, and great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950 they were building stone keeps. The Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposed to a wide variety of cultural influences including the Near East, some of which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the Early Christian basilica plan, longitudinal with side aisles and an apse, and a western facade with two towers as at the Church of Saint-Étienne at Caen begun in 1067, which formed a model for the larger English cathedrals beginning some twenty years later. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 2024 KB) Mens abbey, St Etienne church, chevet / Photo from user Urban February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Norman architecture Abbaye-aux-Hommes... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 2024 KB) Mens abbey, St Etienne church, chevet / Photo from user Urban February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Norman architecture Abbaye-aux-Hommes... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late... This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... The keep of Scarborough Castle Rochester Castle featuring a massive turreted keep Early 13th century keep (Rouen, France) The 14th century residential keep at Largoët A keep is a strong central tower which normally forms the heart of a castle. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... A cathedral is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishops seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. ...


Norman architecture in England

Winchester Cathedral, an example of Norman architecture in England
Winchester Cathedral, an example of Norman architecture in England

In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, and Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture. Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy, and in 1042 brought masons to work on Westminster Abbey, the first Romanesque building in England. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights who built "motte" castles as a defence against the Welsh. Following the invasion Normans rapidly constructed motte-and-bailey castles, and in a burst of building activity built churches and abbeys, as well as more elaborate fortifications including Norman stone keeps. Winchester Cathedral from the side, taken by CGS on June 11, 2003. ... Winchester Cathedral from the side, taken by CGS on June 11, 2003. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Durham Cathedral silhouetted against the sunset Durham Cathedral from nearby The Rose Window in the Chapel of the Nine Altars. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... This article is about the country. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... St. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The keep of Scarborough Castle Rochester Castle featuring a massive turreted keep Early 13th century keep (Rouen, France) The 14th century residential keep at Largoët A keep is a strong central tower which normally forms the heart of a castle. ...


The buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries, the masonry with small bands of sculpture, perhaps as blind arcading, and concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways and in the tympanum under an arch. The "Norman arch" is the round arch. Norman mouldings are carved or incised with geometric ornament, such as chevron patterns around arches. The cruciform churches often had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ... 300pxSalisbury Cathedral completed circa 1265 in the Gothic style Holy Trinity Cathedral, Parnell, Auckland. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... A cathedral is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishops seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. ...


After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture. Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, and Norman became increasingly a modest style of provincial building. Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... Königsberg Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... The west front, completed c. ... Norman West front Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ...


Religious architecture

Ancient plan of Oxford Castle. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic monument in central London on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Durham Cathedral silhouetted against the sunset Durham Cathedral from nearby The Rose Window in the Chapel of the Nine Altars. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ... Events Battle of Naklo Battle of Hundsfeld Fulk of Jerusalem becomes count of Anjou Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile Crusaders capture Tripoli Anselm of Laon becomes chancellor of Laon Births July 25 - Afonso, first king of Portugal Deaths Alfonso VI of Castile Anselm of Canterbury, philosopher and... Peterborough Cathedral from the south east, circa 1898 Peterborough Cathedral - west prospect in the seventeenth century Peterborough Cathedral is dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, and is very unusual amongst medieval cathedrals in Great Britain because of its triple front (dominated by the statues of the three... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Kilpeck (Welsh: Llanddewi Cil Peddeg) is a Herefordshire village renowned for its Norman church, with striking stone carvings, particularly the arch above the south door. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Southwell Minster Southwell Minster is a minster and cathedral, in the British town of Southwell in Nottinghamshire, six miles away from Newark. ...

Domestic architecture

Frontage of the Jews House For the building formerly known as Aaron the Jews House, see the Norman House. ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ...

Norman architecture in Scotland

Scotland also came under early Norman influence, with Norman nobles at the court of King Macbeth around 1050. His successor Máel Coluim III overthrew him with English and Norman assistance, and his queen Margaret encouraged the Roman Catholic church. The Benedictine order founded a monastery at Dunfermline. Her fourth son who became King David built St. Margaret's Chapel at the start of the 12th century. Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... City Chambers, Dunfermline Town Centre The Royal Burgh of Dunfermline (in Gaelic, Dùn Phàrlain) is a town in Fife, Scotland. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... St Margarets Chapel, Edinburgh St. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Religious architecture

Dunfermline Abbey and Church - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Dunfermline Abbey is the remains of a great Benedictine abbey founded in 1070 by Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, King of England. ... City Chambers, Dunfermline Town Centre The Royal Burgh of Dunfermline (in Gaelic, Dùn Phàrlain) is a town in Fife, Scotland. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... St Andrews cathedral ruins. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... St Margarets Chapel, Edinburgh St. ... The castle from below (2003) Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which from its position on Castle Rock, dominates views of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... Dalmeny Kirk Dalmeny is a village and parish in Scotland. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall dominates the skyline of Kirkwall, the main town of Orkney, a group of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... Jedburgh Abbey from the River, 1798-99 by Thomas Girtin Jedburgh Abbey is an extremely old but important abbey in a poor state of repair, situated in Jedburgh, in the Borders of Scotland. ... Location within the British Isles Jedburgh (Referred to locally Jedart or Jethart) is a royal burgh in the Scottish Borders, lying on the Jed Water, a tributary of the River Teviot. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... St Athernase Church St Athernase Church, Leuchars, Fife is one of the finest surviving examples of a Romanesque church in Scotland. ... St Athernase Church in Leuchars, Fife, Scotland Leuchars is a small town near the north east coast of Fife in Scotland, sited nearly 2 miles (3 km) to the north of the village of Guardbridge which lies on the north bank of the River Eden where it widens to the... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ...

Norman architecture in Ireland

Greencastle, County Down
Greencastle, County Down
Main article: Romanesque

The Normans settled mostly in an area in the east of Ireland, later known as the Pale, and constructed many Norman buildings including Trim Castle and Dublin Castle. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1533x827, 738 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Norman architecture Greencastle, County Down Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1533x827, 738 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Norman architecture Greencastle, County Down Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Greencastle may refer to: Greencastle, Pennsylvania, USA Greencastle, Missouri, USA Greencastle, Indiana, USA Greencastle in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland Greencastle in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland Greencastle in County Down, Northern Ireland This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share... Romanesque St. ... The Pale refers to at least two geographic areas: The Pale of Settlement in which imperial Russia allowed Jews to live. ... Trim Castle (Dublin Side) Trim Castle, [[Trim] (Baile Atha Troim in Irish)], Ireland has an area of 30,000 m². It is the remains of the largest castle in Europe, which was Norman in origin, built primarily by Hugh de Lacy and his son Walter. ... Dublin Castle. ...


Norman buildings in Sicily

Sicily's Norman period lasted from circa 1070 until about 1200, debatable perhaps until the demise of Frederick II, in 1250, so can approximately be equated with the same period in England. Similar in many ways to the Norman architecture which evolved in England and northern France it also incorporated certain Byzantine influences. These Byzantine motifs were particularly obvious in the interiors of certain churches where the traditional Norman altar tribunes were decorated in gilded mosaics such as that at the cathedral at Monreale. The Palatine Chapel in Palermo built in 1130 is the perhaps the strongest example of this where the interior of the dome (itself a Byzantine feature) is decorated in mosaic depicting Christ Pantocrator accompanied by his angels. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... In art, a motif is a repeated idea, pattern, image, or theme. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Interior of the Hagia Sophia. ... To cover something in a thin layer of gold or a material that looks like gold. ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ...

The Norman palace in Palermo
The Norman palace in Palermo

During Sicily's later Norman era early Gothic influences can de detected such as those in the cathedral at Messina consecrated in 1197. However, here the high Gothic campanile is of a later date, and should not be confused with the early Gothic built during the Norman period, which featured pointed arches and windows rather than the flying buttresses and pinnacles later to manifest themselves in the Gothic era. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 538 KB) Description Palazzo dei Normanni, Palermo Norman wing Source Photographer Bernhard J. Scheuvens aka Bjs Date August 2004 Permission photographed by myself Camera Canon EOS 300V with Canon Zoom Lens EF 28-90mm Scan from the film negative Licensing... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 538 KB) Description Palazzo dei Normanni, Palermo Norman wing Source Photographer Bernhard J. Scheuvens aka Bjs Date August 2004 Permission photographed by myself Camera Canon EOS 300V with Canon Zoom Lens EF 28-90mm Scan from the film negative Licensing... Renaissance façade of the palace. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... A campanile (pronounced []) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, bell), often adjacent to a church or cathedral. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... pinnacle Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk, Ostend, Belgium A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather, pinna) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. ...

For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Renaissance façade of the palace. ... Saracene arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. ... The Zisa of Palermo. ... The dome and part of the apse of the Cathedral of Palermo. ... The Baroque façade with the Romanesque campanile. ... The church of San Cataldo in Palermo with its typical red domes. ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is a part of cathedral, monastic and abbey architecture. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Norman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (231 words)
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