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Encyclopedia > Norman Thomas
Norman Thomas
Norman Thomas

Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a socialist political party in the United States and one of the most influential socialist parties in U.S. history. ...

Contents


Early years

The son of a Presbyterian minister, Thomas was born and raised in Marion, Ohio, and graduated from Marion High School. As a primary school age child, Thomas was a paper carrier for Warren G. Harding's Marion Daily Star. Thomas later attended and graduated from Princeton University in 1905. Marion is a city located in Marion County, Ohio. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... The Marion Daily Star is a newspaper in Marion, Ohio, originally owned and published by Warren G. Harding and Florence Kling Harding. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Ordination

He then attended Union Theological Seminary, and there became a socialist. He was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1911, shunning the Park Avenue churches and ministering instead to an Italian Protestant church in New York's East Harlem. Union Theological Seminary was then a center of the Social Gospel movement and liberal politics, but Princeton had a largely Republican student body and even faculty. At Princeton reunions many alumni shunned Thomas, though he had some support among the faculty. Disambiguation: This page refers to Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, an ecumenical seminary affiliated with Columbia University. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ... Spanish Harlem, also known as East Harlem or El Barrio, is a neighborhood in northeastern part of the borough of Manhattan, one of the largest predominantly Hispanic communities in New York City. ... Disambiguation: This page refers to Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, an ecumenical seminary affiliated with Columbia University. ...


Politics

Thomas opposed the United States' entry into the First World War. He founded The World Tomorrow (magazine) publication in January, 1918, and from 1921-1922 he was associate editor of The Nation. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire French Empire Italy Russian Empire Kingdom of Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nikolay II Nikolay Yudenich Radomir Putnik Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar... The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ...


In 1922 he became codirector of the League for Industrial Democracy. Later, he was one of the founders of the National Civil Liberties Bureau (the precursor of the American Civil Liberties Union) and The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. He was an unsuccessful Socialist candidate for Governor of New York in 1924, and for Mayor of New York in 1925 and 1929. The League for Industrial Democracy (or LID) was founded in 1905 by a group of notable socialists including Jack London and Upton Sinclair. ... The National Civil Liberties Bureau (NCLB) was an American civil rights organization which changed its name to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major national non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.[1] It... Sanity is a legal term denoting that an individual is of sound mind and therefore can bear legal responsibility for his or her actions. ... A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ...


Presidential candidate

Following Eugene Debs' death in 1926, Thomas became the Socialist standard-bearer and was the party's Presidential nominee in every election from 1928 to 1948. As an articulate and engaging spokesman for democratic socialism, Thomas' influence was considerably greater than that of the typical perennial candidate. Although socialism was viewed as an unsavory form of political thought by most middle-class Americans, the well-educated Thomas -- who often wore three-piece suits -- looked like and talked like a president and gained a grudging admiration. May refer to the politcal leader Eugene_V._Debs May also be in reference to a a debutante ball, a formal party undertaken by the leaving members of second-level schools in Ireland, most often in the month of August or September. ... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... A perennial candidate is one who frequently runs for public office with a record of success that is either infrequent or non-existent. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


Thomas frequently spoke on the difference between socialism and Communism, and explaining the differences between the movement he represented and that of revolutionary Marxism. He had an early admiration for the Russian Revolution that subsequently turned into devout anti-Communism. (The revolutionaries thought him no better; Leon Trotsky, on more than one occasion, levelled high-profile criticism at Thomas.) He wrote several books, among them his passionate defense of World War I conscientious objectors, Is Conscience a Crime?, and his statement of the 1960s social democratic consensus, Socialism Re-examined. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German, Jewish, socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Anti-communism is an ideology of opposition to communist organization, government and ideology. ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... A conscientious objector is a person whose beliefs are incompatible with military service - perhaps with any role in the armed forces (in which case he or she is either pacifist or antimilitarist) - or who objects to a particular war. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Causes

Thomas was as outspoken in opposing the Second World War as he was the first, and served on the board of the America First Committee. However, once America was attacked by the Japanese in Pearl Harbor, his stance changed to support for US involvement (see[1]). He and his fellow democratic socialists were also some of the only public figures to virulently oppose the internment of Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor at a time when virtually every public figure and government official approved of it. Thomas was also a pioneer in his campaigning against racial segregation, war, environmental depletion, anti labor laws and practices, and for his efforts to try to open up the United States to Jewish victims of Nazi persecution in the 1930s. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the West Coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Later years

After 1945 Thomas made the non-Communist Left the vanguard of reform liberalism, in collaboration with labor leaders like Walter Reuther. He championed many seemingly unrelated progressive causes, while leaving unstated the essence of his political and economic philosophy. From 1931 until his death, to be a "socialist" in America meant to support those causes which Norman Thomas championed (as per [Hyfler 137]). Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 10, 1970) was an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic party]] in the mid 20th century. ...


The Norman Thomas High School in Manhattan is named after him. High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


References

  • Fleischmann, Harry Norman Thomas: A Biography, New York, Norton & Co., 1964
  • Robert Hyfler; Prophets of the Left: American Socialist Thought in the Twentieth Century Greenwood Press. 1984
  • Bernard K. Johnpoll, Pacifists Progress: Norman Thomas and the Decline of American Socialism (1987).
  • Swanberg, W.A. Norman Thomas: The Last Idealist, New York, Charles Scribner and Sons, 1976
Preceded by:
Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Progressive Party)
Socialist Party of America Presidential candidate
1928 (lost), 1932 (lost), 1936 (lost), 1940 (lost), 1944 (lost), 1948 (lost)
Succeeded by:
Darlington Hoopes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Norman Thomas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (724 words)
The son of a Presbyterian minister, Thomas was born and raised in Marion, Ohio, and graduated from Marion High School.
Thomas frequently spoke on the difference between socialism and Communism, and explaining the differences between the movement he represented and that of revolutionary Marxism.
Thomas was also a pioneer in his campaigning against racial segregation, war, environmental depletion, anti labor laws and practices, and for his efforts to try to open up the United States to Jewish victims of Nazi persecution in the 1930s.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Norman Thomas (2304 words)
Norman appeared before the court on March 28, and was released from custody due to medical conditions with a return date of April 6, 2001.
Norman's period of community supervision was tolled during his release from custody due to medical conditions, the court denied the motion.
Norman was released from custody on March 28, 2001 due to medical conditions and failed to appear as ordered by the court on April 6.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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