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Encyclopedia > Norman Borlaug
Norman Borlaug

Norman Borlaug speaking at the Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology in June 2003
Born March 25, 1914 (1914-03-25) (age 94)
Cresco, Iowa, U.S.
Nationality USA

Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25, 1914) is an American agronomist, humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the Green Revolution.[1] Borlaug was one of five people in history to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal.[2] He is also an awardee of the Padma Vibhushan, India's highest civilian honour to non-citizens of exemplary accomplishment. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Norman Borlaug. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cresco is a city located in Howard County, Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Agricultural science (also called agronomy) is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Borlaug received his Ph.D. in plant pathology and genetics from the University of Minnesota in 1942. He took up an agricultural research position in Mexico, where he developed semi-dwarf high-yield, disease-resistant wheat varieties. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ...


During the mid-20th century, Borlaug led the introduction of these high-yielding varieties combined with modern agricultural production techniques to Mexico, Pakistan, and India. As a result, Mexico became a net exporter of wheat by 1963. Between 1965 and 1970, wheat yields nearly doubled in Pakistan and India, greatly improving the food security in those nations. These collective increases in yield have been labeled the Green Revolution, and Borlaug is often credited with saving over a billion people from starvation.[3] He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 in recognition of his contributions to world peace through increasing food supply. High-yielding varieties (HYVs) are any of a group of genetically enhanced cultivars of crops such as rice, maize and wheat that have an increased growth rate, an increased percentage of usable plant parts or an increased resistance against crop diseases. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations. ...


More recently, he has helped apply these methods of increasing food production to Asia and Africa. Borlaug has continually advocated the use of his methods and biotechnology to decrease world famine. His work has faced environmental and socioeconomic criticisms, including charges that his methods have created dependence on monoculture crops, unsustainable farming practices, heavy indebtedness among subsistence farmers, and high levels of cancer among those who work with agriculture chemicals. He has emphatically rejected many of these as unfounded or untrue. In 1986, he established the World Food Prize to recognize individuals who have improved the quality, quantity or availability of food around the globe. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world. ...

Contents

Early life, education, and family

Borlaug is the great-grandchild of Norwegian immigrants to the United States. Ole Olson Dybevig and Solveig Thomasdotter Rinde, from Leikanger, Norway, emigrated to Dane, Wisconsin, in 1854. Two of their children, Ole Olson Borlaug and Nels Olson Borlaug (Norman's grandfather), were integral in the establishment of the Immanuel Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Congregation in the small Norwegian-American community of Saude, near Cresco, Iowa in 1889.[4][5] The term Norwegians may refer to: People with a Norwegian ancestral or ethnic identity, whether living in Norway, emigrants, or the descendents of emigrants. ... The municipality Leikanger in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, has 2,199 inhabitants as of January 1, 2002. ... Dane is a village in Dane County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Norwegian Americans or (Norwegian norskamerikaner) are an ethnic group in the United States. ... Cresco is a city located in Howard County, Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The eldest of four children—his three younger sisters were Palma Lillian (Behrens; 1916–2004), Charlotte (Culbert; b. 1919) and Helen (1921–1921)—Borlaug was born to Henry Oliver (1889–1971) and Clara (Vaala) Borlaug (1888–1972) on his grandparents' farm in Saude. From age seven to nineteen, he worked on the 106 acre (43 hectare) family farm west of Protivin, Iowa, fishing, hunting, and raising maize, oats, timothy hay, cattle, pigs and chickens. He attended the one-teacher, one-room New Oregon #8 rural school in Howard County up through eighth grade. Today, the school building, built in 1865, is owned by the Norman Borlaug Heritage Foundation as part of "Project Borlaug Legacy".[6] At Cresco High School, Borlaug played on the football, baseball and wrestling teams, on the latter of which his coach, Dave Barthelma, continually encouraged him to "give 105%." This article is about the unit of measurement. ... Protivin is a city located in Chickasaw County, Iowa. ... Binomial name Phleum pratense Timothy-grass (Phleum pratense) is a grass that is commonly grown for cattle feed. ... Williamson School was a one-room school in Blanch, Caswell County, North Carolina One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland and Ireland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Howard County is a county located in the state of Iowa. ...


He attributes his decision to leave the farm and pursue further education to his grandfather, Nels Olson Borlaug (1859 to 1935), who strongly encouraged Borlaug's learning, once saying, "You're wiser to fill your head now if you want to fill your belly later on."[7] Through a Depression-era program known as the National Youth Administration, he was able to enroll at the University of Minnesota in 1933. Initially, Borlaug failed the entrance exam, but was accepted to the school's newly created two-year General College. After two quarters, he transferred to the College of Agriculture's forestry program. While at the University of Minnesota, he was a member of the varsity wrestling team, reaching the Big Ten semifinals, and helped introduce the sport to Minnesota high schools by putting on exhibition matches around the state. "Wrestling taught me some valuable lessons ... I always figured I could hold my own against the best in the world. It made me tough. Many times, I drew on that strength. It's an inappropriate crutch perhaps, but that's the way I'm made".[8] Borlaug was inducted into the National Wrestling Hall of Fame in Stillwater, Oklahoma in 1992. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency in the United States. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... For other uses of the term Big Ten see Big Ten (disambiguation). ... An exhibition game (also known as an exhibition match or simply exhibition, or a demonstration or demo event) is a sporting event in which there is no competitive value of any significant kind to any competitor (such as tournament or season rankings, or prize money) regardless of the outcome of... Main entrance to the museum. ... Downtown Stillwater Stillwater is a city in Payne County, Oklahoma, United States. ...


To finance his studies, Borlaug periodically had to put his education on hold and take a job. One of these jobs, in 1935, was as a leader in the Civilian Conservation Corps, working with the unemployed on US federal projects. Many of the people who worked for him were starving. He later recalled, "I saw how food changed them...All of this left scars on me".[9] From 1935 to 1938, before and after receiving his Bachelor of Science forestry degree in 1937, Borlaug worked for the United States Forestry Service at stations in Massachusetts and Idaho. He spent one summer in the middle fork of Idaho's Salmon River—the most isolated piece of wilderness in the lower 48 states at the time.[9] CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... United States Government redirects here. ... B.S. redirects here. ... The USDA Forest Service, a United States government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, is under the leadership of the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ...


In the last months of his undergraduate education, Borlaug attended a Sigma Xi lecture by Elvin Charles Stakman, a professor and soon-to-be head of the plant pathology group at the University of Minnesota. The event was pivotal for Borlaug's future life. Stakman, in his speech titled "These Shifty Little Enemies that Destroy our Food Crops", discussed the manifestation of the plant disease rust, a parasitic fungus that feeds on phytonutrients, in wheat, oat and barley crops across the US. He had discovered that special plant breeding methods created plants resistant to rust. His research greatly interested Borlaug, and when Borlaug's job at the Forest Service was eliminated due to budget cuts, he asked Stakman if he should go into forest pathology. Stakman advised him to focus on plant pathology instead,[8] and Borlaug subsequently re-enrolled to the University to study plant pathology under Stakman. Borlaug received his Master of Science degree in 1940 and Ph.D. in plant pathology and genetics in 1942. Elvin Charles Stakman (May 17, 1885-January 22, 1979) was a American plant pathologist who was a pioneer of methods of identifying and combatting disease in wheat. ... Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ... Families Pucciniaceae Melampsoraceae Coleosporiaceae Cronartiaceae Phragmidiaceae Pucciniastraceae Rusts are fungi of the order Uredinales. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Borlaug is a member of the Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity. He met his wife, Margaret Gibson, while in college, as he waited tables at a university Dinkytown coffee shop where they both worked. They had two children, Norma Jean "Jeanie" Laube and William Borlaug, five grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. On March 8, 2007, Margaret Borlaug died at the age of 95, following a fall.[10] They had been married for 69 years. Borlaug's current residence is in northern Dallas, although he is only there a few weeks of the year. Alpha Gamma Rho (ΑΓΡ) is a social-professional fraternity in the United States, with over 65 university chapters. ... Dinkytown, USA (also known just as Dinkytown) is an unofficial neighborhood in the city of Phillips City, Minnesota. ... Dallas redirects here. ...


Career

From 1942 to 1944, Borlaug was employed as a microbiologist at DuPont in Wilmington, Delaware. It was planned that he would lead research on industrial and agricultural bacteriocides, fungicides, and preservatives. However, following the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, Borlaug tried to enlist in the military, but was rejected under wartime labor regulations; his lab was converted to do research for the United States armed forces. One of his first projects was to develop glue that could withstand the warm saltwater of the South Pacific. The Imperial Japanese Navy had gained control of the island of Guadalcanal, and patrolled the sky and sea by day. The only way that US forces could supply the troops stranded on the island was by approaching at night by speedboat, and jettisoning boxes of canned food and other supplies into the surf to wash ashore. The problem was that the glue holding these containers together disintegrated in saltwater. Within weeks, Borlaug and his colleagues had developed an adhesive that resisted corrosion, allowing food and supplies to reach the stranded Marines. Other tasks included work with camouflage, canteen disinfectants, DDT on malaria, and insulation for small electronics.[9] A Microbiologist is a biologist that studies the field of microbiology. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), the worlds second largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Pacific redirects here. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... This article is about the island in the Pacific Ocean. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Canteen has several different meanings: Canteen (place), a private cafe, restaurant, or cafeteria at a school, office, or military base. ...


In 1940, the Camacho administration took office in Mexico. The administration's primary goal for Mexican agriculture was augmenting the nation's industrialization and economic growth. US Vice President-Elect Henry Wallace, who was instrumental in persuading the Rockefeller Foundation to work with the Mexican government in agricultural development, saw Camacho's ambitions as beneficial to US economic and military interests.[11] The Rockefeller Foundation contacted E.C. Stakman and two other leading agronomists. They developed a proposal for a new organization, the Office of Special Studies, as part of the Mexican Government, but directed by the Rockefeller Foundation. It was to be staffed with both US and Mexican scientists, focusing on soil development, maize and wheat production, and plant pathology. Term of office: 1 December 1940 – 1 December 1946 Preceded by: Lázaro Cárdenas del Río Succeeded by: Miguel Alemán Valdés Date of birth: 24 April 1897 Place of birth: Teziutlán, Puebla Date of death: 13 October 1955 Place of death: México State Profession... Henry Wallace may refer to: Henry A. Wallace (1888–1965), U.S. Vice President Henry Cantwell Wallace (1866–1924), U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, father of Henry A. Wallace Harry Brookings Wallace, former Chancellor of Washington University in St. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


Stakman chose Dr. J. George "Dutch" Harrar as project leader. Harrar immediately set out to hire Borlaug as head of the newly-established Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program in Mexico; Borlaug declined, choosing to finish his war service at DuPont.[12] In July 1944, after rejecting DuPont's offer to double his salary, and temporarily leaving behind his pregnant wife and 14-month old daughter, he flew to Mexico City to head the new program as a geneticist and plant pathologist.[9] This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ...


In 1964, he was made the director of the International Wheat Improvement Program at El Batán, Texcoco, on the eastern fringes of Mexico City, as part of the newly-established Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research's International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, or CIMMYT), an autonomous international research training institute developed from the Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, with funding jointly undertaken by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and the Mexican government. Texcoco is a municipio (municipality) of México State, located in the Valley of Mexico to the east of the national capital, Mexico City. ... The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was created by the World Bank on May 19, 1971, with the FAO, IFAD and UNDP as co-sponsors. ... The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish-language acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a Mexico-based research institute dedicated to the development of improved varieties of wheat and maize. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ... A charitable foundation is a legal categorization of nonprofit organizations that either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the sole source of funding for their own activities. ... This article describes the government of the United Mexican States. ...


Borlaug officially retired from the position in 1979. But he remains a senior consultant at the CIMMYT and has continued to be involved in plant research at CIMMYT with wheat, triticale, barley, maize, and high-altitude sorghum, in addition to taking up charitable and educational roles. For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation). ... Triticale Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ...


Dr. Borlaug is a professor at Texas A&M University, where he has taught and researched since 1984. He is currently the Distinguished Professor of International Agriculture at the university and the holder of the Eugene Butler Endowed Chair in Agricultural Biotechnology. Texas A&M University redirects here. ...


Wheat research in Mexico

Norman Borlaug and George Harrar, 1943
Norman Borlaug and George Harrar, 1943

The Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, a joint venture by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture, involved research in genetics, plant breeding, plant pathology, entomology, agronomy, soil science, and cereal technology. The goal of the project was to boost wheat production in Mexico, which at the time was importing a large portion of its grain. George Harrar, a plant pathologist, recruited and assembled the wheat research team in late 1944. The four other members were Edward Wellhausen, maize breeder, John Niederhauser, potato breeder, William Colwell, and Norman Borlaug, all from the United States.[13] Borlaug would remain with the project for 16 years. During this time, he bred a series of remarkably successful high-yield, disease-resistant, semi-dwarf wheat. Image File history File links Norman Borlaug and George Harrar, 1943. ... Image File history File links Norman Borlaug and George Harrar, 1943. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... Grain redirects here. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

Wheat is the most produced cereal crop
Wheat is the most produced cereal crop

Borlaug said that his first couple of years in Mexico were difficult. He lacked trained scientists and equipment. Native farmers were hostile toward the wheat program because of serious crop losses from 1939 to 1941 due to stem rust. "It often appeared to me that I had made a dreadful mistake in accepting the position in Mexico," he wrote in the epilogue to his book, Norman Borlaug on World Hunger.[9] He spent the first 10 years breeding wheat cultivars resistant to disease, including rust. In that time, his group made 6,000 individual crossings of wheat.[14] Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Grain redirects here. ... Binomial name Pers. ... Families Pucciniaceae Melampsoraceae Coleosporiaceae Cronartiaceae Phragmidiaceae Pucciniastraceae Rusts are fungi of the order Uredinales. ...


Double wheat season

Initially, his work had been concentrated in the central highlands, in the village of Chapingo near Texcoco, where the problems with rust and poor soil were most prevalent. But he realized that he could speed up breeding by taking advantage of the country's two growing seasons. In the summer he would breed wheat in the central highlands as usual, then immediately take the seeds north to the Yaqui Valley research station near Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. The difference in altitudes and temperatures would allow more crops to be grown each year. Chapingo is a small town located on the outskirts of the city of Texcoco, México State, in central Mexico. ... Texcoco is a municipio (municipality) of México State, located in the Valley of Mexico to the east of the national capital, Mexico City. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Central Plaza and Catedral del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús on Hidalgo Avenue Ciudad Obregón (locally known as Obregón) is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated 525 km south of the states border with the U.S. state... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ...


His boss, George Harrar, was against this expansion. Besides the extra costs of doubling the work, Borlaug's plan went against a then-held principle of agronomy that has since been disproved. It was believed that seeds needed a rest period after harvesting, in order to store energy for germination before being planted. Harrar vetoed his plan, causing Borlaug to resign. Elvin Stakman, who was visiting the project, calmed the situation, talking Borlaug into withdrawing his resignation and Harrar into allowing the double wheat season. As of 1945, wheat would then be bred at locations 700 miles (1000 km) apart, 10 degrees apart in latitude, and 8500 feet (2600 m) apart in altitude. This was called "shuttle breeding".

Locations of Borlaug's research stations, at Yaqui Valley and Chapingo.
Locations of Borlaug's research stations, at Yaqui Valley and Chapingo.

As an unexpected benefit of the double wheat season, the new breeds did not have problems with photoperiodism. Normally, wheat varieties cannot adapt to new environments, due to the changing periods of sunlight. Borlaug later recalled, "As it worked out, in the north, we were planting when the days were getting shorter, at low elevation and high temperature. Then we'd take the seed from the best plants south and plant it at high elevation, when days were getting longer and there was lots of rain. Soon we had varieties that fit the whole range of conditions. That wasn't supposed to happen by the books".[14] This meant that the project wouldn't need to start separate breeding programs for each geographic region of the planet. Image File history File links Locations of Norman Borlaugs research stations in Mexico. ... Image File history File links Locations of Norman Borlaugs research stations in Mexico. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ...


Increasing disease resistance through multiline varieties

Because pureline (genotypically identical) plant varieties often only have one or a few major genes for disease resistance, and plant diseases such as rust are continuously producing new races that can overcome a pureline's resistance, multiline varieties were developed. Multiline varieties are mixtures of several phenotypically-similar purelines which each have different genes for disease resistance. By having similar heights, flowering and maturity dates, seed colors, and agronomic characteristics, they remain compatible with each other, and do not reduce yields when grown together on the field. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the medical term. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


In 1953, Borlaug extended this technique by suggesting that several purelines with different resistance genes should be developed through backcross methods using one recurrent parent.[15] Backcrossing involves crossing a hybrid and subsequent generations with a recurrent parent. As a result, the genotype of the backcrossed progeny becomes increasingly similar to that of the recurrent parent. Borlaug's method would allow the various different disease-resistant genes from several donor parents to be transferred into a single recurrent parent. To make sure each line has different resistant genes, each donor parent is used in a separate backcross program. Between five and ten of these lines may then be mixed depending upon the races of pathogen present in the region. As this process is repeated, some lines will become susceptible to the pathogen. These lines can easily be replaced with new resistant lines. As new sources of resistance become available, new lines are developed. In this way, the loss of crops is kept to a minimum, because only one or a few lines become susceptible to a pathogen within a given season, and all other crops are unaffected by the disease. Because the disease would spread more slowly than if the entire population were susceptible, this also reduces the damage to susceptible lines. There is still the possibility that a new race of pathogen will develop to which all lines are susceptible, however.[16] A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Dwarfing

Dwarfing is an important agronomic quality for wheat; dwarf plants produce thick stems and do not lodge. The cultivars Borlaug worked with had tall, thin stalks. Taller wheat grasses better compete for sunlight, but tend to collapse under the weight of the extra grain—a trait called lodging—and from the rapid growth spurts induced by nitrogen fertilizer Borlaug used in the poor soil. To prevent this, he bred wheat to favor shorter, stronger stalks that could better support larger seed heads. In 1953, he acquired a Japanese dwarf variety of wheat called Norin 10 developed by Orville Vogel, that had been crossed with a high-yielding American cultivar called Brevor 14.[17] Norin 10/Brevor is semi-dwarf (one-half to two-thirds the height of standard varieties) and produces more stalks and thus more heads of grain per plant. Also, larger amounts of assimilate were partitioned into the actual grains, further increasing the yield. Borlaug crossbred the semi-dwarf Norin 10/Brevor cultivar with his disease-resistant cultivars to produce wheat varieties that were adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates.[18] A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Wheat Norin 10 is a semi-dwarf variety of wheat, with very large ears, which grew in the experimental station of Norin, Japan. ... Orville Vogel is best known for his involvement in the Norin 10 wheat research. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Borlaug's new semi-dwarf, disease-resistant varieties, called Pitic 62 and Penjamo 62, changed the potential yield of spring wheat dramatically. By 1963, 95% of Mexico's wheat crops used the semi-dwarf varieties developed by Borlaug. That year, the harvest was six times larger than in 1944, the year Borlaug arrived in Mexico. Mexico had become fully self-sufficient in wheat production, and a net exporter of wheat.[19] Four other high yield varieties were also released, in 1964: Lerma Rojo 64, Siete Cerros, Sonora 64, and Super X.


Expansion to South Asia: The Green Revolution

Main articles: Green Revolution and Green Revolution in India
Wheat yields in Mexico, India, and Pakistan, 1950 to 2004
Wheat yields in Mexico, India, and Pakistan, 1950 to 2004

In 1961 to 1962, Borlaug's dwarf spring wheat strains were sent for multilocation testing in the International Wheat Rust Nursery, organized by the US Department of Agriculture. In March 1962, a few of these strains were grown in the fields of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute in Pusa, New Delhi, India. In May 1962, M. S. Swaminathan, a member of IARI's wheat program, requested of Dr. B.P. Pal, Director of IARI, to arrange for the visit of Borlaug to India and to obtain a wide range of dwarf wheat seed possessing the Norin 10 dwarfing genes. The letter was forwarded to the Indian Ministry of Agriculture, which arranged with the Rockefeller Foundation for Borlaug's visit. In March 1963, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican government sent Borlaug to India to continue his work. He supplied 100 kg (220 lb) of seed from each of the four most promising strains and 630 promising selections in advanced generations to the IARI in October 1963, and test plots were subsequently planted at Delhi, Ludhiana, Pant Nagar, Kanpur, Pune and Indore. The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after 1965 and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India. ... Image File history File links Source data: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source data: http://www. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) is the leading institution for research and advanced education in agricultural science in India. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (Tamil: ) is an Indian agriculture scientist, born August 7, 1925, in Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, The second of four sons of a surgeon. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the district of the same name, see Ludhiana District. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ghatkopar. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ...


During the mid-1960s, the Indian subcontinent was at war, and experiencing widespread famine and starvation, even though the US was making emergency shipments of millions of tons of grain, including over one fifth of its total wheat, to the region.[13] The Indian and Pakistani bureaucracies and the region's cultural opposition to new agricultural techniques initially prevented Borlaug from fulfilling his desire to immediately plant the new wheat strains there. By the summer of 1965, the famine became so acute that the governments stepped in and allowed his projects to go forward.[9] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


In the late 1960s, most experts said that global famines in which billions would die would soon occur. Biologist Paul R. Ehrlich wrote in his 1968 bestseller The Population Bomb, "The battle to feed all of humanity is over... In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now." Ehrlich also said, "I have yet to meet anyone familiar with the situation who thinks India will be self-sufficient in food by 1971," and "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980." <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ...


In 1965, after extensive testing, Borlaug's team began its effort by importing about 450 tons of Lerma Rojo and Sonora 64 semi-dwarf seed varieties: 250 tons went to Pakistan and 200 to India. They encountered many obstacles. Their first shipment of wheat was held up in Mexican customs and so could not be shipped from the port at Guaymas in time for proper planting. Instead, it was sent via a 30-truck convoy from Mexico to the US port in Los Angeles (LA), encountering delays at the US-Mexico border. Once the convoy entered the US, it had to take a detour, as the US National Guard had closed the freeway due to Watts riots in LA. When the seeds reached LA, a Mexican bank refused to honor Pakistan treasury's payment of US$100,000 because the check contained three misspelled words. Still, the seed was loaded onto a freighter destined for Bombay, India, and Karachi, Pakistan. Twelve hours into the freighter's voyage, war broke out between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. Borlaug received a telegraph from the Pakistani minister of agriculture, Malik Khuda Bakhsh Bucha: "I'm sorry to hear you are having trouble with my check, but I've got troubles, too. Bombs are falling on my front lawn. Be patient, the money is in the bank..."[9] Guaymas is a port city in Sonora, Mexico. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ... The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


These delays prevented Borlaug's group from conducting the germination tests needed to determine seed quality and proper seeding levels. They started planting immediately, and often worked in sight of artillery flashes. A week later, Borlaug discovered that his seeds were germinating at less than half the normal rate. It later turned out that the seeds had been damaged in a Mexican warehouse by over-fumigation with a pesticide. He immediately ordered all locations to double their seeding rates. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


The initial yields of Borlaug's crops were higher than any ever harvested in South Asia. The countries subsequently committed to importing large quantities of both the Lerma Rojo 64 and Sonora 64 varieties. In 1966, India imported 18,000 tons —the largest purchase and import of any seed in the world at that time. In 1967, Pakistan imported 42,000 tons, and Turkey 21,000 tons. Pakistan's import, planted on 1.5 million acres (6,100 km²), produced enough wheat to seed the entire nation's wheatland the following year.[13] By 1968, when Ehrlich's book was released, William Gaud of the United States Agency for International Development was calling Borlaug's work a "Green Revolution". High yields led to a shortage of various utilities: labor to harvest the crops, bullock carts to haul it to the threshing floor, jute bags, trucks, rail cars, and grain storage facilities. Some local governments were forced to close school buildings temporarily to use them for grain storage.[9] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ...

Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004
Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004

In Pakistan, wheat yields nearly doubled, from 4.6 million tons in 1965 to 7.3 million tons in 1970; Pakistan was self-sufficient in wheat production by 1968. Yields were over 21 million tons by 2000. In India, yields increased from 12.3 million tons in 1965 to 20.1 million tons in 1970. By 1974, India was self-sufficient in the production of all cereals. By 2000, India was harvesting a record 76.4 million tons (2.81 billion bushels) of wheat. Since the 1960s, food production in both nations has increased faster than the rate of population growth. Paul Waggoner, of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, calculates that India's use of high-yield farming has prevented 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of virgin land from being converted into farmland—an area about the size of California, or 13.6% of the total area of India.[20] The use of these wheat varieties has also had a substantial effect on production in six Latin American countries, six countries in the Near and Middle East, and several others in Africa. Image File history File links Source data: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source data: http://www. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... A table of weights from the secretaries of the different states, showing the no. ... Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station is a site significant for its . ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Borlaug's work with wheat led to the development of high-yield semi-dwarf indica and japonica rice cultivars at the International Rice Research Institute, started by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, and at China's Hunan Rice Research Institute. Borlaug's colleagues at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research also developed and introduced a high-yield variety of rice throughout most of Asia. Land devoted to the semi-dwarf wheat and rice varieties in Asia expanded from 200 acres (0.8 km²) in 1965 to over 40 million acres (160,000 km²) in 1970. In 1970, this land accounted for over 10% of the more productive cereal land in Asia.[13] For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ... The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was created by the World Bank on May 19, 1971, with the FAO, IFAD and UNDP as co-sponsors. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Nobel Peace Prize

For his contributions to the world food supply, Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. Norwegian officials notified his wife in Mexico City at 4:00AM, but Borlaug had already left for the test fields in the Toluca valley, about 40 miles (65 km) west of Mexico City. A chauffeur took her to the fields to inform her husband. According to his daughter, Jeanie Laube, "My mom said, 'You won the Nobel Peace Prize,' and he said, 'No, I haven't',... It took some convincing... He thought the whole thing was a hoax".[9] He was awarded the prize on December 10. In his Nobel Lecture the following day, he speculated on his award: "When the Nobel Peace Prize Committee designated me the recipient of the 1970 award for my contribution to the 'green revolution', they were in effect, I believe, selecting an individual to symbolize the vital role of agriculture and food production in a world that is hungry, both for bread and for peace".[21] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Borlaug hypothesis

Borlaug has continually advocated increasing crop yields as a means to curb deforestation. The large role he has played in both increasing crop yields and promoting this view has led to this methodology being called by agricultural economists the "Borlaug hypothesis", namely that increasing the productivity of agriculture on the best farmland can help control deforestation by reducing the demand for new farmland. According to this view, assuming that global food demand is on the rise, restricting crop usage to traditional low-yield methods such as organic farming would also require at least one of the following: the world population to decrease, either voluntarily or as a result of mass starvations; or the conversion of forest land into crop land. It is thus argued that high-yield techniques are ultimately saving ecosystems from destruction. On a global scale, this view holds strictly true ceteris paribus, if all land either consists of forests or is used for agriculture. But other land uses exist, such as urban areas, pasture, or fallow, so further research is necessary to ascertain what land has been converted for what purposes, in order to determine how true this view remains. Increased profits from high-yield production may also induce cropland expansion in any case, although as world food needs decrease, this expansion may decrease as well.[22] Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Ceteris paribus is a Latin phrase, literally translated as with other things [being] the same, and usually rendered in English as all other things being equal. ...


Criticisms and his view of critics

As Borlaug's name is nearly synonymous with the Green Revolution, over the decades environmentalists, nutritionists, progressives, and economists have mounted many criticisms of the Green Revolution. Throughout his years of research, Borlaug's programs often faced opposition by people who consider genetic crossbreeding to be unnatural or to have negative effects.[23] Borlaug's work has been criticized for bringing large-scale monoculture, input-intensive farming techniques to countries that had previously relied on subsistence farming[24]. These farming techniques reap large profits for US agribusiness and agrichemical corporations such as Monsanto and have been criticized for widening social inequality in the countries owing to uneven food distribution while forcing a capitalist agenda of US corporations onto countries that had undergone land reform.[25] There are also concerns about the long-term sustainability of farming practices encouraged by the Green Revolution in both the developed and developing world.[26] The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... In agriculture, agrichemical (or agrochemical) is a generic term for the various synthetic chemical products manufactured and sold for use in growing crops. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... -1...


Other concerns of his critics and critics of biotechnology in general include: that the construction of roads in populated third-world areas could lead to the destruction of wilderness; the crossing of genetic barriers; the inability of crops to fulfill all nutritional requirements; the decreased biodiversity from planting a small number of varieties; the environmental and economic effects of inorganic fertilizer and pesticides; the amount of herbicide sprayed on fields of herbicide-resistant crops.[27] Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...


Borlaug has dismissed most claims of critics, but does take certain concerns seriously. He states that his work has been "a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia".[28] Of environmental lobbyists he has stated, "some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many of them are elitists. They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels. If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".[29] Occident redirects here. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite — a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below) — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ...


Current roles

Following his retirement, Borlaug has continued to participate actively in teaching, research and activism. He spends much of the year based at CIMMYT in Mexico, conducting research, and four months of the year serving at Texas A&M University, where he has been a distinguished professor of international agriculture since 1984. In 1999, the university's Board of Regents named its US$16 million Center for Southern Crop Improvement in honor of Borlaug. He works in the building's Heep Center, and teaches one semester each year.[9] Texas A&M University redirects here. ...


Production in Africa

In the early 1980s, environmental groups that were opposed to Borlaug's methods campaigned against his planned expansion of efforts into Africa. They prompted the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations and the World Bank to stop funding most of his African agriculture projects. Western European governments were persuaded to stop supplying fertilizer to Africa. According to David Seckler, former Director General of the International Water Management Institute, "the environmental community in the 1980s went crazy pressuring the donor countries and the big foundations not to support ideas like inorganic fertilizers for Africa."[20] The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The International Water Management Institute is located in Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, and is a Future Harvet Centre of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. ...


In 1984, during the Ethiopian famine, Ryoichi Sasakawa, the chairman of the Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation (now the Nippon Foundation), contacted the semi-retired Borlaug, wondering why the methods used in Asia were not extended to Africa, and hoping Borlaug could help. He managed to convince Borlaug to help with this new, huge effort,[7] and subsequently founded the Sasakawa Africa Association (SAA) to coordinate the project. Ryōichi Sasakawa (笹川良一 Sasakawa Ryōichi) (May 18, 1899 – July 14, 1995) was a Japanese businessman, fascist, organized crime figure, renowned shipbuilder, philanthropist and goodwill ambassador. ... Nippon Foundation headquarters in Akasaka, Tokyo The Nippon Foundation ) is a private charity organization with headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. ...

Nigerian exchange students meet Norman Borlaug (third from right) at the World Food seminar, 2003
Nigerian exchange students meet Norman Borlaug (third from right) at the World Food seminar, 2003

The SAA is a research and extension organization that aims to increase food production in African countries that are struggling with food shortages. "I assumed we'd do a few years of research first," Borlaug later recalled, "but after I saw the terrible circumstances there, I said, 'Let's just start growing'."[20] Soon, Borlaug and the SAA had projects in seven countries. Yields of maize and sorghum in developed African countries doubled between 1983 and 1985.[30] Yields of wheat, cassava, and cowpeas also increased in these countries. At present, program activities are under way in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Image File history File links Nigerian exchange students meet Nobel Prize winner Dr. Norman Borlaug (third from right) at the World Food seminar, 2003 The United States Diplomatic Mission to Nigeria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Nigerian exchange students meet Nobel Prize winner Dr. Norman Borlaug (third from right) at the World Food seminar, 2003 The United States Diplomatic Mission to Nigeria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... For the Gibraltar company, see Cassava Enterprises. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ...


Since 1986, Borlaug has been the President of the SAA. That year, Jimmy Carter initiated Sasakawa-Global 2000 (SG 2000), a joint venture between the SAA and the Carter Center's Global 2000 program. The program focuses on food, population and agricultural policy. Since then, over 1 million African farm families have been trained in the SAA's new farming techniques. Those elements that allowed Borlaug's projects to succeed in India and Pakistan, such as well-organized economies and transportation and irrigation systems, are severely lacking throughout Africa, posing additional obstacles to increasing yields. Because of this, Borlaug's initial projects were restricted to developed regions of the continent. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... GLOBAL 2000 On May 23, 1977, President Jimmy Carter asked the Council on Environmental Quality and the U.S. State Department to prepare a one-year study of population and environmental issues facing the world through the year 2000 to serve as a guide for long-term decision making. ...


Despite these setbacks, Borlaug has found encouragement. Visiting Ethiopia in 1994, Jimmy Carter won Prime Minister Meles Zenawi's support for a campaign seeking to aid farmers, using the fertilizer diammonium phosphate and Borlaug's methods. The following season, Ethiopia recorded the largest harvests of major crops in history, with a 32% increase in production, and a 15% increase in average yield over the previous season. For Borlaug, the rapid increase in yields suggests that there is still hope for higher food production throughout sub-Saharan Africa.[20] Meles Zenawi Asres (Geez መለስ ዜናዊ meles zēnāwī, b. ... Diammonium phosphate (DAP) is one of a series of water-soluble salts which can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. ...


World Food Prize

The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world. The prize was created in 1986 by Norman Borlaug, as a way to recognize personal accomplishments, and as a means of education by using the Prize to establish role models for others. The first prize was given to Borlaug's former colleague, M. S. Swaminathan, in 1987, for his work in India. The next year, Swaminathan used the US$250,000 prize to start the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation for research on sustainable development topics. The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world. ... Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (Tamil: ) is an Indian agriculture scientist, born August 7, 1925, in Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, The second of four sons of a surgeon. ... - Mahatma Gandhiji The M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) is anon-profit NGO trust based in Chennai, India. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ...


Online education

At the DuPont Agriculture & Nutrition Media Day held in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 25, 2000, Borlaug announced the launch of Norman Borlaug University, an Internet-based learning company for the agriculture and food industry personnel. The University was unable to expand the necessary content or customer base, and since late 2001 has been defunct. “Des Moines” redirects here. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The future of global farming and food supply

The limited potential for land expansion for cultivation—only 17% of cultivable land produces 90% of the world's food crops[31]—worries Borlaug, who, in March 2005, stated that, "we will have to double the world food supply by 2050." With 85% of future growth in food production having to come from lands already in use, he recommends a multidisciplinary research focus to further increase yields, mainly through increased crop immunity to large-scale diseases, such as the rust fungus, which affects all cereals but rice. His dream is to "transfer rice immunity to cereals such as wheat, maize, sorghum and barley, and transfer bread-wheat proteins (gliadin and glutenin) to other cereals, especially rice and maize".[31] Gliadin is a glycoprotein, present in wheat and some other cereals, best known for its role, along with glutenin, in the formation of gluten. ... Glutenin (or glutenine) is a protein best known for its role, along with in gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter and intra molecule links. ...


According to Borlaug, "Africa, the former Soviet republics, and the cerrado are the last frontiers. After they are in use, the world will have no additional sizable blocks of arable land left to put into production, unless you are willing to level whole forests, which you should not do. So, future food-production increases will have to come from higher yields. And though I have no doubt yields will keep going up, whether they can go up enough to feed the population monster is another matter. Unless progress with agricultural yields remains very strong, the next century will experience sheer human misery that, on a numerical scale, will exceed the worst of everything that has come before".[20] The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ...


Besides increasing the worldwide food supply, Borlaug has repeatedly stated that taking steps to decrease the rate of population growth will also be necessary to prevent food shortages. In his Nobel Lecture of 1970, Borlaug stated, "Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the 'Population Monster'...If it continues to increase at the estimated present rate of two percent a year, the world population will reach 6.5 billion by the year 2000. Currently, with each second, or tick of the clock, about 2.2 additional people are added to the world population. The rhythm of increase will accelerate to 2.7, 3.3, and 4.0 for each tick of the clock by 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively, unless man becomes more realistic and preoccupied about this impending doom. The tick-tock of the clock will continually grow louder and more menacing each decade. Where will it all end?"[21] Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ...


Honors and recognition

In 1968, Borlaug received what he considered an especially satisfying tribute when the people of Ciudad Obregón, where some of his earliest experiments were undertaken, named a street after him. Also in that year, he became a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Central Plaza and Catedral del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús on Hidalgo Avenue Ciudad Obregón (locally known as Obregón) is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and is situated 525 km south of the states border with the U.S. state... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


In 1970, he was given an honorary doctorate by the Agricultural University of Norway.[32] An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In 1984, his name was placed in the National Agricultural Hall of Fame at the national center in Bonner Springs, Kansas. Also that year, he was recognized for sustained service to humanity through outstanding contributions in plant breeding from the Governors Conference on Agriculture Innovations in Little Rock, Arkansas. Also in 1984, he received the Henry G. Bennet Distinguished Service Award at commencement ceremonies at Oklahoma State University. He recently received the Charles A. Black Award for his contributions to public policy and the public understanding of science. Bonner Springs is a city located in Wyandotte and Johnson counties in Kansas and is part of the Unified Government which contains Kansas City, Kansas, Bonner Springs, Kansas and Edwardsville, Kansas. ... Little Rock redirects here. ... Oklahoma State University Logo The Oklahoma State University System comprises of five educational instututes across Oklahoma. ... The Charles A. Black Award for exemplary contributions to public understanding of food and agricultural science is an annual award given to a scientist or professional working in the sciences who has made an outstanding achievement to the advancement of science in the public policy arena. The award is presented... Public awareness of science (PAWS) , also public understanding of science is a term relating to the attitudes, behaviors, opinions and activities that comprise the relations between the general public or lay society as a whole to scientific knowledge and organization. ...


In addition to the Nobel Prize, Borlaug has also received the 1977 U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom, the 2002 Public Welfare Medal from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the 2002 Rotary International Award for World Understanding and Peace, and the 2004 National Medal of Science. As of January 2004, Borlaug had received 49 honorary degrees from as many universities, in 18 countries, the most recent from Dartmouth College on June 12, 2005 [1], and was a foreign or honorary member of 22 international Academies of Sciences.[33] In Iowa and Minnesota, "World Food Day", October 16, is referred to as "Norman Borlaug World Food Prize Day". Throughout the United States, it is referred to as "World Food Prize Day". The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the highest civilian award in the United States. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Government of India conferred the Padma Vibhushan, its second highest civilian award on him in 2006. Dr. Borlaug also received the National Medal of Science the United States' highest scientific honor, from U.S. President George W. Bush on February 13, 2006. He was awarded the Danforth Award for Plant Science by the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri in recognition of his life-long commitment to increasing global agricultural production through plant science. Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Improving the Human Condition through Plant Science Founded in 1998, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center is a not-for-profit research institute located in St. ...


Several research institutions and buildings have been named in his honor, including: the Norman E. Borlaug Center for Farmer Training and Education, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, in 1983; Borlaug Hall, on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota in 1985; Borlaug Building at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) headquarters in 1986; the Norman Borlaug Institute for Plant Science Research at De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom in 1997; and the Norman E. Borlaug Center for Southern Crop Improvement, at Texas A&M University in 1999. In 2006, the Texas A&M University System created the Norman Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture to be a premier institution for agricultural development and to continue the legacy of Dr. Borlaug. Coordinates: , Country Department Province Andrés Ibáñez Founded February 26, 1561 Government  - Mayor Percy Fernández Area  - City 325. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... De Montfort University (DMU) is a British university situated in Leicester, England. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ...


The stained-glass "World Peace Window" at St. Mark's Cathedral in Minneapolis, Minnesota, depicts "peace makers" of the 20th century, including Norman Borlaug.[34] Borlaug was also prominently mentioned in an episode ("In this White House") of the The West Wing television show. The president of a fictional African country describes the kind of "miracle" needed to save his country from the ravages of AIDS by referencing an American scientist who was able to save the world from hunger through the development of a new type of wheat. The U.S. president replies by providing Borlaug's name. A large Perpendicular style Gothic window of eight lights in Canterbury Cathedral, c. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... In This White House is the 26th episode of The West Wing. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Borlaug was also featured in an episode of Penn & Teller: Bullshit!, where he was referred to as the "Greatest Human Being That Ever Lived". In that episode, Penn & Teller play a card game where each card depicts a great person in history. Each player picks a few cards at random, and bets on whether they think their card shows a greater person than the other players' cards based on a characterization such as humanitarianism or scientific achievement. Penn gets Norman Borlaug, and proceeds to bet all his chips, his house, his rings, his watch, and essentially everything he's ever owned. He wins because, as he says, "Norman is the greatest human being, and you've probably never heard of him." In the episode—the topic of which was genetically altered food—he is credited with saving the lives of over a billion people. Penn & Teller at the 1988 Emmy Awards Penn & Teller are Las Vegas headliners whose act is an amalgam of illusion and comedy. ...

President George W. Bush along with House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi congratulate Borlaug during the Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony on July 17, 2007
President George W. Bush along with House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi congratulate Borlaug during the Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony on July 17, 2007

In August 2006, Dr. Leon Hesser published The Man Who Fed the World: Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug and His Battle to End World Hunger, an account of Borlaug's life and work. On August 4, the book received the 2006 Print of Peace award, as part of International Read For Peace Week. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Steny Hamilton Hoyer (born June 14, 1939) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the Marylands 5th congressional district since 1981. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 27, 2006, the United States Senate by unanimous consent passed the Congressional Tribute to Dr. Norman E. Borlaug Act of 2006. The act authorizes that Borlaug be awarded America's highest civilian award, the Congressional Gold Medal. On December 6, 2006, the House of Representatives passed the measure by voice vote. President George Bush signed the bill into law on December 14, 2006, and it became Public Law Number 109–395. According to the act, "Dr. Borlaug has saved more lives than any other person who has ever lived, and likely has saved more lives in the Islamic world than any other human being in history." The act authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to strike and sell duplicates of the medal in bronze. He was presented with the medal on July 17, 2007.[35] is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


See also

The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...

Books and lectures

Dr. Borlaug with USDA Agriculture Secretary Ann M. Veneman near the birthday cake prepared for his 90th birthday
Dr. Borlaug with USDA Agriculture Secretary Ann M. Veneman near the birthday cake prepared for his 90th birthday
This list is incomplete.
  • Wheat in the Third World. 1982. Authors: Haldore Hanson, Norman E. Borlaug, and R. Glenn Anderson. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-86531-357-1
  • Land use, food, energy and recreation. 1983. Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. ISBN 0-940222-07-8
  • Feeding a human population that increasingly crowds a fragile planet. 1994. Mexico City. ISBN 968-6201-34-3
  • Norman Borlaug on World Hunger. 1997. Edited by Anwar Dil. San Diego/Islamabad/Lahore: Bookservice International. 499 pages. ISBN 0-9640492-3-6
  • The Green Revolution Revisited and the Road Ahead. 2000. Anniversary Nobel Lecture, Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway. 8 September 2000.
  • "Ending World Hunger. The Promise of Biotechnology and the Threat of Antiscience Zealotry". 2000. Plant Physiology, October 2000, Vol. 124, pp. 487–490. (duplicate)
  • Feeding a World of 10 Billion People: The Tva/Ifdc Legacy. 2003. ISBN 0-88090-144-6
  • Prospects for world agriculture in the twenty-first century. 2004. Norman E. Borlaug, Christopher R. Dowswell. Published in: Sustainable agriculture and the international rice-wheat system. ISBN 0-8247-5491-3
  • Foreword to The Frankenfood Myth: How Protest and Politics Threaten the Biotech Revolution. 2004. Henry I. Miller, Gregory Conko. ISBN 0-275-97879-6
  • Norman E. Borlaug (2007) Sixty-two years of fighting hunger: personal recollections. Euphytica 157:287–297 ([2])

Image File history File links Norman Borlaug at 90, March 29, 2004. ... Image File history File links Norman Borlaug at 90, March 29, 2004. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... An agricultural scientist records corn growth The Frankenfood Myth: How Protest and Politics Threaten the Biotech Revolution argues against over-regulation of genetically modified food. ...

Further reading

  • Bickel, Lennard (1974). Facing starvation; Norman Borlaug and the fight against hunger. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Press; distributed by Dutton, New York. ISBN 0-88349-015-3. 
  • Hesser, Leon (2006). The Man Who Fed the World: Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug and His Battle to End World Hunger. Durban House. ISBN 1-930754-90-6. 

References

  1. ^ "The father of the 'Green Revolution'". Did You Know?. University of Minnesota. URL accessed 2006-09-24.
  2. ^ "Food Researcher Awarded Congressional Gold Medal". US State Department’s Bureau of International Information Programs. URL accessed 2008-02-17.
  3. ^ The phrase "over a billion lives saved" is often cited by others in reference to Norman Borlaug's work (e.g. here). According to Jan Douglas here, Executive Assistant to the World Prize Foundation, the source of this number is Gregg Easterbrook's 1997 article "Forgotten Benefactor of Humanity", the article states that the "form of agriculture that Borlaug preaches may have prevented a billion deaths."
  4. ^ RootsWeb. Borlaug genealogy
  5. ^ "History of the Norwegian Community, Chickasaw, Iowa". Telelaget of America.
  6. ^ State Historical Society of Iowa. 2002. FY03 HRDP/REAP Grant Application Approval
  7. ^ a b Martha McFarland, M. 2003. Sowing Seeds of Peace.
  8. ^ a b University of Minnesota. 2005. Borlaug and the University of Minnesota
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Green Giant". Stuertz, Mark. Dallas Observer. 5 December 2002.
  10. ^ "Norman Borlaug's wife dies at age 95 in Dallas". Houston Chronicle. 8 March 2007. URL accessed 2007-03-16.
  11. ^ Wright, Angus 2005. The Death of Ramón González]
  12. ^ Davidson, M.G. 1997. An Abundant Harvest: Interview with Norman Borlaug, Recipient, Nobel Peace Prize, 1970, Common Ground, August 12
  13. ^ a b c d Brown, L. R. 1970. Nobel Peace Prize: developer of high-yield wheat receives award (Norman Ernest Borlaug). Science, 30 October 1970;170(957):518-9.
  14. ^ a b University of Minnesota. 2005. Borlaug's Work in Mexico
  15. ^ Borlaug, N.E. 1953. New approach to the breeding of wheat varieties resistant to Puccinia graminis tritici. Phytopathology, 43:467
  16. ^ "AGB 301: Principles and Methods of Plant Breeding". Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
  17. ^ Retiz, L.P. 1970. New wheats and social progress. Science,169:952–955
  18. ^ Hedden, P. 2003. The genes of the Green Revolution. Trends in Genetics, 19:5–9 PMID 12493241
  19. ^ University of Minnesota. 2005. The Beginning of the Green Revolution
  20. ^ a b c d e Easterbrook, G. 1997. Forgotten Benefactor of Humanity. The Atlantic Monthly.
  21. ^ a b Borlaug, N. E. 1972. Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1970. From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951–1970, Frederick W. Haberman Ed., Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam
  22. ^ Angelsen, A., and D. Kaimowitz. 2001. "The Role of Agricultural Technologies in Tropical Deforestation". Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation. CABI Publishing, New York
  23. ^ Borlaug, Norman & Garrett, Peter (December 18, 1999), "Between the Tynes / Chronicles of the Future - Program 6 Earth, wind & fire", The Weekend Australian 
  24. ^ Leonard, Andrew (July 16, 2007), "Show organic farmers the money", Salon.com, <http://www.salon.com/tech/htww/2007/07/16/organic_farming/index.html> 
  25. ^ Cockburn, Alexander (June 29, 2003), "Corporate Interests Keep World's Poor Hungry", Sunday Business Post, <http://archives.tcm.ie/businesspost/2003/06/29/story909701237.asp> 
  26. ^ Criticisms of the Green Revolution
  27. ^ Billions served. Interview with Reason Magazine. April 2000
  28. ^ Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. 2002.Four Iowans Who Fed The World, Norman Borlaug: Geneticist at the Internet Archive Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Singh, S. Norman Borlaug: A Billion Lives Saved
  30. ^ FAO Statistics Database
  31. ^ a b The Murugappa Group. 2005. Food for Thought
  32. ^ Nobel Peace Prize 1970—Presentation Speech.
  33. ^ Dr. Norman E. Borlaug's Curriculum Vitae
  34. ^ Bjordal, J. 2004. News Around the Diocese
  35. ^ Norman Borlaug Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, America's Highest Civilian Honor July 17, 2007

Gregg Edmund Easterbrook is an American writer who is a senior editor of The New Republic. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... Peter Robert Garrett AM MP, BA (ANU) LLB (UNSW), (born 16 April 1953), is an Australian musician and politician. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Norman Borlaug

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Videos and speeches

  • Borlaug's York Lecture at American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. Challenges for the Crop Scientist in the 21st Century. 2007. Windows Media and Quicktime.
  • 30th Anniversary Nobel Lecture. The Green Revolution Revisited and the Road Ahead. 2000. Transcript. Adobe Acrobat PDF.
  • Legacy interviews. Dr. Borlaug, Advisory Board member of Legacy, five hours of audio-visual interviews featuring his life story.
  • Borlaug on Need for Increasing Food Supply. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02.. 2000. Transcript.
  • Dedication lecture, Delaware Biotechnology Institute. Feeding the World in the 21st century—The Role of New Science and Technology. 2001 April 26. RealMedia. 00:47:42.
  • Lecture, Nobel Centennial Symposia. 2001 December 6. RealMedia. 00:11:34.
  • Lecture, The Famous Purdue Ag Fish Fry. 2003 February 8. MS Media. 02:21:02.
  • The Story of Norman Borlaug: 60 Years Fighting Hunger. 2003 July 10. RealMedia. 01:29:02.
  • Discussion, Beahrs Environmental Leadership Program. 2004 January 5–9. University of California, Berkeley. Text.
  • ECON100A Lecture, University of California, Berkeley. 2004 Spring. RealMedia. 01:29:02.
  • Commencement address, University of Minnesota. 2004 May. CD track.
  • CEI Prometheus award acceptance speech. 2004 May 19. MS Media. 00:10:57.
  • Inaugural address, 1st World Congress of Agroforestry. 2004 June 27. Orlando, Florida, USA. RealMedia. 01:06:34.
  • Keynote speech, USDA Agricultural Outlook Forum. 2005 February 24. Arlington, Virginia, USA. MS Media. 35 minutes.
  • Radio interview by Penn Jillette. 2006 August 9. MP3 format. 00:43:27.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Penn Fraser Jillette (born March 5, 1955 in Greenfield, Massachusetts) is an American comedian, illusionist, juggler and writer known for his work with fellow illusionist Teller in the team known as Penn & Teller. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Organizations and programs

  • Norman Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture - Texas A&M University System
  • The Borlaug Center for Southern Crop Improvement - Texas A&M University System
  • CIMMYT - International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
  • Sasakawa-Global 2000
  • The World Food Prize
  • Legacy
  • Norman E. Borlaug International Agricultural Science and Technology Fellows Program
  • National Wrestling Hall of Fame's Hall of Outstanding Americans. Archived from the original on 2002-06-13.

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other

  • "The Green Revolution in the Punjab", by Vandana Shiva
  • The Life and Work of Norman Borlaug, Nobel Laureate
  • "Biotechnology and the Green Revolution", interview from November 2002
  • Norman Borlaug: The Legend (agbioworld.com)
  • Journal articles by Borlaug on PubMed
  • List of Norman Borlaug articles and interviews
  • Ears of plenty: The story of wheat, The Economist, December 20th, 2005
  • "Billions Served", an interview in Reason by Ronald Bailey.
  • "Stem Rust Never Sleeps", an op-ed piece in the New York Times by Borlaug regarding the current epidemic affecting the world’s wheat crops and, potentially, the world's food supply.
Persondata
NAME Borlaug, Norman
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION agricultural scientist
DATE OF BIRTH 25 March 1914
PLACE OF BIRTH Saude, near Cresco, Iowa
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cresco is a city located in Howard County, Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Norman Ernest Borlaug Biography | World of Chemistry (1733 words)
Norman Borlaug began his career as a plant pathologist and became a force in international politics through a stint as a consultant in agronomy (the science of raising crops) to the Mexican government.
Borlaug was not shy in articulating what resources a nation had to supply for his agrarian reforms to succeed: a stable governing body with the political will to enact his proposals; the ability to provide the chemicals and machinery necessary to modern architecture; and, of greatest importance, a commitment to training young scientists in agronomy.
Borlaug remarked that these accusations missed the point he had made in his Nobel Prize speech, which was that the greatest danger to the environment came not from industrialization but from the population explosion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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