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Encyclopedia > Norman Bethune
Dr. Norman Bethune 1922
Dr. Norman Bethune 1922

Henry Norman Bethune, MD (March 3, 1890November 12, 1939) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and humanitarian. In Chinese he is known as "Pai Ch'iu-en" Image File history File links Norman Bethune - graduation photo, ca. ... Image File history File links Norman Bethune - graduation photo, ca. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D., from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor) is an academic degree. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Physician examining a child A physician is a person who practices medicine. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ...

Contents


Biography

Dr. Bethune was born in Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada. After graduating from the University of Toronto as a doctor he moved to Montreal where he was associated with McGill University and taught thoracic surgery. Bethune was an early proponent of universal health care, the success of which he observed during a visit to the Soviet Union. As a doctor in Montréal, Bethune frequently sought out the poor and gave them free medical care. As a thoracic surgeon, he travelled to Spain (1936-1937) and China (1938-1939) to perform battlefield surgical operations on war casualties. Gravenhurst (2001 population 10,899) is a town in the Muskoka Region of Ontario, Canada. ... The University of Toronto (U of T), in Toronto, Ontario, is the largest university in Canada. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, research-intensive, non-denominational, co-educational university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Publicly-funded medicine. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... An illustration showing a variety of wounds from the Feldbuch der Wundarznei (Field manual for the treatment of wounds) by Hans von Gersdorff, (1517). ...


Bethune's work in Spain in developing mobile medical units was the model for the later development of Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units. The need to provide blood transfusions in a battlefield context led him to develop the first practical method for transporting blood. The Mobile Army Surgical hospital (MASH) refers to a United States Army medical unit serving as a fully functional hospital in a combat area of operations. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...


Bethune died on November 12, 1939, of blood poisoning from a cut he received while performing surgery, while with the Communist Party of China's Eighth Route Army in the midst of the second Sino-Japanese War. November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... Blood poisoning, also known as septicaemia, is a bacterial infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream and multiply rapidly. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Eighth Route Army (八路軍 Pinyin: bālù-jūn) was one of the main military forces of the Communist Party of China, active during the Chinese Civil War and Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Tojo Hideki, Matsui Iwane, Minami Jiro, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Neiji Okamura. ...


Motivations

Canadian Blood Transfusion Unit which operated during the Spanish Civil War. Dr. Norman Bethune is at the right. ca. 1936 - 1937 / Spain
Canadian Blood Transfusion Unit which operated during the Spanish Civil War. Dr. Norman Bethune is at the right. ca. 1936 - 1937 / Spain

What inspired Doctor Bethune to place himself in such dangerous and harsh conditions, being thousands of miles from home and practically working without pay? The Communist Party of Canada (CPC) asserts that Bethune, who joined the party in 1935, acted out of devotion to the Chinese socialist movement. Some in the West, however, have been highly skeptical to the notion and generally believe the doctor's motivation was exclusively based on humanitarian considerations. But the fact remains that Bethune went to Spain soon after joining the CPC to help in the struggle against fascism, and then went to China to help the Communists there against Japanese imperialism. It is also noted in his most recent biography, The Politics of Passion by Larry Hannant, that he specifically refused to work under the better-off Chiang Kai Shek's Nationalist government and insisted on helping the Chinese Communists instead. He is also the only Westerner to have a statue in Communist China and he also has a hospital named in his honour. Image File history File links Norman_Bethune_transfusion_unit_1936. ... Image File history File links Norman_Bethune_transfusion_unit_1936. ... The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See also colonialism Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Memory

Virtually unknown in his homeland during his lifetime, Doctor Bethune finally received international recognition as Chairman Mao Zedong of the People's Republic of China published his essay entitled In Memory of Norman Bethune (original Chinese title : 紀念白求恩), which documented the final months of the doctor's life in China. Mao went ahead and made the essay required reading for the entire Chinese population. Mao wrote in the book's preface: As a selfless internationalist, Doctor Bethune served as a role model for every human being. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Statue of Bethune in Montreal
Statue of Bethune in Montreal

Bethune College at York University, and Dr. Norman Bethune Collegiate Institute (a secondary school) in Scarborough, Ontario, were named after Dr. Bethune. Heroic statues of Bethune have been erected throughout China. Statue of Norman Bethune in Montreal. ... Statue of Norman Bethune in Montreal. ... City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 366. ... York University (YorkU) is a large comprehensive university, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Established: 1 January 1850 (township), 1 January 1967 (borough), June 1983 (city), 1 January 1998 (amalgamated) Area: 187. ...


Doctor Bethune also invented several surgical instruments that still bear his name. Surgeon excising an arrow from a wounded soldier, Stele from Herculaneum, Rome, 1 BC A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ...


Donald Sutherland played Bethune in two biographical films: Bethune (1977), made for television on a low budget, and Bethune: The Making of a Hero (1990). The latter was a co-production of Telefilm Canada, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, FR3 TV France and China Film Co-production. Donald McNicol Sutherland, OC (born July 17, 1935) is a prolific Canadian actor with a film career spanning over 40 years. ... Sir Thomas Malory wrote the most famous fictional biography of the Middle Ages with Le Morte dArthur about the life of King Arthur. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... This article is about the year. ... Telefilm Canada is a federal cultural agency dedicated primarily to the development and promotion of the Canadian film, television, and new media industries. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ...


In March 1990, to commemorate the centenary of his birth, Canada and China each issued two postage stamps of the same design in his honour.


In 1998 he was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Canadian Medical Hall of Fame is a Canadian charitable organization, founded in 1994, that honours Canadians who have contributed to the understanding of disease and improving the health of people. ...


In the CBC's The Greatest Canadian program in 2004, he was voted the 26th Greatest Canadian by viewers. Officially launched on April 5, 2004, The Greatest Canadian was a project by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, to find out who is considered the greatest Canadian of all time. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


He attended Owen Sound Collegiate in Owen Sound Ontario, now known as Owen Sound Collegiate And Vocational Institute. He graduated from OSCVI in 1911 along with William Avery "Billy" Bishop. Both names are inscribed on the School's Great War Memorial.


He is buried in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China, where his tomb along with that of Dr. Dwarkanath Kotnis lie next to great memorials and statues to their honour. His ideals and teachings were instrumental in the formation and growth of the Medical College Democratic Students Association. Shijiazhuang (Simplified Chinese: 石家庄; Traditional Chinese: 石家莊; pinyin: , literally, The Shi Family Village) is a prefecture-level city about 320 kilometers south of Beijing and the capital of Hebei province. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Dwarkanath S. Kotnis (October 10, 1910 in Solapur District, Southern Maharashtra, India – December 9, 1942, in China), Chinese name: 柯棣华, Pinyin: Kē Dì Huá, was one of five Indian physicians dispatched to China for providing medical assistance during the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The Medical College Democratic Students Association is a progressive students association at the Calcutta Medical College, Kolkata, India. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Norman Bethune

1952 photo of James Endicott (centre) flanked by his wife Mary (right) and granddaughter Susan (left). ... Dwarkanath S. Kotnis (October 10, 1910 in Solapur District, Southern Maharashtra, India – December 9, 1942, in China), Chinese name: 柯棣华, Pinyin: Kē Dì Huá, was one of five Indian physicians dispatched to China for providing medical assistance during the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Norman Bethune - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (725 words)
Bethune was an early proponent of universal health care, the success of which he observed during a visit to the Soviet Union.
Bethune's work in Spain in developing mobile medical units was the model for the later development of Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units.
Bethune died on November 12, 1939, of blood poisoning from a cut he received while performing surgery, while with the Communist Party of China's Eighth Route Army in the midst of the second Sino-Japanese War.
Norman Bethune (293 words)
Henry Norman Bethune (March 30, 1890 - November 12, 1939) was born in Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada.
Virtually unknown in his homeland during his lifetime, Doctor Bethune was finally received international recognition as Chairman Mao Zedong of the People's Republic of China published his book, titled In Memory of Norman Bethune (original Chinese title : 紀念白求恩), which documented the final months of the doctor's life in China.
The CPC's propaganda machine made a persistent assertion that Bethune was a passionate member of the Communist Party of Canada with a devotion to the Chinese Socialist Movement (in China, only a comrade could qualify as a good man).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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