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Encyclopedia > Norm (philosophy)

Norms are sentences or sentence meanings with practical, i. e. action-oriented (rather than descriptive, explanatory, or expressive) import, the most common of which are commands, permissions, and prohibitions. Another popular account of norms describes them as reasons to act, believe or feel. In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterised in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Command has multiple meanings: An order. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the faculty of the human mind that creates and operates with abstract concepts. ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what humans can do. ... Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emotion, in its most general definition, is an intense neural mental state that arises subjectively rather than through conscious effort and evokes either a positive or negative psychological response . ...

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Image File history File links Socrates. ...

Some kinds of norms

Orders and permissions express norms. Such norm sentences do not describe how the world is, they rather prescribe how the world should be. Imperative sentences are the most obvious way to express norms, but declarative sentences also do it very often, as is the case with many laws. Generally, whether an expression is a norm does not depend on its form, on the type of sentence it is expressed with, but only on the meaning of the expression. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Antarctica Australia Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia China Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe... Look up prescription in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... // Balancing scales are symbolic of how law mediates peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Those norms purporting to create obligations (or duties) and permissions are called deontic norms (see also deontic logic). The concept of deontic norm is already an extension of a previous concept of norm, which would only include imperatives, that is, norms purporting to create duties. The understanding that permissions are norms in the same way was an important step in ethics and philosophy of law. An obligation can be legal or moral. ... Duty is a term loosely applied to any action (or course of action) which is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of value or quality. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ...


In addition to deontic norms, many other varieties have been identified. For instance, some constitutions establish the national anthem. These norms do not directly create any duty or permission. They create a "national symbol". Other norms create nations themselves or political and administrative regions within a nation. The action orientation of such norms is less obvious than in the case of a command or permission, but is essential for understanding the relevance of issuing such norms: When a folk song becomes a "national anthem" the meaning of singing one and the same song changes; likewise, when a piece of land becomes an administrative region, this has legal consequences for many activities taking place on that territory; and without these consequences concerning action, the norms would be irrelevant. A more obviously action-oriented variety of such constitutive norms (as opposed to deontic or regulatory norms) establishes social institutions which give rise to new, previously inexistent types of actions or activities (a standard example is the institution of marriage without which "getting married" would not be a feasible action; another are the rules constituting a game: without the norms of soccer, there would not exist such an action as executing an indirect free kick). A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... National symbols are symbols of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community (independent states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonialor other dependence, (con)federal integration, even an ethno-cultural community considered a nationality despite the absence of any political... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An indirect free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football (soccer). ...


Any convention can create a norm, although the relation between both is not settled. A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. ...


There is a significant discussion about (legal) norms that give someone the power to create other norms. They are called power-conferring norms or norms of competence. Some authors argue that they are still deontic norms, while others argue for a close connection between them and institutional facts (see Raz 1975, Ruiter 1993). Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Brute facts are opposed to institutional facts, in that they do not require the context of an institution to occur. ...


Linguistic conventions, for example, the convention in English that "cat" means cat or the convention in Portuguese that "gato" means cat, are among the most important norms. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Games completely depend on norms. The fundamental norm of many games is the norm establishing who wins and loses. In other games, it is the norm establishing how to score points. Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ...


Major characteristics

One major characteristic of norms is that, unlike propositions, they are not descriptively true or false, since norms do not purport to describe anything, but to prescribe, create or change something. Some people say they are "prescriptively true" or false. Whereas the truth of a descriptive statement is purportedly based on its correspondence to reality, some philosophers, beginning with Aristotle, assert that the (prescriptive) truth of a prescriptive statement is based on its correspondence to right desire. Other philosophers maintain that norms are ultimately neither true or false, but only successful or unsuccessful (valid or invalid), as their propositional content obtains or not (see also John Searle and speech act). Proposition is a term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. ... For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... The correspondence theory of truth states that something is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... It has been suggested that Intrinsic motivation be merged into this article or section. ... Proposition is a term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. ... John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932) is Mills Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and consciousness, on the characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. ... The speech act is a concept in linguistics and the philosophy of language. ...


There is an important difference between norms and normative propositions, although they are often expressed by identical sentences. "You may go out." usually expresses a norm if it is uttered by the teacher to one of the students, but it usually expresses a normative proposition if it is uttered to one of the students by one of his or her classmates. Some ethical theories reject that there can be normative propositions, but these are accepted by cognitivism. One can also think of propositional norms; assertions and questions arguably express propositional norms (they set a proposition as asserted or questioned). In ethics, cognitivism is the view that ethical sentences express propositions and can therefore be true or false (they are truth-apt). ... Look up assertion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or else the request itself made by such an expression. ...


Another purported feature of norms, it is often argued, is that they never regard only natural properties or entities. Norms always bring something artificial, conventional, institutional or "unworldly". This might be related to Hume's assertion that it is not possible to derive ought from is and to G.E. Moore's claim that there is a naturalistic fallacy when one tries to analyse "good" and "bad" in terms of a natural concept. In aesthetics, it has also been argued that it is impossible to derive an aesthetical predicate from a non-aesthetical one. The acceptability of non-natural properties, however, is strongly debated in present day philosophy. Some authors deny their existence, some others try to reduce them to natural ones, on which the former supervene. Property designates those real or intellectual goods that are commonly recognized as being the rightful possessions of a person or group. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... In meta-ethics, the is-ought problem was raised by David Hume (Scottish philosopher and historian, 1711-1776), who noted that many writers make claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... George Edward Moore The naturalistic fallacy is an alleged logical fallacy, delineated by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his seminal Principia Ethica (1903). ... A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, interactions, phenomena, or relationships between them. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... In mathematics, a predicate is a relation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Reduction is the process by which one object, property, concept, theory, etc. ... In philosophy, supervenience is a well-defined dependency relation between higher-level (. mental) and lower-level (. physical) properties. ...


Other thinkers (Adler, 1986) assert that norms can be natural in a different sense than that of "corresponding to something proceeding from the object of the prescription as a strictly internal source of action". Rather, those who assert the existence of natural prescriptions say norms can suit a natural need on the part of the prescribed entity. More to the point, however, is the putting forward of the notion that just as descriptive statements being considered true are conditioned upon certain self-evident descriptive truths suiting the nature of reality (such as: it is impossible for the same thing to be and not be at the same time and in the same manner), a prescriptive truth can suit the nature of the will through the authority of it being based upon self-evident prescriptive truths (such as: one ought to desire what is really good for one and nothing else). Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... In epistemology, a self-evident proposition is one that can be understood only by one who knows that it is true. ... In epistemology, a self-evident proposition is one that can be understood only by one who knows that it is true. ...


Recent works maintain that normativity has an important role in several different philosophical subjects, not only in ethics and philosophy of law (see Dancy, 2000).


Do norms exist?

The question whether norms actually exist might arguably have the same answer as the question whether propositions exist. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Proposition is a term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. ...


Norms without expression

It is discussed whether there can be norms (or valid norms) which are not (yet) expressed in any way. Suppose someone decides to go to bed always before 5 a.m., but she does not say it. She just decides in her thoughts. It seems that she has just set a norm for herself.


Or suppose that a French court rules that it is unlawful to build a high wall in one's property with the sole purpose of casting a shadow on my neighbor's property, since that causes a damage and it is unlawful, in principle, to cause damages to other people. This court seems to be enforcing a general principle, a norm, the norm that it is unlawful, in principle, to cause damages. The problem is that this norm is not written anywhere in French laws and it cannot easily be grounded on a practice or custom. Should it be accepted as a valid norm? Property designates those real or intellectual goods that are commonly recognized as being the rightful possessions of a person or group. ... In law, custom, or customary law consists of established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ...


See also

Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... For law within legal systems see law. ... In philosophy, meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties (if there are any), and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... Normative ethics is the branch of the philosophical study of ethics concerned with classifying actions as right and wrong, as opposed to descriptive ethics. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... A principle (not principal) is something, usually a rule or norm, that is part of the basis for something else. ... // Balancing scales are symbolic of how law mediates peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... The speech act is a concept in linguistics and the philosophy of language. ...

Further reading

  • Adler, Mortimer (1985), Ten Philosophical Mistakes, MacMillan, New York.
  • Alexy, Robert, Theorie der Grundrechte, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M.: 1985. Translation: A theory of constitutional rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford: 2002.
  • Dancy, Jonathan (ed), Normativity, Blackwell, Oxford: 2000.
  • Korsgaard, Christine, The sources of normativity, Cambridge University, Cambridge: 2000.
  • Raz, Joseph, Practical reason and norms, Oxford University, Oxford: 1975.
  • Rosen, Bernard, The centrality of normative ethical theory, Peter Lang, New York: 1999.
  • Ruiter, Dick, Institutional legal facts. Legal powers and their effects, Kluwer, Dordrecht: 1993.
  • Garzón Valdés, Ernesto et. al. (eds) Normative systems in legal and moral theory. Festschrift for Carlos E. Alchourrón and Eugenio Bulygin, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin: 1997
  • von Wright, G. H., Norm and action. A logical enquiry, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London: 1963.

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - norm (Philosophy, Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia (164 words)
norm, authoritative rule or standard by which something is judged and on that basis approved or disapproved.
Examples of norms include standards of right and wrong, beauty and ugliness, and truth and falsehood.
Several fields of philosophy, especially ethics, aesthetics, and logic, evaluate such rules; in sociology, social and institutional norms, more communal and less formal than laws, are studied in relation to conformity, and to anomie or normlessness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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