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Encyclopedia > Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk, Virginia

Flag

Seal
Motto: Crescas (Latin for, "Thou shalt grow.")
Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Coordinates: 36°54′36″N 76°12′6.72″W / 36.91, -76.2018667
Country United States
State Virginia
Counties Independent City
Founded 1682
Incorporated 1736
Government
 - Mayor Paul D. Fraim (D)
Area
 - City  96.3 sq mi (249.4 km²)
 - Land  53.7 sq mi (139.2 km²)
 - Water  42.6 sq mi (110.3 km²)
Elevation 23 ft (7 m)
Population (2000)
 - City 234,403
 - Density 4,362.6/sq mi (1,684.4/km²)
 - Urban 1,047,869
 - Metro 1,569,541
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Website: http://www.norfolk.gov/

Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States of America. With a population of 234,403 as of the 2000 census, Norfolk is Virginia's second-largest incorporated city. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5930x1431, 1879 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Norfolk, Virginia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File links The official flag of the city of Norfolk, Virginia. ... Image File history File links (The official city seal of Norfolk, Virginia. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Adapted from Wikipedias VA county maps by Seth Ilys. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states, which are... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... The Commonwealth of Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 39 independent cities, which are considered county-equivalents for census puposes. ... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Paul D. Fraim is the current Mayor of the city of Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Metronome, a public art installation showing the time in New York City The Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


Norfolk is located in Hampton Roads, a large natural harbor located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. Norfolk is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the west by the Elizabeth River and to the north by the Chesapeake Bay. It also shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. One of the older of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads, Norfolk is considered to be the historic, urban, financial, and cultural center of the region. This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences), or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia from space, July 1996 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA is a U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as of June, 2003. ... The Elizabeth River is a short tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded 1963 Government  - Mayor Dalton S. Edge Area  - City  350. ... Part of the Virginia Beach oceanfront resort strip. ... The Seven Cities of Hampton Roads are 7 independent cities located in the Hampton Roads region of southeastern Virginia in the United States. ...


The city has a long history as a strategic military and transportation point. Norfolk is home to both the Norfolk Naval Base, the world's largest naval base, and corporate headquarters of the Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads. As it is surrounded by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property, and is linked with its neighbors by an extensive network of Interstate highways, bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnel complexes.-1... Norfolk Southern Headquarters Norfolk, Virginia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A Class I railroad in the United States, or a Class I railway (also Class I rail carrier) in Canada, is one of the largest freight railroads, as classified based on operating revenue. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... volcanic rock. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Aerial view of parallel trestles and one of four man-made islands which anchor tunnel portions of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel in Virginia, longest in the world A bridge-tunnel is a water crossing facility which uses a combination of bridge and tunnel structures. ...

Contents

History of the city

// 9500 B.C. - First evidence of humans inhabiting Virginia. ...

Colonial period (1607-1775)

In 1619, the Governor for the Virginia Colony, Sir George Yeardley established 4 incorporations, termed citties (sic) for the developed portion of the colony. These citties were to form the basis for the government of the colony in the newly minted House of Burgesses, with the entire Hampton Roads region falling under the Elizabeth Cittie incorporation. In 1622, Adam Thoroughgood (1604-1640) of King's Lynn, Norfolk, England, became one of the earliest Englishmen to settle in the area that was to become South Hampton Roads when, at the age of 18, he became an indentured servant to pay for passage to the Virginia Colony. After his period of contracted servitude was finished, he earned his freedom and soon became a leading citizen of the fledgling colony. The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... Early Life and Military Career Sir George Yeardley was baptized 28 July 1588 in St. ... Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ... Elizabeth City (or citiie as it was then called) was one of four incorporations established in the Virginia Colony in 1619 by the proprietor, the Virginia Company. ... Our colloquium participants visited the Thoroughgood house in Norfolk. ... Kings Lynn as viewed from across the River Great Ouse Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... South Hampton Roads is a region located in the extreme southeastern portion of Virginia in the United States. ... An Indentured Servant (or in the U.S. bonded labourer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually seven to eight years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ...


Meanwhile, after years of continuing struggles at Jamestown, the now bankrupt Virginia Company had its royal charter revoked by King James I in 1624 and Virginia became a crown colony. Also at this time, the King granted 500 acres (2 km²) of land to Thomas Willoughby, in what is now the Ocean View section of the city. The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Thomas Willoughby (1593 – ?) colonist, born Wollaton, Nottingham, England was one of the first settlers in John Guys colony at Cupers Cove, Newfoundland, Canada. ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ...


In 1629, Thoroughgood was elected to the House of Burgesses for Elizabeth Cittie. Five years later, in 1634, the King Charles I had the colony reorganized under a system of 8 shires, with much of the Hampton Roads region becoming part of Elizabeth City Shire. In 1636, Thoroughgood was granted a large land holding along the Lynnhaven River (which he named) for having persuaded 105 people to settle in the colony. When the South Hampton Roads portion of Elizabeth City Shire was partitioned off in that same year, it was Thoroughgood who contributed the name of Norfolk, also in honor of his birthplace, to the newly formed New Norfolk County. It was also during this reorganization that King Charles granted a further 200 acres (0.8 km²) (present day downtown) to the Willoughby family; a portion of which would later form the basis for the future city of Norfolk. Shortly thereafter, in 1637, New Norfolk County was itself split into 2 counties, Upper Norfolk County and Lower Norfolk County, largely on Thoroughgood’s recommendation. The modern city of Norfolk is located in the latter. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Eight Shires of Virginia were formed in 1634 in the Virginia Colony. ... Elizabeth City Shire was one of eight shires created in colonial Virginia in 1634. ... New Norfolk County is a long-extinct county which was located in colonial Virginia from 1636 until 1637. ... Upper Norfolk County is an extinct county which was located in colonial Virginia from 1637 until 1646. ... Lower Norfolk County is a long-extinct county which was located in colonial Virginia from 1637 until 1691. ...


In 1670, a royal decree was issued for the "building of storehouses to receive imported merchandise. . .and tobacco for export" for each of the Virginia colony's 20 counties. Norfolk’s protected harbor and natural deep water channels was quickly recognized for its potential as a major seaport, and in order to protect that potential, in 1673 the House of Burgesses called for the construction of a "Half Moone" fort at the site of what is now Town Pointe Park. The largest threat to the colony during this time was a potential attack by one of the other major European powers, and by the Dutch in particular. The ongoing Third Anglo-Dutch War, as well as the recent recapture of New York/New Amsterdam helped spur fears that the new port might also come under attack. Nonetheless, Norfolk quickly grew in size and by 1680 an act for the establishment of the "Towne of Lower Norfolk County" had been issued by the House. This act was subsequently fulfilled in 1682 when 50 acres were purchased by the county for 10,000 pounds of tobacco. The town initially encompassed a land area northeast of the point where the eastern branch of the Elizabeth River meets its southern branch, part of present-day downtown. In 1691, a final county subdivision took place when Lower Norfolk County was split to form Norfolk County (present day Norfolk, Chesapeake, and parts of Portsmouth) and Princess Anne County (present day Virginia Beach). Norfolk was incorporated in 1705 and in 1736 was granted a royal charter by George II as a borough. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... NY redirects here. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century town which grew outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic since 1624. ... The Elizabeth River is a short tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. ... Norfolk County is the name of several counties: Norfolk County, Massachusetts, USA Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada Norfolk County, England Norfolk County, Virginia, USA (extinct) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Princess Anne County, Virginia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


By 1775, Norfolk had developed into what many contemporaries of the time argue was the most prosperous city in Virginia. It was a major shipbuilding center and an important trans-shipment point for the export of goods such as tobacco, corn, cotton, and timber from Virginia and North Carolina, to the British Isles and beyond. In turn, goods from the West Indies such as rum and sugar, and finished manufactured products from England were imported back through Norfolk to the rest of the lower colonies. Though widespread slavery in the colony did not occur until the early 18th century, it should also be noted that by this time much of the West Indies and American Colonial products that flowed through the harbor were now being produced with the use of slave labor. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Revolutionary War Period (1775 - 1783)

Norfolk had been a strong base of Loyalist support throughout the start of the American Revolution. In the early summer of 1775, after having been forced to flee the colonial capitol of Williamsburg, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Throughout the summer and autumn of that year he was able to secure a number of smaller victories over the rebelling colonists in and around the South Hampton Roads region, mostly by means of small raiding parties which were used to reinforce his men. In November, a larger battle took place at Kemp's Landing which provided Dunmore and the loyalists a clear victory, but it was nonetheless clear by then that the rebellion was escalating into full scale war. The victory at Kemp's Landing emboldened the governor, who afterwards issued Dunmore's Proclamation, which most notably promised freedom to any slave who joined His Majesty's forces. The proclamation may have been a provocation to many moderates (in the sense of their loyalty to the crown) however, and Dunmore's victory would prove to be short lived. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Lord Dunmore John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (1730–February 25, 1809) was the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony, from September 25, 1771 until just before the American Revolutionary War began in June 1775. ...


Three weeks later, Dunmore's overconfidence proved to be his undoing when his forces attempted a surprise attack, but were instead decidedly routed at the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9th, 1775 by the fledlging 2nd Virginia Regiment. Under the command of Colonel Woodford, the rebels surprised the British troops with their larger than expected numbers (many of whom who had decided to support the rebellion after having read Dunmore's Proclamation) and proceeded to quickly deliver heavy losses to Dunmore's toops, including the loss or injury of 102 men, whilst only suffering one injured on their part. Dunmore retreated back to Norfolk, but the quickly advancing Regiment forced him and the remaining loyalists to flee to Dunmore's ship, Otter, which was anchored in the harbor. Dunmore Street, in the historic residential neighborhood of Freemason, was named after him not as a tribute, but as having supposedly been the street down which he and the remaining Loyalists were last seen fleeing on their way to board Otter. His forced exile effectively brought an end to over 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia. Combatants Patriot militia British militia Commanders William Woodford Lord Dunmore Strength 8,845 7,500 Casualties Americans: 20 killed, 56 wounded French: 52 killed, 134 wounded 156 killed 326 wounded 7,018 captured The Battle of Great Bridge was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought in the area... The Virginia Regiment was formed in 1754 by Virginia s Governor Robert Dinwiddie, initially as an all volunteer corps, and he sent George Washington, the future first president of the United States of America, to assume command upon the death of Colonel Joshua Fry. ... William Woodford was born in Caroline County, Virginia in 1734. ...


Shortly thereafter, on New Year's Day, 1776, Lord Dunmore's fleet of 3 ships shelled the city of Norfolk for over 8 hours. The damage from the shells and ensuing fires set by the British destroyed 800 buildings, almost two-thirds of the city. The rebels essentially completed the destruction of the city, burning another 400 buildings as part of a scorched earth policy. Only the walls of St. Paul's Episcopal Church survived the bombardment and subsequent fires. Even it did not escape unharmed however, as an unexploded cannonball lodged itself into the southeast wall of the church. Due to safety concerns over the unexploded ordnance the actual cannonball has since been removed, but a replica has been put in its place. The rest of the church was rebuilt in 1827. A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


Rebirth, Fire, Disease, and War (1783-1861)

Following the recovery from the Revolutionary War burning, the 19th century began auspiciously enough for Norfolk and her citizens. By 1800, the population was the 10th largest in the United States according to that year’s census. However, just 4 years later, another serious fire along the city’s waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city experienced a serious economic setback as a result.


During the 1820’s many agrarian communities across the American South experienced a prolonged recession, resulting in the emigration of many families from the region to other areas. This is evidenced in the slight drop in overall population over the ten-year census period from 1820 to 1830 (~15,000 total persons) in Norfolk County, despite the fact that other urban areas experienced significant population growth at this time. Also notable during this period were the various attempts Virginia made to either phase out slavery through law (see Thomas Jefferson Randolph’s 1832 resolution) or through colonization of blacks to Africa. The largest of these organizations, the American Colonization Society (ACS), was founded in 1816 to this purpose and many of the subsequent immigrants from Virginia and North Carolina would later embark from Norfolk. One such immigrant was Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a native of Norfolk who would go on to become the first president of Liberia. Roberts Village in Norfolk is named for him. Active immigration through the ACS largely came to an end following the Civil War and subsequent lack of government funds. The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Norfolk County, Virginia (from 1895 map), existed from 1691-1963, now extinct Norfolk County is an extinct political subdivision in eastern Virginia. ... Thomas Jefferson Randolph (September 12, 1792 – October 8, 1875) of Albemarle County served in the Virginia House of Delegates. ... The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, in an effort to remove them from the United States. ... Joseph Jenkins Roberts (March 15, 1809 â€“ February 24, 1876) was the first President of Liberia (1848–1856, 1872–1876). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


By 1840, Norfolk had shown its resilience once again and boasted a population of 10,920 for the borough proper (not including the rest of the county). In 1845, Norfolk was incorporated as a city and by 1850 the city’s population was approximately 14,000 persons, including 4,000 slaves and 1,000 free blacks. In 1851, the Commonwealth authorized the charter of an 80 mile (130 km) railroad connecting Norfolk and Petersburg. Completed in 1858, this important line was the predecessor of today's Norfolk Southern railroad company. Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... Norfolk Southern Corporation (AAR reporting mark NS) NYSE: NSC is a US publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk, Virginia. ...


On June 7, 1855, the ship Benjamin Franklin detoured into Portsmouth for urgent repairs to fix leaks, a broken boiler, and an unsteady mast. The ship was in route from St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands to New York. The city's health officer inspected the ship, as was standard practice at the time, and suspected something was awry, despite assurances from the captain that ship was free of disease. The officer ordered that the ship be held at anchor in the harbor for 11 days. Afterwards, he returned to the ship and allowed it dock under the condition that the ship's hold not be broken. Within several days of docking however, the first cases of Yellow Fever had appeared in some people whose homes were near the wharf. By July, the epidemic was in full outbreak and would eventually result in the deaths of over 3,000 people in the region, 2,000 of them in Norfolk. At it's peak, the epidemic was claiming more than 100 lives a day in Norfolk alone.[1] Many more people fled the area, some never to return. The city's population would not reach its 1850 census population until after the Civil War. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of U.S. Virgin Islands Saint Thomas is an island in the Caribbean Sea, a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States. ... New York-New York Hotel & Casino is a hotel and casino located on the famed Las Vegas Strip at 3790 Las Vegas Boulevard South, Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


In early 1861, Norfolk voters instructed their delegate to vote for ratification of the ordinance of secession. Soon thereafter, Virginia voted to secede from the Union. Richmond became the capitol of the Confederacy, and the American Civil War began in earnest. In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Civil War to World War I (1861-1917)

Not long thereafter, in the spring of 1862, the remains of the USS Merrimac were rebuilt at Norfolk Navy Yard as an ironclad and renamed as the CSS Virginia. Hoping to break the Union naval blockade of Virginia, the Battle of Hampton Roads began on March 8, 1862 off the northwest shore of the city's Sewell's Point Peninsula with the Virginia sinking the USS Cumberland and setting the USS Congress ablaze. The first day of the battle ended when, due to waning daylight, Virginia was unable to engage or destroy any more Union ships, and so returned to port for the evening to address minor damages. Overnight however, the USS Monitor made it to Union held Fort Monroe across the James River in Hampton, and so set the stage for the world's first battle between ironclads, pitting the CSS Virginia against the USS Monitor. The battle would ultimately ended in a stalemate however, as neither ship was able to do significant damage to the other due to the heavy armor plating, but it was clear that the new technology utilized at the battle would forever change the course of naval warfare. Over the next several months, Virginia tried in vain to engage the Monitor, but the Monitor was under strict orders not to fight unless absolutely necessary. When Norfolk, under Mayor William Lamb, surrendered the city to General John E. Wool and Union Forces at the city's Princess Anne Road and Church Street intersection in May, the decision was made to scuttle the Virginia rather than risk losing her to the Union Navy. For the duration of the Civil War, the city was held under Martial law and many private and public buildings were confiscated for federal use. Mayor Lamb did manage to successfully hide the city's colonial era silver mace underneath a fireplace hearth to avoid having it confiscated or melted down by union troops. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... USS Merrimack was a screw frigate of the United States Navy, best known as the hulk upon which CSS Virginia was built during the American Civil War and then took part in the Battle of Hampton Roads (often called the Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimack). Merrimack was launched... Aerial View of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a U.S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, Virginia, for building, remodeling, and repairing the Navys ships. ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ... The first USS Cumberland was a 50-gun sailing frigate of the United States Navy. ... The fourth USS Congress of the United States Navy was a sailing frigate like her predecessor, surviving into the American Civil War, where she was destroyed by the ironclad CSS Virginia. ... USS Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. ... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ... John Ellis Wool (February 20, 1784 - November 10, 1869) was one of the four general officers of the United States Army in 1861, and was the one who saw the most Civil War service. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By 1870, the end of Reconstruction was at hand in Norfolk. Union occupation troops withdrew and Virginia was readmitted to the Union. During this time, African-Americans throughout Hampton Roads were elected to state and local offices, but would slowly come to face increasing legal discrimination through the development of Jim Crow Laws in the latter part of the century. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1883, the first car of coal arrived from the Pocahontas fields over Norfolk & Western Railway and by 1886 the tracks were extended right up to the coal piers at Lambert’s Point to handle the increasing volume, creating one of the largest coal transshipment ports in the world. In 1894, classes began in the city's first public high school. That same year the Electric trolley was introduced to Norfolk and would, within ten years, link Norfolk with Sewell's Point, Ocean View, South Norfolk, Berkley, Pinner's Point (all of which were independent communities within Norfolk county at that time), and the city of Portsmouth. Norfolk and Western Railway (AAR reporting mark: NW), a US class 1 railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland A tram (or tramway, trolley, streetcar, tramcar, Straßenbahn) is a railborne vehicle (lighter than a train) for transport of passengers (or, occasionally, freight). ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ... South Norfolk was an independent city in eastern Virginia. ... Berkley was a town in Norfolk County, Virginia. ...

The Virginian Railway (AAR reporting marks VGN) was a Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States. ... The Jamestown Exposition was one of the many worlds fairs and expositions that were popular in the United States early part of the 20th century. ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ... This page describes reviews of the US Fleet. ... An incorporated town in the United States is a town which is an incorporated municipality, that is, one with a charter received from the state, similar to a city. ... Berkley was a town in Norfolk County, Virginia. ...

World Wars, Cold War, Decline and Rebirth (1917-Present)

  • In 1917, Naval Station Norfolk was built as Naval Air Station Hampton Roads, during the height of World War I.
  • In 1923, the city limits were expanded to include Sewell's Point, Willoughby Spit, the town of Campostella, and Ocean View, adding the Navy Base and miles of beach property fronting on Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. Wards Corner, then just outside Norfolk, became the first non-downtown shopping district in the country.
  • In 1930, Old Dominion University was established as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary. ODU awarded its first bachelor's degrees in 1956 and became an independent institution in 1962.
  • In 1935, Norfolk State University was founded as the Norfolk Unit of Virginia State University and became an independent institution in 1969.[2]
  • In 1938, the Norfolk Municipal Airport was established.
  • On May 23, 1952, the Downtown Tunnel opened connecting Norfolk with the city of Portsmouth. A second parallel tube was built in 1987. The Downtown Tunnel currently flows in four lanes (two in each direction), carrying a portion of Interstate 264. In 1991, the new Downtown Tunnel/Berkley Bridge complex was completed, with a new system of multiple lanes of highway and interchanges connecting Downtown Norfolk and Interstate 464 with the Downtown Tunnel tubes.
  • In 1955, Tanners Creek was annexed. Ownership of Broad Creek Village transferred to Housing Authority. Norfolk became the largest city in state, with a population of 297,253.
  • On November 1, 1957, the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel opened to traffic, connecting the Virginia Peninsula with the city, signed as State Route 168. The new two-lane toll bridge-tunnel connection became a portion of Interstate 64 by the end of 1957, connecting Norfolk westward with a limited access freeway. A second parallel tube was built in 1976, expanding the access to four lanes. The tolls were removed in December 1976.
  • In 1958, ten thousand children were locked out of school when the governor ordered that six Norfolk schools be closed to prevent integration.
  • In 1959, Norfolk's public schools were desegregated when 17 black children entered six previously all-white schools in Norfolk. Virginian-Pilot editor Lenoir Chambers editorialized against massive resistance, earning the Pulitzer Prize.
  • In 1959, JANAF Shopping Center opened at Military Highway and Virginia Beach Boulevard. It was one of the nation's first large shopping centers.[3]
  • On December 1, 1967, the Virginia Beach-Norfolk Expressway (Interstate 264 and State Route 44), a 12.1 mile (19.5 km) long toll road leading from Baltic Avenue in Virginia Beach to Brambleton Avenue in Norfolk, opened to traffic at a cost of $34 million. Many at the time believe the project was doomed to fail due to the cost of 10 to 25 cents to access the Expressway. Opponents argued that commuters would simply continue to use Virginia Beach Boulevard as the primary route to Virginia Beach. The Expressway is a resounding success however, perhaps too successful for Norfolk in that soon thereafter, many people begin to move to the neighboring city of Virginia Beach and commute back to work in Norfolk, a common practice which continues to this day. The tolls were removed on June 1, 1995, and State Route 44 portion of the freeway became I-264 in July 1999.
  • In 1968, Norfolk Municipal Airport becomes Hampton Roads' primary commercial passenger airline destination as Norfolk Regional Airport, located near Chesapeake Bay, along the city limits straddling neighboring Virginia Beach.
  • In April 1970, Norfolk reached its peak United States Census Bureau population estimate at 307,951.
  • In November 1970, Norfolk served as home court (along with Hampton, Richmond and Roanoke) for the Virginia Squires regional professional basketball franchise of the now-defunct American Basketball Association (ABA). From 1970 to 1971, the Squires played their Norfolk home games at the Old Dominion University Fieldhouse. In November 1971, the Virginia Squires played their Norfolk home games at the new Norfolk Scope arena, until the team and the ABA league folded in May 1976.
  • In 1971, Norfolk built the region's first entertainment and sports complex, featuring Chrysler Hall and the 13,800-seat Norfolk Scope indoor arena, located in the northern section of downtown.
  • On January 30, 1974, the city hosted its first professional basketball all-star game, courtesy of the American Basketball Association, at the Norfolk Scope. 10,624 spectators were in attendance, as Artis Gilmore won Most Valuable Player of this professional sports event.
  • On March 29, 1982, Norfolk hosted the first NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship (also known as the Women's Final Four). The Norfolk Scope served as the chief venue for the event. 9,531 spectators were in attendance at this inaugural event.
  • On April 3, 1983, Norfolk hosted the second NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship at the Norfolk Scope. 7,837 spectators were in attendance.
  • In 1983, Waterside Festival Marketplace opened in downtown Norfolk, developed by James W. Rouse, in which a festival marketplace concept helped transform a formerly seedy harbor area into a major catalyst for other redevelopment.
  • In April 1993, the 12,067-seat Harbor Park baseball stadium opens, hosting the Norfolk Tides Triple-A minor league baseball team. Designed by HOK Sport, it was instantly acclaimed as one of the best minor league ballparks in America, and received the honor of best minor league park in 1995 by Baseball America. Also, despite worries that a new downtown park would not draw fans from the region's other cities, Harbor Park continually posts one of the best attendance records in minor league baseball, and certainly far higher than at their previous stadium, Met Park.
  • In October 1999, Norfolk-based TRT merged with PENTRAN, becoming Hampton Roads Transit officially linking the city with the Virginia Peninsula with interurban public transportation.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... -1... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Willoughby Spit is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Old Dominion University (ODU) is a public research university located in Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. It was established in 1930 as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Wren Building with a snow-covered statue of Lord Botetourt. ... Norfolk State University (NSU) is a four-year, state-supported, coed, liberal arts institution, founded in 1935 as the Norfolk State Unit of Virginia Union University (VUU). ... Virginia State University is an historically black university located in Ettrick, Virginia (near Petersburg, in the Richmond area), and was founded on March 6, 1882. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Downtown Tunnel on Interstate 264 crosses the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in the South Hampton Roads area. ... Interstate 264 (abbreviated I-264) is an unusual 3-digit interstate that contains both a bypass and a spur off Interstate 64 in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. ... The Downtown Tunnel on Interstate 264 crosses the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in the South Hampton Roads area. ... The Berkley Bridge on Interstate 264 crosses the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the South Hampton Roads area. ... Interstate 464 is a six mile long loop route of Interstate 64. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT) is the 3. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... State Route 168 is a primary state highway in the South Hampton Roads region of the U.S. state of Virginia. ... Interstate 64 in Virginia runs east west through the middle of the state from West Virginia via Covington, Lexington, Staunton, and Charlottesville to Richmond. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... The Virginian-Pilot is a daily newspaper based in Norfolk, Virginia and serving southeastern Virginia, Virginias Eastern Shore, and northeastern North Carolina. ... Lenoir Chambers (1907-1970) was a writer, biographer and newpaper editor. ... Massive Resistance was a policy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... JANAF Shopping Center in Norfolk, Virginia was one of the first large shopping centers in the United States. ... Military Highway is a four-lane roadway built in the South Hampton Roads region of eastern Virginia, USA during World War II. // During World War II, the military build-up meant more people locating in the South Hampton Roads area, and with people came automobiles, many of them. ... Virginia Beach Boulevard was established in 1922 as a concrete roadway extending from the eastern outskirts of the City of Norfolk through Norfolk County and Princess Anne County to the Oceanfront area of the Town of Virginia Beach in the Hampton Roads region of southeastern Virginia. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday and the summer of 1967 was known as The Summer of Peace and Love (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Virginia Beach Expressway (also known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk Expressway) was a 12-mile (19. ... Interstate 264 (abbreviated I-264) is an unusual 3-digit interstate that contains both a bypass and a spur off Interstate 64 in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. ... The Virginia Beach Expressway (also known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk Expressway) was a 12-mile (19. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Location in the Commonwealth o Virginia. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Virginia Squires was a basketball franchise in the former American Basketball Association that existed from 1970 through 1976. ... For the league that began in 1999, see American Basketball Association (2000-). The American Basketball Association (ABA) was a professional basketball league founded in 1967, and eventually merged, in part, with the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Old Dominion University Fieldhouse was a 5,200 seat multi-purpose arena in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Norfolk Scope is a 12,600-seat multipurpose arena in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Norfolk Scope is a 12,600-seat multipurpose arena in Norfolk, Virginia. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the league that began in 1999, see American Basketball Association (2000-). The American Basketball Association (ABA) was a professional basketball league founded in 1967, and eventually merged, in part, with the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Artis Gilmore (born September 21, 1948, in Chipley, Florida) is a former professional basketball player in the American Basketball Association (ABA) and National Basketball Association (NBA). ... In sports, a Most Valuable Player (MVP) award is an honor typically bestowed upon the best performing player or players on a specific team, in an entire league, or for a particular contest or series of contests. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The NCAA Womens Division I Championship is an annual basketball tournament for women. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Waterside in Norfolk. ... Rouse on the August 24, 1981 cover of TIME. James Wilson Rouse (April 26, 1914 - April 9, 1996) was a pioneering real estate developer civic activist, and later, free enterprise-based philanthropist. ... A festival marketplace was a concept of James W. Rouse (1914-1996) and the Rouse Company in the United States to revitalize downtown areas in major cities in the late 20th century. ... Harbor Park is a stadium in Norfolk, Virginia. ... League International League Division South Division Year founded 1961 Major League affiliation Baltimore Orioles Home ballpark Harbor Park Previous home ballparks Met Park City Norfolk, Virginia Current uniform colors blue, powder blue, navy blue, black, red Previous uniform colors Logo design The wordmark Tides in navy blue with powder blue... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Minor League Baseball. ... HOK Sport + Venue + Event, a division of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, is an architectural practice specializing in the design of public assembly spaces and planning of major special events. ... Met Park was a baseball stadium in Norfolk, Virginia. ... PENTRAN, was formerly the public transit service that covered the cities of Hampton, Virginia and Newport News, Virginia from 1975 to 1999, both located within the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, on the Virginia Peninsula. ... Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) formed in 1999 by the merging of Pentran in Hampton and TRT in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ...

Downtown Norfolk's decline and rebirth

As the traditional center of shipping and port activities in the Hampton Roads region, Norfolk's downtown waterfront historically played host to numerous and often noxious port and shipping-related uses. With the advent of containerized shipping in the mid-20th century, the shipping uses located on Norfolk's downtown waterfront became obsolete as larger and more modern port facilities opened elsewhere in the region. The vacant piers and cargo warehouses eventually became a blight on downtown and Norfolk's fortunes as a whole. But in the second half of the century, Norfolk had a vibrant retail community in its suburbs; companies like Smith & Welton, High's, Colonial Stores, Hofheimer's, Giant Open Air, Dollar Tree and K & K Toys were regional leaders in their respective fields. Norfolk was also the birthplace of Econo-Travel, now Econo Lodge, one of the nation's first discount motel chains. As the traditional center of shipping and port activities in the Hampton Roads region, Norfolks downtown waterfront historically played host to numerous and often noxious port and shipping-related uses. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... Waterfront, by definition is the land alongside a body of water, or the dockland district of a town. ... Smith & Welton was a leading department store in Norfolk, Virginia and operated stores across the Hampton Roads region. ... Colonial Stores were chain grocery stores once found throughout the South. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Giant Open Air was a Norfolk, Virginia based supermarket chain, not to be confused with Giant Food. ... Dollar Tree Stores, Inc. ... Econo Lodge is a motel chain based in the United States. ...

Waterside
Waterside

Similarly, the advent of newer suburban shopping destinations spelled demise for the fortunes of downtown's Granby Street commercial corridor, located just a few blocks inland from the waterfront. Granby Street traditionally played the role as the premiere shopping and gathering spot in the Hampton Roads region and numerous department stores such as Smith & Welton (1898-1988), Rice's (1918-1985) and Ames and Brownley (1898-1973), fine hotels and theaters once lined its sidewalks. However, new suburban shopping developments promised more convenience and comfort. The opening of Pembroke Mall in Virginia Beach, the region's first climate controlled shopping mall, and JANAF Shopping Center in Norfolk's Military Circle area, helped foment Granby Street's spiral into commercial obsolescence. With amenities such as ample free parking at the door of one's favorite store, and in the case of Pembroke Mall, climate control, the businesses of downtown's Granby Street found it harder and harder to compete. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1350, 590 KB) The Waterside, a small shopping and entertainment facility in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1350, 590 KB) The Waterside, a small shopping and entertainment facility in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... A street in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Smith & Welton was a leading department store in Norfolk, Virginia and operated stores across the Hampton Roads region. ... Pembroke Mall is the Hampton Roads MSAs first shopping mall located in Virginia Beach, Virginia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Beginning in the 1970s, Norfolk's city leaders began what would be a long push to revive the fortunes of its urban core. While Granby Street experienced its decline, Norfolk city leaders were also focused on the waterfront and its collection of decaying piers and warehouses. Federal urban renewal programs such as the Housing Act of 1949 promised cities around the country millions of dollars in government grants for the purpose of removing blight conditions and preparing urban land for redevelopment. Norfolk, as with many other cities, took full advantage of these Federal urban renewal funds and began large-scale demolitions of broad swaths of downtown. This included slum housing that, in the mid-20th century, did not have indoor plumbing or access to running water. However, Norfolk's urban renewal also included the demolition of many prominent city buildings, including the former City Market, Norfolk Terminal Station (the Union railroad station), The Monticello Hotel, and large swaths of urban fabric that, were they still in existence today, might be the source of additional historic urban character, including the East Main Street district (where the current civic complex is located). 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


At the water's edge, nearly all of the obsolete shipping and warehousing facilities were demolished. In their place, planners created a new boulevard, Waterside Drive. In place of the piers and warehouses rose: the Waterside Festival Marketplace, an indoor mall created by the Rouse Company and similar to Baltimore's Inner Harbor Pavilions; the waterfront Town Point Park - an esplanade park with wide open riverfront views; and the Norfolk Omni Hotel. On the inland side of Waterside Drive, the demolition of the warehouses and wharves created new parcels on which most of the high rise buildings in Norfolk's skyline now stand. The Rouse Company, founded by James W. Rouse in 1939 and publicly held since 1956, is a shopping mall and community developer. ... The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the City of Baltimore. ... A skyline is best described as the overall or partial view of a silhouette of a citys tall buildings and structures consisting of many skyscrapers in front of the sky in the background. ...

Nauticus
Nauticus

Norfolk's efforts to revitalize its downtown have attracted acclaim in economic development and urban planning circles throughout the country. Publications such as the American Planning Association's monthly Planning Magazine, have hailed the tremendous rebound in the downtown residential population, and Money Magazine proclaimed Norfolk as the number one city in which to live in the South in 1999. Image File history File links Wisconsin_museum. ... Image File history File links Wisconsin_museum. ... Cover of Money magazine Money is a Time Warner financial magazine. ...


The rising fortunes of the downtown area have helped expand the city's coffers which has in turn been able to direct its attention to revitalizing other neighborhoods of the city. Located just northwest of downtown, the Ghent district of Norfolk is one of the Hampton Roads region's premier urban residential communities. Ghent has the highest residential densities of any other area in Hampton Roads, and is home to a diverse array of people - artists, strivers, lower income to wealthy, etc. Many other areas of Norfolk are also being revitalized, including Fairmount Park, Ocean View and East Beach, the latter both on the Chesapeake Bay. A residential house in Ghent (Norfolk, Virginia). ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ...


Government and Law

Norfolk governs itself through a city council with a mayor and a city manager. Paul Fraim serves as mayor. Norfolk is an independent city with services that both counties and cities provide.


Economy

Since Norfolk serves as the commercial and cultural center for the somewhat unique geographical region of Hampton Roads (and in its political structure of independent cities), it can be difficult to separate the economic characteristics of Norfolk, from that of the region as a whole. In any case, it is no surprise that the waterways which almost completely surround the Hampton Roads region also play an important part in the local economy. As a strategic location at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, its protected deep water channels serve as major arteries for the import and export of goods from across the Mid-Atlantic, Mid-West, and international destinations, as well as playing host to the world's largest naval base.[4]

See also: List of foreign consulates in Norfolk

The following list are countries that currently have Consulate offices in Norfolk, Virginia:[1] In the United States, the consular network (rank in descending order: Consul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, Honorary Consul) (Consul General) - A consul general heads a consulate general and is a consul of the highest rank serving...

Military

Hampton Roads is a major military center, particularly for the United States Navy, and Norfolk serves as the home for the most important of these regional installations, Naval Station Norfolk. Located on Sewell's Point Peninsula, in the northwest corner of the city, the installation is the current headquarters of the Atlantic Fleet, as well as being home port for the 2nd Fleet, which compromises approximately 62,000 active duty personnel, 75 ships, and 132 aircraft. The base also serves as the headquarters to the Allied Command Transformation (NATO) and the United States Joint Forces Command. USN redirects here. ... -1... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ... The Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) of the United States Navy is the part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The 2nd Fleet of the United States Navy is responsible in peacetime for training the Atlantic battle fleet in war-fighting skills, developing and evaluating new naval tactics and maintaining theater battle group readiness. ... This Wikipedia article uses European spelling because of NATOs historical use of this style as a standard. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... USJFCOM Logo U.S. Joint Forces Command is one of nine unified combatant commands of the U.S. military. ...


The region also plays an important role in defense contracting, with particular emphasis in the shipbuilding and ship repair businesses for the city of Norfolk. Major private shipyards located in Norfolk include: BAE Systems Norfolk Ship Repair, Metro Machine Corp., and Colonna's Shipyard Inc.. Most contracts fulfilled by these shipyards are issued by the Navy, though some private commercial repair also takes place.


When combined with other important regional military installations such as Naval Air Station Oceana, Norfolk Naval Shipyard (in Portsmouth), Langley Air Force Base, and Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek, and along with other important defense contractors, the military serves as the region's economic backbone and cultural focal point. In fact, it is estimated that over 35% of Gross Regional Product (which includes the entire Norfolk-Newport News-Virginia Beach MSA), is attributable to defense spending, and that 75% of all regional growth since 2001 is attributable to increases in defense spending.[5] Naval Air Station Oceana IATA: NTU, ICAO: KNTU), also known as NAS Oceana, is a military airport located in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and is a United States Navy Master Jet Base (a base that offers 24 hour service and fuel). ... Aerial View of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a U.S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, Virginia, for building, remodeling, and repairing the Navys ships. ... Langley Air Force Base (IATA: LFI, ICAO: KLFI) is located at in Hampton, Virginia is home of Air Combat Command. ... The Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek is the major operating base for the Amphibious Forces in the United States Navys Atlantic Fleet. ...


Commercial Ports

After the military, the 2nd largest and most important industry for Hampton Roads and Norfolk based on economic impact are the region's cargo ports. Headquartered in Norfolk, the Virginia Port Authority (VPA) is a Commonwealth of Virginia owned-entity that, in turn, owns and operates three major port facilities in Hampton Roads for break-bulk and container type cargo. In Norfolk, Norfolk International Terminals (NIT) represents one of those three facilities and is home to the world's largest and fastest container cranes.[6] Together, the 3 terminals of the VPA handled a total of over 2 million TEUs and 475,000 tons of breakbulk cargo in 2006, making it the 2nd* busiest port on the east coast of North America by total cargo volume after the Port of New York and New Jersey. In addition, just across the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, Maersk is spending $450 million to open the largest container terminal on the East Coast sometime in late 2007.[7] State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Elizabeth River is a short tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. ... Maersk Containers The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group, is an international business consortium involved in a variety of business sectors, primarily transportation. ...


In addition to NIT, Norfolk is home to Lambert's Point Docks, the largest coal trans-shipment point in the Northern Hemisphere, with annual throughput of approximately 48 million tons.[8] Bituminous coal is primarily sourced from the Appalachian mountains in western Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky. The coal is loaded onto trains and sent to the port where it is unloaded onto large breakbulk cargo ships and destined for New England, Europe, and Asia primarily. Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Most major shipping lines have a permanent presence in the region with some combination of sales, distribution, and/or logistical offices, many of which are located in Norfolk. In addition, many of the largest international shipping companies have chosen Norfolk as their North American headquarters. These companies are either located at the Norfolk World Trade Center building or have constructed buildings in the Lake Wright Executive Center office park. Among them include: An industrial park is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ...

  • CMA CGM - The French firm and world's 3rd largest shipping line has its North American headquarters in Norfolk.[9]
  • Zim Integrated Shipping Services - An Israeli owned shipping line and the 13th largest in the world, also has its North American headquarters in Norfolk.[10]
  • Maersk Line Limited - A subsidiary of the world's largest shipping line, A.P. Moller-Maersk Group, specializing in US government shipping contracts,.

CMA CGM S.A. is a French container transportation and shipping company, founded by M. Jacques R. Saadé. It is the largest container shipping company in France and the fifth largest container company in the world. ... Zim Integrated Shipping Services is the biggest cargo shipping company in Israel. ... Maersk Containers The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group, is an international business consortium involved in a variety of business sectors, primarily transportation. ...

Tourism

Though Virginia Beach and Williamsburg have traditionally been the centers of tourism for the region, the rebirth of downtown Norfolk and the construction of a cruise ship pier at the foot of Nauticus in downtown has driven tourism to become an increasingly important part of the city's economy. The number of cruise ship passengers who visited Norfolk increased from 50,000 in 2003, to 107,000 in 2004 and 2005. Also in April of 2007, the city completed construction on a $36 million state-of-the-art cruise ship terminal alongside the pier.[11] Partly due to this construction, passenger counts dropped to 70,000 in 2006, but is expected to rebound to 90,000 in 2007, and higher in later years. Unlike most cruise ship terminals which are located in industrial areas, the downtown location of Norfolk's terminal has received favorable reviews from both tourists and the cruise lines who enjoy its proximity to the city's hotels, restaurants, shopping, and cultural amenities.[12] Part of the Virginia Beach oceanfront resort strip. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Nauticus National Maritime Center. ...


Other Major Companies Headquartered in Norfolk

Trader Square, headquarters of Dominion Enterprises
Trader Square, headquarters of Dominion Enterprises
  • Norfolk Southern Ticker: NS, a Fortune 500 company and one of the country's largest railroad operators, is headquartered in downtown Norfolk.
  • Landmark Communications, one of the country's largest privately owned media companies with ownership of several daily newspapers, local TV stations, specialty publications, and most famously, The Weather Channel and weather.com.
  • Dominion Enterprises, a wholly owned subsidiary of Landmark Communications, a print and internet media group that includes numerous specialty publications and online classifieds. The company recently finished construction on a headquarters in downtown.
  • FHC Health Systems, one of the top 250 largest private companies in the US, specializing in health care management, health services, and online medical reports.
  • Portfolio Recovery Associates Ticker: PRAA, primary business is the purchase, collection, and management of defaulted customer receivables.
  • BlackHawk Products Group - provides tactical gear such as holsters, body armor, and backpacks to the U.S. Defense Department and law enforcement agencies throughout the world.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 839 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) New headquarters of Dominion Enterprises in Downtown Norfolk. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 839 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) New headquarters of Dominion Enterprises in Downtown Norfolk. ... Norfolk Southern Corporation (AAR reporting mark NS) NYSE: NSC is a US publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ... Landmark Communications is a privately-held media company specializing in cable television, broadcast television, print publishing, and internet publishing. ... Landmark Communications is a privately-held media company specializing in cable television, broadcast television, print publishing, and internet publishing. ...

Media

Newspapers

Norfolk's daily newspaper is the Virginian-Pilot. Other papers include the Port Folio Weekly, the New Journal and Guide, the Hampton Roads Business Journal, Old Dominion University's Crown and Mace, Norfolk State University's The Spartan Echo, and Virginia Wesleyan College's Marlin Chronicles.[13] The Virginian-Pilot is a daily newspaper based in Norfolk, Virginia and serving southeastern Virginia, Virginias Eastern Shore, and northeastern North Carolina. ... Old Dominion University (ODU) is a public research university located in Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. It was established in 1930 as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Norfolk State University (NSU) is a four-year, state-supported, coed, liberal arts institution, founded in 1935 as the Norfolk State Unit of Virginia Union University (VUU). ... Virginia Wesleyan College is a small Methodist liberal arts college on the border of Virginia Beach and Norfolk, Virginia offering a Bachelor of Arts in many disciplines and has added Bachelor of Science programs as well. ...


Magazines

Hampton Roads Magazine serves as a bi-monthly regional magazine for Norfolk and the Hampton Roads area.[14] This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the...


Television

Norfolk is also served by several television stations.


Public

Norfolk's major network television affiliates include:

Channel Callsign Network(s) Website
3 WTKR (CBS) http://www.wtkr.com/
10 WAVY (NBC) http://www.wavy.com
13 WVEC (ABC) http://www.wvec.com/
15 WHRO (PBS) http://www.whro.org/
27 WGNT (CW) http://www.cw27.com/
33 WTVZ (MyNetworkTV) http://www.mytvz.com
43 WVBT (Fox) http://www.myfoxhamptonroads.com/
49 WPXV (ION Television) http://www.ionline.tv/

Norfolk residents also are able to receive independent stations such as WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina and WGBS broadcasting on channel 7 from Hampton. In broadcasting and radio communication, a callsign or call sign (also call letters) is a unique designation for a transmitting station. ... WTKR is the CBS affiliate serving the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, officially known as the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News DMA. The station is licensed to Norfolk and broadcasts on channel 3. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... WAVY-TV is the NBC affiliate serving the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News, Virginia television market (DMA). ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... WVEC-TV is the ABC affiliate for the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, which includes Norfolk-Portsmouth, Newport News, and the surrounding area. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... WHRO-TV, channel 15 is the PBS member for Hampton Roads, Virginia (the Norfolk–Portsmouth–Newport News television market (DMA). ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... WGNT, channel 27, is the CW-affiliated station for the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News, Virginia (known collectively as Hampton Roads) market. ... The CW Television Network, known simply as The CW, is a new network set to launch for the 2006-07 television season. ... WTVZ-TV is the My Network TV affiliate serving the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News, Virginia (or Hampton Roads) television market. ... MyNetworkTV (sometimes written My Network TV, and unofficially abbreviated MyNet, MyTV, MNT, or MNTV) is a television network in the United States, owned by News Corporation. ... WVBT-TV is the Fox Network affiliate serving the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News, VA television market (Designated Market Area). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... WPXV is the i affiliate for Hampton Roads, licensed to Norfolk, Virginia. ... ION Television is a broadcast and cable television network first broadcast on August 31, 1998 under the name PAX TV (early on in its development, it was called PaxNet). ... WSKY-TV, which launched around fall 2001, is an independent station serving the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News, VA television market (DMA) and the Outer Banks of North Carolina. ... WGBS-LP is an mid-power television station in Hampton, Virginia, broadcasting locally on channel 7 and serves the Greater Hampton Roads area. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ...


Cable

Norfolk is served by Cox Cable which provides LNC 5, a local 24-hour cable news network. DirecTV and Dish Network are also very popular as an alternative to cable television in Norfolk. Cox Enterprises is the successor to the publishing company founded at Dayton, Ohio, by James Middleton Cox, who began with the Dayton Daily News. ... Logo before switch to channel 5. ... A standard DirecTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DirecTV (trademarked as DIRECTV) is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, USA, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America except for Mexico. ... DISH Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the United States, owned by parent company EchoStar Communications Corporation. ...


Radio

Norfolk is served by a variety of radio stations on the AM and FM dials with towers located all over the Hampton Roads area.[15] This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the...


Culture and Contemporary Life

As with most of Virginia (the Northern Virginia/Washington D.C metro area being the notable exception), Norfolk is most often associated with the larger American South. However, due to the large presence of the military in the region, which has brought people to Hampton Roads from across all regions of the country, some traditions and cultural aspects have changed more so than in other southern regions. One of the most notable differences is the relative lack of presence of the Southern accent. While it is not uncommon to hear someone speak with a Southern accent, especially older persons or persons from other southern regions, it is heard less frequently in Hampton Roads than some other parts of the south due, in large part, to the transient military and maritime population. Still, some elements of the southern dialect and culture have remained firmly in place, and newcomers often quickly adapt to these cultural differences. For instance, the expressions ya'll as a plural second-person pronoun, 'honey' or 'hon' as a term of endearment, sweetened ice tea, Southern fried chicken, grits, and other traditional southern food dishes remain a part of the daily culture. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of to before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126). ... Water tower in Florence, Kentucky featuring the word yall. ... Grits and a waffle, both topped with butter. ...


Norfolk was historically part of the slave-holding South, and was later segregated along racial lines until the 1960s. This has led to racial tensions within the highly diversified city that have been slow to heal, and those tensions still occasionally flare up. As recently as January of 2007, controversial city councilman Paul Riddick (who is black) accused white city police of, “...shooting blacks and white cops need to stop shooting black police officers” - a reference to the death of a black undercover police officer that was ruled accidental.[16] Nevertheless, racial tensions have been slowly subsiding overtime as younger generations who have no firsthand recollection of segregation have reached adulthood and started families of their own.


Norfolk remains the region's cultural heart and in addition to several outstanding museums, is the principle home for several major performing arts companies. Norfolk also plays host to numerous yearly festivals and parades, mostly at Town Pointe Park in downtown.


Museums

Nauticus
Nauticus
  • Chrysler Museum of Art - Located in the Ghent District just outside of downtown, this is the region's foremost art museum and is considered by The New York Times to be the finest in the entire state.[17] Of particular note is the extensive glass collection and American neoclassical marble sculptures.
  • Nauticus, located on the downtown waterfront, is a maritime-themed museum featuring hands-on exhibits, high definition films, and educational programs designed to increase awareness of the importance of the world's waterways. It is also noted for being the home to the battleship USS Wisconsin, the last battleship to be completed in the United States, and which briefly served in World War II, and later in the Korean and Gulf wars.[18]
  • Hermitage Foundation Museum - Located in an early 20th century Tudor style home, on a twelve acre estate fronting the Lafayette River, this museum features an eclectic collection of Asian and Western art including Chinese bronze and ceramics, Persian rugs, and ivory carvings.
  • General Douglas MacArthur Memorial - Located in the former Norfolk city hall rotunda in downtown, the museum contains the tombs of the late General and his wife, along with personal belongings (including his famous corncob pipe), and a short film that chronicles the life of the famous American army general.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 963 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Nauticus, downtown Norfolk. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 963 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Nauticus, downtown Norfolk. ... The Chrysler Museum of Art was originally founded in 1939 in Norfolk, Virginia as the Norfolk Museum of Arts and Sciences. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Nauticus, The National Maritime Center. ... USS Wisconsin (BB-64) is an Iowa-class battleship, and is the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... The Tudor style, a term applied to the Perpendicular style, was originally that of the English architecture and decorative arts produced under the Tudor dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603, characterized as an amalgam of Late Gothic style formalized by more concern for regularity and symmetry, with round... The Lafayette River is a short tidal estuary which empties into the Elizabeth River just south of Sewells Point near its mouth at Hampton Roads, which in turn empties into the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. ... General of the Army Douglas MacArthur KCB (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964), was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippines Army. ...

Performing Arts

  • Virginia Opera - The Official Opera Company of the Commonwealth of Virginia, founded in 1974. Current artistic director is Peter Mark. Though performances are statewide, the company's principal venue is the Harrison Opera House in the Ghent District.[19]
  • Virginia Stage Company - Founded in 1968, the company is one of the country's leading regional theaters and produces a full season of plays in the beautiful Wells Theatre downtown.[20]
  • Virginia Symphony Orchestra - Founded in 1920, current musical director is JoAnn Falleta. Most performances take place at Chrysler Hall in downtown. Also provides musicians for many other performing arts organizations in the area.[21]

Virginia Opera is led by its Artistic Director, Peter Mark, who has been with the company since its first major performances in 1975. ... The Edythe C. and Stanley L. Harrison Opera House is the official home of Virginia Opera in Norfolk, Virginia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Founded in 1920, the Virginia Symphony Orchestra has served the communities of Hampton Roads for over eight decades and has grown into a fully professional ensemble recognized as one of the nation’s leading regional symphony orchestras. ...

Festivals and Parades

Town Pointe Park in downtown plays host to a wide variety of annual events from early spring through late fall. Among the most notable are:

  • Harborfest - The region's largest annual festival celebrated its 30th year in 2006. Harborfest is held during the first weekend of June and celebrates the region's proximity and attachment to the water. The Parade of Sail (numerous tall sailing ships from around the world form in line and sail past downtown before docking at the marina), music concerts, regional food, and a large fireworks display highlight this 3 day festival.[22]
  • Bayoo Boogaloo and Canjun Food Festival - A celebration of the Cajun people and culture. From small beginnings, this 3 day festival during the 3rd week of June has become of the largest in the region, and in addition to serving up Cajun cuisine also features Cajun music.[22]
  • Fourth of July - The annual celebration of American independence, marked by a spectacular fireworks display and a special Navy reenlistment ceremony.[22]
  • Norfolk Jazz Festival - Though smaller by comparison to some of the big city jazz festivals, the Norfolk version still manages to attract the country's top jazz performers. Held in August.[22]
  • St. Patrick's Day - Annual parade in the city's Ocean View neighborhood, celebration of Ocean View's rich Irish heritage.[23]
  • Town Pointe Virginia Wine Festival - A showcase for Virginia produced wines that has enjoyed increasing success over the years as Virginia's burgeoning wine industry has become increasingly noted both within the United States, and on an international level. Wines can be sampled and then purchased by the bottle and/or case directly from the winery kiosks. Held during the 3rd weekend of October.[22]

The Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... St. ... Ocean View is the name of several waterfront communities on the eastern coast of the United States. ...

Gardens and Public Spaces

The Norfolk Botanical Garden (155 acres) is a botanical garden with arboretum located at 6700 Azalea Garden Road, Norfolk, Virginia. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Inside the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden (Brazil), 1890 Botanical gardens (in Latin, hortus botanicus) grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes, but also for the enjoyment and education of visitors, a consideration that has become essential to... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ... The Virginia Zoo is a zoo located in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, North China, Manchurian, or Korean Tiger, it is the largest tiger subspecies of the world. ... Binomial name Ceratotherium simum Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megaherbivore species left. ...

Nightlife

Hampton Roads had long been derided for its lack of nightlife (quality clubs, bars, and lounges in particular) both by locals, and those who came to the region by way of the military. Over the course of the last several years, however, the revitalization of downtown Norfolk (and the established clubs and bars can claim to have contributed to this success) has helped to significantly improve this aspect of the Hampton Roads cultural scene. In particular, a large number of clubs, representing a wide range of music interests and sophistication, now line the lower Granby Street area. Some of the clubs include the newly opened Club Seven and Granby Theater. Not far away, the Waterside Festival Marketplace has also continued to be successful as a nightclub and bar venue. The Waterside in Norfolk. ...


Education

Elementary, secondary

Norfolk City Public Schools, the public school system, comprises 5 high schools, 8 middle schools, 34 elementary schools, and 9 special-purpose/preschools. In 2005, Norfolk Public Schools won the $1 million Broad Prize for Urban Education award for having demonstrated, "the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing achievement gaps for poor and minority students".[25] The city had previously been nominated in 2003 and 2004.


There are also a number of private schools located in the city, the oldest of which, Norfolk Academy, was founded in 1728. Private schools, in the United States, Australia, Scotland, and other English-speaking countries, are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Post Secondary

Norfolk is home to three public universities and one private. It also hosts a community college campus in downtown. In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a technical college, county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees. ...

Old Dominion University (ODU) is a public research university located in Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. It was established in 1930 as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Eastern Virginia Medical School, in Norfolk, Virginia is a public medical school. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Norfolk State University (NSU) is a four-year, state-supported, coed, liberal arts institution, founded in 1935 as the Norfolk State Unit of Virginia Union University (VUU). ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Virginia Wesleyan College is a small Methodist liberal arts college on the border of Virginia Beach and Norfolk, Virginia offering a Bachelor of Arts in many disciplines and has added Bachelor of Science programs as well. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Tidewater Community College [[[Image:tcc_logo. ...

Medicine

Because of the prominence of the Portsmouth Naval Hospital and V.A. Hospital in Hampton, Norfolk has had a strong role in medicine. Norfolk is served by Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Sentara Leigh Hospital, Bon Secours DePaul Medical Center, and the Lake Taylor Hospital. The City is also home to the Children's Hospital for the King's Daughters.[26]


It is known for its specialists in diabetes, dermatology, and obstetrics. It achieved international fame on March 1, 1980, when Drs. Georgianna and Howard Jones opened the first in vitro fertilization clinic in the U.S. at EVMS. The country's first in vitro test-tube baby was born there in December of 1981.[27] This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ...


The international headquarters of Operation Smile, a nonprofit organization that specializes in repairing facial deformities in underprivileged children from around the globe is based in the city.[28] Operation Smile is a private, not-for-profit volunteer medical services organization providing reconstructive surgery and related health care to indigent children and young adults in developing countries and the United States. ...


Geography and Climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 249.4 km² (96.3 mi²). 139.2 km² (53.7 mi²) of it is land and 110.3 km² (42.6 mi²) of it (44.22%) is water. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


In addition to extensive riverfront property, Norfolk has miles of bayfront resort property and beaches in the Willoughby Spit and Ocean View communities. Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Willoughby Spit is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ...

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 80 82 88 97 100 101 103 104 99 95 86 80
Norm High °F 47.8 50.3 57.8 67 74.9 82.8 86.8 84.7 79.4 69.4 60.9 52.3
Norm Low °F 32.3 33.6 40.1 47.8 57.6 66.2 71.4 70.1 64.8 52.8 43.7 36.1
Rec Low °F -3 8 18 28 36 45 54 49 45 27 20 7
Precip (in) 3.93 3.34 4.08 3.38 3.74 3.77 5.17 4.79 4.06 3.47 2.98 3.03
Source: USTravelWeather.com [1]

Demographics

Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia from space, July 1996. Norfolk is located in the upper right quadrant, and east is at the top.

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 234,403 people, 86,210 households, and 51,898 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,684.4/km² (4,362.8/mi²). There were 94,416 housing units at an average density of 678.5/km² (1,757.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 48.36% White, 44.11% African American, 0.46% Native American, 2.81% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races, and 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.80% of the population. Download high resolution version (639x631, 132 KB)Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth, and Norfolk, Virginia, USA - July 1996 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Norfolk, Virginia Portsmouth, Virginia Newport News, Virginia Hampton, Virginia Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (639x631, 132 KB)Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth, and Norfolk, Virginia, USA - July 1996 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Norfolk, Virginia Portsmouth, Virginia Newport News, Virginia Hampton, Virginia Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA Categories: NASA images ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Incorporated 1896 Government  - Mayor Joe Frank Area  - City  119. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ... Map Political Statistics Founded 1752 County Independent city Mayor Dr. James W. Holley III Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 120. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


There were 86,210 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.9% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.07. “Spouse” redirects here. ...


The age distribution is 24.0% under the age of 18, 18.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 16.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $31,815, and the median income for a family was $36,891. Males had a median income of $25,848 versus $21,907 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,372. About 15.5% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Forbes magazine listed Norfolk at #34 out of 40 best cities for young professionals with the bottom ten noted as the worst. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Norfolk has the second largest population of Naval retirees in the U.S. after San Diego.[29] The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Nickname: Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: , Country United States State California County San Diego Founded July 16, 1769 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer...


Transportation

Norfolk is linked with its neighbors through an extensive network of arterial and Interstate highways, bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnel complexes. The major east-west routes are Interstate 64, U.S. Route 58 and U.S. Route 460. The major north-south routes are U.S. Route 13 and U.S. Route 17. The Hampton Roads Beltway (I-64 and its spurs I-264, I-464, and I-664) makes a loop around Norfolk. Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... volcanic rock. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Aerial view of parallel trestles and one of four man-made islands which anchor tunnel portions of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel in Virginia, longest in the world A bridge-tunnel is a water crossing facility which uses a combination of bridge and tunnel structures. ... Interstate 64 in Virginia runs east west through the middle of the state from West Virginia via Covington, Lexington, Staunton, and Charlottesville to Richmond. ... U.S. Route 58 is an east-west U.S. Highway that runs for 508 miles (818 km) from U.S. Route 25E in northeast Tennessee to U.S. Route 60 in Virginia Beach, Virginia. ... U.S. Route 460 in Virginia runs east-west through the southern part of the state. ... U.S. Route 13 in Virginia runs north-south through the Hampton Roads and Eastern Shore regions of the state, using the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel to get between the two. ... U.S. Route 17 in Virginia runs north-south through the eastern part of the state, serving the Hampton Roads area and Fredericksburg before ending in Winchester. ...


Local Transit

A transit bus system and paratransit service are provided by Hampton Roads Transit (HRT), a regional public transport system headquartered in Hampton. HRT buses run all over Norfolk and South Hampton Roads and onto the Peninsula all the way up to Williamsburg. Other routes travel to Smithfield, Virginia. HRT offers a free ferry service from downtown Norfolk to Old Town Portsmouth. [30] Additional services include an HOV express bus to the Norfolk Naval Base, paratransit services, park and ride lots, and the Norfolk Electric Trolley, which provides service in the downtown area. [31] A light rail service has recently received final approval with construction expected to begin in late 2007 with operations beginning in 2010.[32] The light rail will be called "The Tide" and will have a starter route running along the southern portion of Norfolk, commencing at Newtown Road and passing through stations serving areas such as Norfolk State University and Harbor Park before going through the heart of downtown Norfolk and terminating at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital. [33] For other uses, see Bus (disambiguation). ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ... Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) formed in 1999 by the merging of Pentran in Hampton and TRT in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... Smithfield is the name of several places in England, the United States of America, Ireland, Australia and South Africa. ... NS Norfolk logo Naval Station Norfolk, in Norfolk, Virginia, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Norfolk State University (NSU) is a four-year, state-supported, coed, liberal arts institution, founded in 1935 as the Norfolk State Unit of Virginia Union University (VUU). ... Harbor Park is a stadium in Norfolk, Virginia. ...


Air, Rail, Bus Services, and Cruise Ships

Norfolk is served by Amtrak through the Newport News station, via connecting buses. The line runs west along the Virginia Peninsula to Richmond and points beyond. A high speed rail connection at Richmond to both the Northeast Corridor and the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor are also under study. Acela Express in West Windsor, NJ Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida For other uses, see Amtrak (disambiguation). ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Incorporated 1896 Government  - Mayor Joe Frank Area  - City  119. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor (SEHSR) is a passenger rail transportation project in the United States to connect with existing high speed rail corridor from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, DC known as the Northeast Corridor (served by Amtraks Acela Express and Regional services and many commuter railroads) and extend...


Greyhound provides service from a central bus terminal in downtown Norfolk. Bus services to New York City via the Chinatown bus, Today's Bus, which is located on Newtown road. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Norfolk is primarily served by the Norfolk International Airport, the region's major commerical airport, and the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport to a lesser extent. Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORF, ICAO: KORF, FAA LID: ORF) is a public airport located in Norfolk, Virginia, United States. ... Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport (IATA: PHF, ICAO: KPHF) is an airport located 9 mi (14 km) northwest of Newport News, Virginia, and serves the entire Hampton Roads metropolitan area along with Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk. ...


The city recently completed construction (April 2007) of the new $36M 'Half Moone Cruise Terminal' in downtown adjacent to the Nauticus museum, providing a state-of-the-art permanent structure for various cruise lines and passengers wishing to embark from Norfolk. Previously, makeshift structures were used to embark/disembark passengers, supplies, and crew.


Major Streets and Roadways

  • 21st Street
  • 35th Street
  • Boush Street
  • City Hall Avenue
  • Chesapeake Avenue
  • Church Street
  • Colley Avenue
  • Commercial Place
  • Duke Street
  • Freemason Street
  • Granby Street
  • Hampton Boulevard
  • Little Creek Road
  • Main Street
  • Military Highway
  • Monticello Avenue
  • Ocean View Avenue
  • Princess Anne Road
  • Saint Paul's Boulevard
  • Tidewater Drive
  • Virginia Beach Boulevard
  • Waterside Drive

A street in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Military Highway is a four-lane roadway built in the South Hampton Roads region of eastern Virginia, USA during World War II. // During World War II, the military build-up meant more people locating in the South Hampton Roads area, and with people came automobiles, many of them. ... Tidewater Drive (part of State Route 168) is located in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia. ... Virginia Beach Boulevard was established in 1922 as a concrete roadway extending from the eastern outskirts of the City of Norfolk through Norfolk County and Princess Anne County to the Oceanfront area of the Town of Virginia Beach in the Hampton Roads region of southeastern Virginia. ...

Historic Neighborhoods

Berkley was a town in Norfolk County, Virginia. ... Colonial Place is a residential neighborhood in Norfolk, Virginia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Larchmont-Edgewater is a residential neighborhood in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Lochhaven is a residential neighborhood in Norfolk, Virginia. ... Ocean View, Virginia is a community in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ... Park Place is a neighborhood in the western-half of Norfolk, Virginia. ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ...

Theatres and Performance Venues

The Attucks Theatre, located in Norfolk, Virginia, was financed, designed and constructed by African American entrepreneurs in 1919. ... The Edythe C. and Stanley L. Harrison Opera House is the official home of Virginia Opera in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Norfolk Scope is a 12,600-seat multipurpose arena in Norfolk, Virginia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Old Dominion University. ... The NORVA is a performing theatre located in Norfolk, Virginia off of Monticello Avenue. ...

Sports

Club Sport League Venue
Norfolk Tides Baseball International League Harbor Park
Norfolk Admirals Ice Hockey American Hockey League Norfolk Scope

League International League Division South Division Year founded 1961 Major League affiliation Baltimore Orioles Home ballpark Harbor Park Previous home ballparks Met Park City Norfolk, Virginia Current uniform colors blue, powder blue, navy blue, black, red Previous uniform colors Logo design The wordmark Tides in navy blue with powder blue... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States and Canada. ... Harbor Park is a stadium in Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Norfolk Admirals are an ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The American Hockey League (AHL) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Norfolk Scope is a 12,600-seat multipurpose arena in Norfolk, Virginia. ...

Sister cities

Norfolk has seven sister cities:[34] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kitakyushu , literally North KyÅ«shÅ«) is a city located in Fukuoka prefecture, KyÅ«shÅ«, Japan. ... Fukuoka Prefecture ) is located on KyÅ«shÅ« Island, Japan. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wilhelmshaven is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Panorama of Toulon area. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: E Mari Merces(Latin) From the Sea, Wealth Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Nova Scotia Established April 1, 1996 Government  - Type Regional Municipality  - Mayor Peter Kelly  - Governing body Halifax Regional Council  - MPs List of MPs Alexa McDonough Geoff Regan Michael Savage Peter Stoffer (Bill Casey) (Gerald Keddy) (Peter MacKay)  - MLAs... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of famous people and celebrities that were either born in or have lived in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.norfolk.gov/Neighborhoods/Services/histories_1845_87.asp
  2. ^ About NSU (HTML) (English). Norfolk State University. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  3. ^ History of JANAF Shopping Center (HTML) (English). JANAF Shopping Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  4. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/norfolk.htm
  5. ^ http://www.odu.edu/bpa/forecasting/2004chapter1.pdf
  6. ^ Norfolk International Terminals (HTML) (English). Virginia Port Authority. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  7. ^ The Port of Hampton Roads (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Economic Development Authority. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  8. ^ Lamberts Point (HTML) (English). Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  9. ^ CMA-CGM Picks Norfolk, Va., as Port of Call for 376-Employee HQ (HTML) (English). The Site Selection Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  10. ^ Zim American Israeli Shipping in Hampton Roads (PDF) (English). Hampton Roads Economic Development Authority. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  11. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCP/is_5_27/ai_n16104639
  12. ^ Cruise Norfolk (HTML) (English). Norfolk Cruise Terminal. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  13. ^ http://www.abyznewslinks.com/unitevanr.htm
  14. ^ Hampton Roads Magazine (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  15. ^ http://www.ontheradio.net/metro/Norfolk_VA.aspx
  16. ^ http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=117342&ran=21869
  17. ^ Norfolk Travel Guide (HTML) (English). New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  18. ^ Nauticus (HTML) (English). Nauticus. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  19. ^ Virginia Opera (HTML) (English). Virginia Opera. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  20. ^ Virginia Stage Company (HTML) (English). Virginia Stage Company. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  21. ^ Virginia Symphony (HTML) (English). Virginia Symphony. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  22. ^ a b c d e Festevents (HTML) (English). City of Norfolk Festevents. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  23. ^ Norfolk St. Patrick's Day Parade (HTML) (English). Knights of Columbus, Father Robert Kealey Council #3548. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  24. ^ Festevents (HTML) (English). Norfolk Botanical Gardens. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  25. ^ http://www.broadprize.org/frequent.shtml
  26. ^ Virginia Hospitals and Medical Centers (HTML) (English). The Agape Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  27. ^ Jones Institute - About Us (HTML) (English). Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  28. ^ Operation Smile (HTML) (English). Operation Smile. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  29. ^ City Data (HTML) (English). city-data.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  30. ^ Schedules and Service (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Transit. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  31. ^ About HRT (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Transit. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  32. ^ The Tide in Last Stage of Review (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Transit. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  33. ^ Norfolk Light Rail Project (HTML) (English). Hampton Roads Transit. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  34. ^ Sister Cities designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI). Retrieved on August 18, 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Norfolk, Virginia - Encyclopedia Article (660 words)
Norfolk is a city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States of America.
The Norfolk Naval Shipyard or "Norfolk Navy Yard" is in Portsmouth, Virginia.
Norfolk and the rest of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area (including Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Williamsburg and Poquoson, Virginia) are served by Norfolk International Airport.
Norfolk, Virginia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1817 words)
Norfolk is home to both the Norfolk Naval Base, the world's largest naval base, and the Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads.
Norfolk is linked with its neighbors through an extensive network of arterial and Interstate highways, bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnel complexes, notably the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel which enters Norfolk at Willoughby Spit.
Norfolk is served by Amtrak via connecting bus with the railroad line across Hampton Roads which terminates at Newport News, and runs west along the Virginia Peninsula to Richmond.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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