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Encyclopedia > Nordic Countries
Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories.
Overview map of the region.
Overview map of the region.

The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe, sometimes called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a rough synonym for the Nordic countries.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1805x1385, 298 KB)Source: Norden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1805x1385, 298 KB)Source: Norden. ... Political geography is the field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x913, 512 KB) A map showing the location of the Norwegian Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x913, 512 KB) A map showing the location of the Norwegian Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


The region's five nation-states and three autonomous regions share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies, such as political systems. Politically, Nordic countries do not form a separate entity, but they co-operate in the Nordic Council. Linguistically, the area is heterogeneous, with three unrelated language groups, the North Germanic branch of Indo-European languages and the Baltic-Finnic and Sami branches of Uralic languages as well as the Eskimo-Aleut language of Kalaallisut spoken in Greenland. The Nordic countries have a combined population of approximately 25 million spread over a land area of 3.5 million km² (Greenland accounts for 60% of the total area). The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... A society is a group of people living or working together. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... The Kalaallisut language (also called Western Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland. ...


Recently, Estonia has also projected itself as a Nordic country, although it is widely considered to be a Baltic state. Estonia has close linguistic, ethnic and cultural ties with Finland, some cultural ties with Sweden and Denmark, and most of its investment and trade is with the Nordic countries. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

Contents

Etymology and terminology

The term is derived from the French term Pays Nordiques as an equivalent of the local terms Norden (Scandinavian languages), Pohjola / Pohjoismaat (Finnish language), Norðurlönd (Icelandic) and Norðurlond (Faroese) with the meaning of "The North(ern lands)". Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Pohjola is a location in Finnish mythology, referring to Pohja (North), as a point of the compass, the Northland — the whole polar region, and in the world of the Kalevala, the land of the Sami. ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... The North may refer to: A geographical section of the world (see latitude). ...


In English usage, the term Scandinavia is sometimes used — though not consistently — as a synonym for the Nordic countries. From the 1850s, Scandinavia came to include, politically and culturally, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland Geographically, the Scandinavian Peninsula includes mainland Sweden and mainland Norway, and also a part of Finland, while the Jutland Peninsula includes mainland Denmark and a small part of Germany. (Denmark proper has not included any territory on the Scandinavian Peninsula since 1658). The Faroe Islands and Iceland are "Scandinavian" in the sense that they were settled by Scandinavians and speak Scandinavian languages, but geographically they are not part of Scandinavia. Finland was once part of Sweden, and has been significantly influenced by Swedish culture, but it is geographically part of Scandinavia either nor is Finnish related to the Scandinavian languages. Greenland was settled by the Norse, and is currently part of the Danish realm, with the Danish language spoken by some, but geographically it is part of North America. Look up Scandinavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Political geography is the field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. ... Cultural geography is a sub-field within human geography. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland, German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the continental part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


In geology, the term for the land area which lies above sea level on the Baltic shield (also known as the Fennoscandian Shield) is Fennoscandia (from the Latin toponyms Fennia and Scania). This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earths crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earths crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Scandinavia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ...


Before the 19th century, the term Nordic may have been used more as a synonym for Northern to mean Northern Europe, including European Russia, the Baltic countries (at that time Estonia, Livonia and Courland, Lithuania) and occasionally the British Isles and other lands on the shores of the Baltic and North Seas. Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


History

See also: History of Finland, History of Iceland, and History of Scandinavia

The Nordic countries are characterised by similar structures of their societies and cultural traits. This results not only from similar environmental realities and thus traditional livelihoods but also from a shared history. The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ... // Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ...


During the Middle Ages, what are now Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland, they shared a similar cultural, linguistic (Old Norse) and religious (Norse mythology) environment. From ca. the 12th century onwards what is now Finland (linguistically Baltic-Finnic and broader Finno-Ugric) started sharing the common developments as it was increasingly integrated into the kingdom of Sweden. As another example of a deeply rooted unifying past could be taken the indigenous Sami lifestyle (linguistically Finno-Ugric) across what is now northern Norway, Sweden and Finland (and beyond). Indeed, all Nordic countries have minority groups deriving or claiming heritage of a population residing within another Nordic state. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... See Language (journal) for the linguistics journal. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Finnic (Fennic, sometimes Baltic Finnic) may refer to Finnish-similar languages spoken close to the Gulf of Finland, i. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ...


After being Christianised around the year 1000, the process of local unification established Denmark, Norway and Sweden as separate kingdoms. Finland became part of Sweden in the mid 1200s, whereas Iceland, the Faroe Islands, the Shetland Islands, Orkney, Greenland and large parts of Scotland and Ireland belonged to Norway. All Nordic countries followed the Protestant Reformation of the Western church during the 16th century and adopted Lutheran state churches - still having a large membership count, although state church status varies. Finland also has a much smaller Orthodox state church whose members mainly come from the areas that were outside the Swedish realm when Christianity was introduced. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... This article is about the country. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... ...


In the 14th century, Denmark, Norway (with Iceland) and Sweden (with Finland) were united under one regent, in the Kalmar Union. Denmark quickly gained the upper hand, but in the early 16th century Sweden reestablished itself as a separate kingdom. Denmark's domination over Norway lasted until 1814 when the king was forced to cede Norway to the king of Sweden. Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands remained Danish. Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ...


After establishing itself as one of the Great powers in Europe during the 17th century Sweden ultimately lost its foreign Dominions one by one. This process culminated in the loss of Finland to Russia in 1809 which became an autonomous Grand Duchy under the Russian tsar. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


The 19th century saw a personal union between Sweden and Norway which was dissolved in 1905 due to growing dissatisfaction from the Norwegian part. At the same time Scandinavism emerged in Scandinavia. This movement strove to unite the three Scandinavian countries into one kingdom without much success. Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ...


During World War I and in the midst of the Russian revolution of 1917, Finland emerged for the first time as an independent nation and the perspective of a Nordic community replaced the idea of a united Scandinavia alone. During World War II in 1944, Iceland gained its independence from Denmark. The member states of the Nordic council (founded in 1952) had thus emerged. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Nordic countries share similar traits in the policies implemented under the postwar period, especially in the socioeconomic area. All Nordic countries have large tax-funded public welfare sectors and extensive socialist legislation. In most cases, this is due to the political ambitions of the many Social Democrat governments that came to power during the interwar period in each of the Nordic countries. The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Chronology of the Nordic countries

Century Nordic Political Entities
21st Denmark (EU) Faroes (Denmark) Iceland Norway Sweden (EU) Finland (EU)
20th Denmark Sweden Finland
19th Denmark Sweden and Norway GD of Finland
18th Denmark-Norway Sweden
17th
16th
15th Kalmar Union
14th Denmark Norway Sweden
13th
12th Faroes Icelandic CW Norway
Nordic Peoples Danes Faroese Icelanders Norwegians Swedes Finns

Anthem Tú alfagra land mítt You, my most beauteous land Capital (and largest city) Tórshavn Official languages Faroese, Danish Government  -  Monarch Margrethe II  -  Prime Minister Jóannes Eidesgaard Autonomous province  -  Home rule 1948  Area  -  Total 1,399 km² (180th) 540 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Anthem Tú alfagra land mítt You, my most beauteous land Capital (and largest city) Tórshavn Official languages Faroese, Danish Government  -  Monarch Margrethe II  -  Prime Minister Jóannes Eidesgaard Autonomous province  -  Home rule 1948  Area  -  Total 1,399 km² (180th) 540 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ...

Nordic Passport Union

The Nordic Passport Union includes Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.
The Nordic Passport Union includes Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

The Nordic Passport Union, created in 1954, and implemented on May 1, 1958, allows citizens of the Nordic countries (Denmark (Faroe Islands included since January 1, 1966, Greenland not included), Sweden, Norway (Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Bouvet Island and Queen Maud's Land not included), Finland and Iceland (since September 24, 1965)) to cross approved border districts without carrying and having their passport checked. Other citizens can also travel between the Nordic countries' borders without having their passport checked, but still have to carry a passport or another kind of approved travel identification papers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Territorial claims of Antarctica Queen Maud Land is an English translation of Dronning Maud Land, the official name in use by Norwegian authorities and British Antarctic Survey on the part of Antarctica claimed by Norway on January 14, 1939 as a dependent territory. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


Since 1996, these countries have joined the larger EU directive Schengen Agreement area, comprising 30 countries in Europe. Border checkpoints have been removed within the Schengen zone and only a national ID card is required. Within the Nordic area any ID card, e.g. driving licence is valid for Nordic citizens, because of the Nordic Passport Union. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members implementing from 21 December 2007 (overland borders) and 29 March 2008 (seaports and airports)  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A border checkpoint is, as its name suggests, a place between borders where the identities of the ongoers or their cargo are evaluated. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... Driving licences within the European Union are subdivided in different categories. ...


From March 25, 2001, the Schengen acquis fully applied to the five countries of the Nordic Passport Union (except for the Faroe Islands, which remain outside of Schengen). There are some areas in the Nordic Passport Union that gives extra rights for Nordic citizens, not covered by Schengen, such as less paperwork if moving to a different Nordic country, and less requirements for naturalisation of citizenship. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... -1... “Citizen” redirects here. ...


Political dimension and divisions

The Nordic region has a mild political dimension in joint official bodies called the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In this context, several aspects of the common market as in the European Union have been implemented decades before the EU implemented them. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In the European Union, the Northern Dimension refers to external and cross-border policies covering the Nordic countries, the Baltic countries, and Russia. The Northern dimension is an initiative in the European Union regarding the cross-border and external policies covering Nordic countries, Baltic states and Russia. ...


Politically, the Nordic dimension has grown increasingly irrelevant, since the member states disagree on memberships in the European Union, Eurozone, and NATO. Norway and Iceland are only members of NATO, while Finland and Sweden are only members of the European Union. Denmark alone participates in both organizations. Only Finland is a member of the Eurozone. The tasks and policies of the European Union overlap with the Nordic council significantly, e.g. the Schengen Agreement partially supersedes the Nordic passport free zone and a common labor market. The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members implementing from 21 December 2007 (overland borders) and 29 March 2008 (seaports and airports)  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just... The Common Travel Area includes the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport-free zone) refers to the fact that citizens[1] of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Jersey and...


Flags and symbols

Flags

All Nordic countries, including the autonomous territories of Faroe and Åland Islands, have a similar flag design, all based on the Dannebrog, the Danish flag. They display an off-center cross with the intersection closer to the hoist, the "Nordic cross". The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... National motto: ? Official language Swedish Capital Mariehamn Governor Peter Lindbäck Premier Roger Nordlund Total Area  - Land  - Water 6,784 km² 1,527 km² 5,258 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 26,257 17. ... The Dannebrog. ... Nordic Cross Flag, Nordic Cross, Scandinavian Cross is a pattern of flags usually associated with the flags of the Scandinavian countries of which it originated. ...

Flag of Denmark Flag of the Faroe Islands Flag of Finland Flag of Iceland Flag of Norway Flag of Sweden Flag of Åland
Denmark Faroe Islands Finland Iceland Norway Sweden Åland
Nordic flags
Nordic flags

Greenland and the Sami people have adopted flags without the Nordic cross, but they feature a circle which is placed off-center like the cross. Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Faroe_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aaland. ... Flag of Ã…land The flag of Ã…land points to the location of the islands - it is the Swedish flag with an additional red cross symbolising Finland. ... Picture of a Norden bombsight from http://www. ... Picture of a Norden bombsight from http://www. ... The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ...

Flag of Greenland
Greenland The Sami people

Image File history File links Flag_of_Greenland. ... Image File history File links Sami_flag. ... The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ...

Areas with close relations to the Nordic countries

Several areas have a long and close relationship with and often identify with some or all of the Nordic countries. These are however for the most part not regarded as part of the Nordic group themselves.


Shetland and Orkney

Flag of Orkney Flag of Shetland
Orkney Shetland

The Northern Isles of Scotland - Orkney and Shetland - have a long-established Nordic identity. The islands were Norwegian colonies for more than 500 years, but ownership defaulted to the crown of Scotland in 1472 following non-payment of the marriage dowry of Margaret of Denmark and Norway, queen of James III of Scotland. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Shetland. ... Flag of Orkney The Flag of the Orkney Islands is that of St Magnus, a yellow field with a red Nordic cross. ... Flag of Shetland The flag of Shetland was designed by Roy Grönneberg and Bill Adams in 1969. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ...


During World War II Shetland and Orkney were important bases for the Norwegian armed forces in exile. The Shetland Bus was based in Shetland and smuggled refugees, agents and supplies to and from Norway. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Shetland bus was the popular name of the escape route and supply route established between occupied Norway and the Shetland Islands (Scotland), operated initially by a large number of small fishing boats and later by three US made submarinechasers; HNoMS Vigra, HNoMS Hitra and HNoMS Hessa. ...


In later years financial relations, particularly in the maritime industries, have been important. Cultural and sporting exchanges are frequent. A genetic survey showed that 60% of the male population of Shetland and Orkney had Norwegian genes.[citation needed]


The traditional links to Scandinavia are reflected in the islands' flags, both of which are based around a Nordic cross: Nordic Cross Flag, Nordic Cross, Scandinavian Cross is a pattern of flags usually associated with the flags of the Scandinavian countries of which it originated. ...


Other regions of the British Isles have adopted symbols to allude to a similar Norse or Norse-Gaelic heritage. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ...


Estonia

Estonians consider themselves a Nordic people rather than Balts,[2][3] based on strong linguistic, cultural and historical ties with Finland in particular, and also with Sweden and Denmark. The Estonian language is closely related to the Finnish language and Estonians, as an ethnic group, are a Finnic people. Estonia was part of the Danish and Swedish empires for many centuries: it is generally thought that the name of the Estonian capital, Tallinn, derives from the Estonian taani linn, meaning 'Danish town.' The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... County Area 159. ...

Flag of Estonia Proposed Estonian flag featuring a Nordic cross
Current Estonian flag Proposed Estonian flag
featuring a Nordic cross

Estonia was part of the Swedish and Danish Empires for centuries prior to its absorption into the Russian Empire. Historically, large parts of Estonia’s north-western coast and islands have been populated by an indigenous ethnically Swedish population (Estonian Swedes). The majority of Estonia's Swedish population fled to Sweden in 1944, escaping the advancing Soviet Army. Only about a thousand Swedes were left. Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Estonian_alternative_flag_proposal. ... Flag ratio: 7:11 Flag of the President. ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or Estonia Swedes, colloquially Aibofolke, or Island People, Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. ...


Since regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has expressed interest in identifying with the Nordic community. In 1999, Estonian Foreign Minister — and current president since 2006 — Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs.[4] In 2003, the foreign ministry also hosted an exhibit called "Estonia: Nordic with a Twist."[5] In 2005, Estonia also joined the European Union's Nordic Battle Group and shows interest in joining the Nordic Council. Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... The Swedish Institute for International Affairs (Swedish: ) is a public-service organization located in central Stockholm, Sweden. ... A foreign minister is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) is one of eighteen European Union Battlegroups. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ...


Today there is a great deal of economic interdependence between Estonia and some of its Nordic neighbors. Three quarters of investments into Estonia come from Nordic states (principally Finland and Sweden), to which Estonia sends 58% of its exports. On the other hand, the Estonian political system and laissez-faire economic policies distinguish it from the welfare state model of the Nordic states, and from many other European countries.


Others

The North of England, particularly the North East was once part of the Danish Viking Empire, and the modern Geordie dialect spoken in Newcastle-upon-Tyne shares some similarity to the modern Germanic languages of the Nordic countries. The region and its culture does not have a Nordic character however[citation needed]. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. ... , Newcastle upon Tyne (usually shortened to Newcastle) is a large city in Tyne and Wear, England. ...


Finally, the northernmost part of Germany, Southern Schleswig on the Jutland peninsula, had a Nordic identity up until its transfer to Germany in the mid 19th century and its subsequent Germanisation. Today, the Nordic character of Southern Schleswig's society and its inhabitants is not very prominent. Southern Schleswig is a name for the geographical area covering the 30-40 most northern kilometers of Germany where Germany borders to Denmark. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


See also

For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The countries and autonomous islands in the Nordic region have some similarly named subnational entities, although their translations into English may differ. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Nordic Cross Flag, Nordic Cross, Scandinavian Cross is a pattern of flags usually associated with the flags of the Scandinavian countries of which it originated. ... The Northern dimension is an initiative in the European Union regarding the cross-border and external policies covering Nordic countries, Baltic states and Russia. ... Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... The West Nordic Councils logo The West Nordic Council[1] is a cooperation forum of the parliaments and governments of the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Largest Nordic Companies is a list of companies from the five Nordic Countries, according to the first half of the Forbes Global 2000. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Headquartered in the heart of Paris, France, Institut Choiseul for International Politics and Geoeconomics is an independent research center that analyzes international relations, economic and political strategies as well as international cultures. ...

References

  1. ^ "Scandinavia". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007.
  2. ^ "Estonian Life". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs publication, 2004.
  3. ^ "Estonian Life". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs publication, 2002.
  4. ^ Ilves, Toomas Hendrik. "Estonia as a Nordic Country". December 14, 1999.
  5. ^ "Estonia - Nordic with a Twist". Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs, 2004 (last updated).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
The Nordic region
  • Norden — the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers' website.
  • Nordregio — a European centre for research, education and documentation on spatial development, established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
  • NordRegio Statistics — a collection of thematic maps and figures of Nordic and Baltic countries by NordRegio.
  • Go Scandinavia — official website of the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America.
  • Scandinavia House — the Nordic Center in New York, run by the American-Scandinavian Foundation.

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