FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Norbuprenorphine

Buprenorphine chemical structure
Buprenorphine The structure of buprenorphine. ...

(2S)-2-[(-)-(5R,6R,7R,14S)-
9α-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5-epoxy-
-6,14-ethanomorphinan-7-yl]-3-hydroxy-
6-methoxy-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-ol
CAS number
52485-79-7
ATC code
N02AE01/N07BC01
Chemical formula C29H41NO4
Molecular weight 467.64
Bioavailability 31% (sublingual)
Metabolism hepatic
Elimination half-life 34.6 hours
Excretion biliary and renal
Pregnancy category C (USA)
Legal status Schedule III (USA)
Schedule 8 (Aust) Schedule III (UK)
Routes of administration sublingual, IM, IV

Buprenorphine, also colloquially referred to as bupe, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. Buprenorphine hydrochloride was first marketed in the 1980s by Reckitt & Colman (now Reckitt Benckiser) as an analgesic, yet is now primarily used for the treatment of opioid addiction. It is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances[1]. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother. ... The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... Motto: none (formerly Advance Australia) Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Capital Canberra Largest city Sydney Official language(s) English (de facto)1 Government  â€¢ Queen  â€¢ Governor-General  â€¢ Prime Minister Const. ... Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorbtion under the tongue. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a substance that inhibits the normal physiological function of a receptor. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Reckitt Benckiser plc is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of cleaning products and a member of the FTSE 100 Index of the largest companies traded on the London Stock Exchange. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain and to achieve analgesia. ... Addiction is a compulsion to repeat a behaviour regardless of its consequences. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...

Contents


Commercial preparations

Britsh firm Reckitt & Colman (now Reckitt Benckiser) first marketed buprenorphine under the trade names Temgesic (sublingual/parenteral preparations, no active additives) and Buprenex (parenteral, no active additives). Two more recent formulations from Reckitt Benckiser have been approved for opioid addiction treatment in the U.S.: Subutex (lemon-lime flavored sublingual, no active additives; in 2mg and 8mg dosages) and Suboxone (orange-tang flavored sublingual, one part naloxone for every four parts buprenorphine; hexagon shaped tablet in 2mg and 8mg dosages). Suboxone contains the opioid antagonist naloxone to deter illicit intravenous preparation of the tablet, this is intended to attenuate the effects of buprenorphine on opioid-naive users should this formulation be injected - however no human studies have been done demonstrating the efficacy of this approach with buprenorphine and a growing number of street reports indicate that the naloxone is ineffective. It must also be noted that buprenorphine in and of itself will induce a precipitated withdrawal syndrome if ingested by an acutely opioid dependant individual via any route. Reckitt Benckiser plc is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of cleaning products and a member of the FTSE 100 Index of the largest companies traded on the London Stock Exchange. ... Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorbtion under the tongue. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of overdosing on opioids such as heroin and morphine. ...


Buprenorphine is also delivered transdermally in 25, 50 and 75 mcg/hour. The trade name in the UK is Transtec, and manufactured by Napp. A new 5, 10 and 20 mcg/hour patch marketed as Bu'7rans (Bu-trans), where the 7 indicates its once weekly dosage for pain in osteoarthritis.


Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics

Buprenorphine is a thebaine derivative, and its analgesic effect is due to partial agonist activity at μ-opioid receptors. Buprenorphine is also a κand δ-opioid receptor antagonist and a partial agonist at ORL 1 nociceptin receptors[2]. The partial agonist activity means that opioid receptor antagonists (e.g., an antidote such as naloxone) only partially reverse the effects of buprenorphine. A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. ...


Buprenorphine hydrochloride is administered by intramuscular injection, intravenous infusion, via a transdermal patch, or as a sublingual tablet. It is not administered orally, due to very high first-pass metabolism. Buprenorphine is metabolised by the liver, via the CYP3A4 isozyme of the cytochrome p450 enzyme system, into norbuprenorphine (by N-dealkylation) and other metabolites. The metabolites are further conjugated with glucuronic acid and eliminated mainly through excretion into the bile. The elimination half-life of buprenorphine is 20.4–72.9 hours (mean 34.6). In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amine). ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... The first pass effect (or first pass metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism. ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... The α-D form of glucuronic acid. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ...


Its main meabolite, norbuprenorphine, is also active. It is a partial agonist at mu and kappa receptors and a full agonist at delta and ORL1 receptors.


Clinical use

Buprenorphine is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, peri-operative analgesia, and opioid dependence. It has a longer duration of action than morphine, and sublingual tablets offer an analgesic effect for 6 to 8 hours. (Joint Formulary Committee, 2004) Australian guidelines recommend against the use of buprenorphine as an analgesic because: its effect is not reversed by naloxone, it may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in people dependent on other opioids, and it may cause dependence itself and has potential for misuse. (Rossi, 2005) When used for opioid dependence, buprenorphine remains effective in the body for up to 48 hours, curbing withdrawal symptoms and counteracting other opioids that may be administered to the patient (licitly or illicitly). Pain is an unpleasant sensation which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional components. ...


Antidepressant

A 10-patient clinical trial conducted at Harvard Medical School in the mid-1990s[3], demonstrated that a majority of treatment-refractory, unipolar, nonpsychotic, major depression patients could be successfully treated with buprenorphine, even after multiple medications from other pharmacologic classes had failed. Although physicians may be reluctant to do so (Callaway 1996), in the U.S., any physician with a Schedule III registration may legally prescribe buprenorphine off-label for depression (see SAMHSA FAQ). A special U.S. DEA waiver for prescribing buprenorphine is only required when the Subutex or Suboxone forms are prescribed to opioid addicts for opioid addiction treatment. In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness or melancholia that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


Adverse effects

Common adverse drug reactions associated with the use of buprenorphine are similar to those of other opioids and include: nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, headache, itch, dry mouth, miosis, orthostatic hypotension, male ejaculatory difficulty, urinary retention, and constipation. (Rossi, 2005) Hepatic necrosis and hepatitis with jaundice have been reported with the use of buprenorphine, and hepatic function is commonly monitored during buprenorphine therapy. An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... Miosis is a medical term for constriction of the pupil. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension and, colloquially, as head rush) is a sudden fall in blood pressure that occurs when a person assumes a standing position. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (adjective:Icteric), is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ...


The most severe and serious adverse reaction associated with opioid use in general is respiratory depression, the mechanism behind fatal overdose. This is particularly problematic with buprenorphine owing to the lack of an effective antagonist (antidote).


As with other opioids, buprenorphine can produce both physical and psychological dependence. However, unlike other opioids, users of buprenorphine rarely develop a tolerance to the drug. Maintenance dosages can remain at the same moderate level indefinitely, and in many cases even lowered, without discomfort. Due to buprenorphine's unique chemistry[4], raising the dosage will not result in a stronger analgesic effect after a certain point (around 16–32mg), beyond which the drug will actually have a reduced analgesic effect.


The partial agonist/antagonist activity of buprenorphine means that it may precipitate opioid withdrawal symptoms when an opioid-dependent patient is commenced on the drug soon after the use of another opioid drug.


Dependence treatment

Buprenorphine sublingual preparations are often used in the management of opioid dependence (that is, dependence on heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, or other opioids). The Suboxone and Subutex preparations were approved for this indication by the United States FDA in October 2002. Dependency has a number of meanings: In project management, a dependency is a link amongst a projects terminal elements. ... Heroin or diacetylmorphine (INN) is a semi-synthetic opioid. ... Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen) is an opioid derived from either of the naturally occurring opiates codeine or thebaine. ... Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... October 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December // Events October 31, 2002 The Russian Health Minister Yuri Shevchenko has now stated that the incapacitating agent used in the storming of the Moscow theatre siege was a fentanyl derivative. ...


The use of opioid-replacement therapy in the management of opioid dependence is highly regulated, owing to the sometimes controversial nature of this aspect of harm reduction policy. In the United States, a special federal waiver is required to prescribe Subutex and Suboxone for opioid addiction treatment on an outpatient basis. Each approved prescriber is allowed to manage only 30 patients on buprenorphine for opioid addiction as outpatients. Similar restrictions are placed on prescribers in many other jurisdictions. A bin allowing for safe disposal of needles in a public toilet in Caernarfon, Wales. ...


Buprenorphine vs. methadone

Buprenorphine and methadone are both used for short-term and long-term opioid maintenance therapy. Each agent has its relative advantages, and several are cited for buprenorphine. Methadone is a synthetic opioid analgesic synthesized in 1937 by German scientists Max Bockmühl and Gustav Ehrhart at IG Farben (Hoechst-Am-Main) who were searching for an analgesic that would be easier to use during surgery and also have low addiction potential. ...


Buprenorphine sublingual tablets (Suboxone and Subutex) have a long duration of action which may allow dosing every two days, compared with the daily dosing required with methadone. In the United States, following initial management, a patient may be prescribed one month supply for self-administration on the condition that the patient receive other dependence therapy.


Buprenorphine may have a lower dependence-liability than methadone. Buprenorphine treatment typically lasts several months (though sometimes for only a few weeks or up to two or three years), as opposed to an indefinite, often life-long methadone regimen. However, there have been as yet no studies indicating that patients withdrawn from buprenorphine relapse any less frequently than those withdrawn from other opioids. Buprenorphine itself appears to have less-severe withdrawal effects than methadone, and thus it is easier to discontinue use, but no evidence exists that sustaining abstinence post-buprenorphine maintenance is any more likely than post-methadone maintenance, or post-heroin withdrawal. Buprenorphine, as a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist, has been claimed to have a less euphoric effect compared to the full agonist methadone, and was therefore predicted to be less likely to be diverted to the black market. The Suboxone preparation contains the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone which is intended ONLY to prevent abuse of the buprenorphine, NOT, as is commonly misunderstood, to block the effects of other opiates. Buprenorphine itself binds more strongly to receptors in the brain than do other opiates, so it is almost almost impossible to get high on other opiates if enough buprenorhine is in the system, regardless of the presence of the naloxone. Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of overdosing on opioids such as heroin and morphine. ...


Inpatient rehabilitation

The practice of using buprenorphine (Subutex or Suboxone) in an inpatient rehabilitation setting is increasing rapidly. These rehabilitation programs consist of "detox" and "treatment" phases. The detoxification ("detox") phase consists of medically-supervised withdrawal from the drug of dependency, sometimes aided by the use of medications such as buprenorphine and oxazepam. The treatment phase begins once the patient receives medical clearance and has completed the initial acute detoxification process. This portion of treatment is comprised of multiple therapy sessions, which include both group and individual counseling with various chemical dependency counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and other professionals. Additionally, many of these treatment centers strongly base their treatment models on 12-step fellowship traditions and principles, such as those practised by Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous despite the fact that research has never demonstrated any efficacy for such groups. Oxazepam is a benzodiazepine hypnotic sold under the name Serax. ... Alcoholics Anonymous (known commonly as A.A. or AA) is a world-wide fellowship of alcoholics whose stated primary purpose is to stay sober and to carry the message of recovery from alcoholism through the Twelve Steps. ... Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a nonprofit fellowship or society of men and women for whom drugs had become a major problem. It is a twelve-step program modeled on Alcoholics Anonymous. ...


Patients who enter rehabilitation voluntarily, as opposed to those who are court-ordered, can often choose a facility with the option of only staying for detox, or they can enter treatment facilities that provide the option to complete both detox and rehab. Completing both portions of the treatment increases the probability of success. Rehabilitation programs typically average about 28 days for primary care, but some may extend anywhere from 90 days to 6 months in an extended care unit.


Buprenorphine is sometimes used only during the detox protocol with the purpose of reducing the patient's use of mood-altering substances. It considerably reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms that are normally experienced by opioid-dependent patients on cessation of those opioids, including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, chills, cold sweats, muscle and bone aches, muscle cramps and spasms, restless legs, agitation, gooseflesh, insomnia, nausea, watery eyes, runny nose and post-nasal drip, nightmares, etc. The buprenorphine detox protocol usually lasts about 7-10 days, provided that the patient does not need to be detoxed from any additional substances such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or alcohol. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-kukhūl الكحول = the spirit, the chemical.) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ...


During this time, Suboxone or Subutex will be administered by a nurse or doctor. Generally, the patient receives a single dose each day (despite the fact that a single dose lasts for up to 48 hours, medical professionals in many treatment facilities administer a dose every 24 hours to ensure a consistent active level of the medication remains in the patient's central nervous system). Typically, the initial daily dose totals around 8-16mg (of either Suboxone or Subutex). The dosage is slowly tapered each day and the medication is usually stopped 36-48 hours prior to the end of the detox program, with the patient's vitals monitored up until discharge from the detox program.


References

  • Bodkin JA, Zornberg GL, Lukas SE, and Cole, JO. "Buprenorphine Treatment of Refractory Depression", Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1995, 15, pp. 49-57.
  • Callaway E. "Buprenorphine for Depression: The Un-adoptable Orphan", Biological Psychiatry, 1996 Jun 15; 39(12):989-90. (Excerpts here.)
  • Joint Formulary Committee (2004). British National Formulary (47th ed.). London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. ISBN 0-85369-584-9
  • Rossi S (Ed.) (2005). Australian Medicines Handbook 2005. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook. ISBN 0-9578521-9-3

Otherwise known as the doctors prescribing Bible the British National Formulary (BNF) contains a wide spectrum of information on prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service. ... The Australian Medicines Handbook or AMH is a medical reference text commonly used in practice by health professionals (particularly general practitioners and pharmacists) in Australia. ...

External links

  • The Bitter Pill, WIRED article on buprenorphine
  • Instant Detox, earlier WIRED article on rapid detoxification, related to but not including buprenorphine
  • SAMHSA, federal U.S. buprenorphine program for opioid addiction
  • Government-run physician locator, listing of U.S. doctors who can prescribe buprenorphine for opioid addiction
  • Non-government physician locator, another listing of U.S. doctors who can prescribe buprenorphine for opioid addiction
  • National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment, NAABT.org, non-profit educational site
  • Methadone Support Org. - Medically Assisted Treatment - SUPPORT
  • Suboxone website, run by Reckitt Benckiser
  • Advocates for the Integration of Recovery and Methadone
  • Comprehensive Buprenorphine FAQ {WIP) by Nephalim


Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... Reckitt Benckiser plc is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of cleaning products and a member of the FTSE 100 Index of the largest companies traded on the London Stock Exchange. ...

Analgesics edit

{Paracetamol (acetaminophen)} {NSAIDs} {Opiates} {Tetrahydrocannabinol} An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain and to achieve analgesia. ... Paracetamol (INN) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ...

NSAIDs edit

{Aspirin} {Celecoxib} {Diclofenac} {Diflunisal} {Ibuprofen} {Indomethacin} {Ketoprofen} {Ketorolac} {Meloxicam} {Naproxen} {Piroxicam} {Rofecoxib} {Valdecoxib} Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ... Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum growths polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. ... Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren®, Voltarol® and Cataflam®) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation, such as in arthritis or acute injury. ... Diflunisal is a generic NSAID (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug). ... Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely marketed under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Motrin, Nuprin, and Nurofen; a standing joke about some athletes regular use has produced Vitamin I as a slang term for it. ... Indomethacin (also indometacin) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Ketoprofen, 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C12H12O2) is one of the propionic acid class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with additional analgesic and anti-pyretic effects. ... Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed as Toradol® - generics have been approved) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of propionic acids, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. ... Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, pyrexia; and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Naproxen (trade names: Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, Naprelan) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury, menstrual cramps, tendinitis, bursitis, and the treatment... Piroxicam (US trade name Feldene) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, pyrexia; and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component. ... Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions, and dysmenorrhoea. ... Valdecoxib is a prescription drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms. ...

Opioids edit

{Alfentanil} {Buprenorphine} {Carfentanil} {Codeine} {Codeinone} {Dextropropoxyphene} {Diamorphine (Heroin)} {Dihydrocodeine} {Fentanyl} {Hydrocodone} {Hydromorphone} {Methadone} {Morphine} {Morphinone} {Oxycodone} {Oxymorphone} {Pethidine (Meperidine)} {Remifentanil} {Sufentanil} {Tramadol} An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Alfentanil (Alfenta) is a parenteral short-acting opioid painkiller, used for anaesthesia in surgery. ... Carfentanil, also Carfentanyl, is an analogue of the popular opioid Fentanyl, and is currently the most potent opioid known [Actually Ohmefentanil is 13,000X morphine]. It has a quantitative potency approximately 10,000 times that of morphine and 100 times that of fentanyl (activity in humans starting at about 1... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Codeinone is a strong Opiod. ... Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category. ... Heroin or diacetylmorphine (INN) is a semi-synthetic opioid. ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC or DF-118, is a synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for postoperative pain, severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized in Belgium in the late 1950s, with an analgesic potency of about 80 times that of morphine. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen) is an opioid derived from either of the naturally occurring opiates codeine or thebaine. ... // Overview Hydromorphone is a drug used to relieve moderate to severe pain. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid analgesic synthesized in 1937 by German scientists Max Bockmühl and Gustav Ehrhart at IG Farben (Hoechst-Am-Main) who were searching for an analgesic that would be easier to use during surgery and also have low addiction potential. ... Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... Morphinone is a very strong Opiod. ... Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Oxymorphone is a powerful synthetic narcotic analgesic drug that is similar to morphine. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Remifentanil is a potent ultra short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug. ... Sufentanil is a drug that belongs to the class of drugs known as the opioid analgesic drugs. ... Tramadol is an opioid used as an analgesic for treating moderate to severe pain. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m