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Encyclopedia > Nonviolent resistance

Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ...


The term passive resistance is a form of noncooperation that is sometimes used imprecisely as a synonym for nonviolent resistance. It means resistance by inertia or refusal to comply, as opposed to resistance by active means such as protest or risking arrest. Satyagraha is a form of resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi--popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi--which emphasizes the search for truth and attempts to change the heart as well as the actions of the opponent. This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


Many movements which reject philosophies of nonviolence or pacifism have pragmatically adopted the methods of nonviolent action as an effective way to achieve social or political goals. They employ nonviolent resistance tactics such as: information warfare, picketing, vigiling, leafletting, protest art, protest music and poetry, community education and consciousness raising, lobbying, tax resistance, boycotts or sanctions, legal/diplomatic wrestling, sabotage of weapons, underground railroads, principled refusal of awards/honours, and general strikes. Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... Employees of the BBC form a picket line during a strike in May 2005. ... An example of protest art. ... A protest song is a song which protests perceived problems in society. ... Consciousness-raising is process, as by group therapy, of achieving greater awareness of ones needs in order to fulfill ones potential as a person ... This article is about the political effort. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...

Contents

Examples of nonviolent resistance

A list of current and recent nonviolent resistance organizations

Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953) is a Mexican politician, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... Mexico or, in Spanish, México, is: Mexico, a federal republic in North America Mexico City, that countrys capital city Mexican Federal District, the federal district containing that capital city Estado de México (State of Mexico), one of that republics 31 constituent states Mexico is also the... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... Kifayas logo. ... Kmara flag Kmara (Georgian: კმარა) is a civic resistance movement in the republic of Georgia which undermined the government of Eduard Shevardnadze. ... MJAFT! (Albanian for enough) is a political organization in Albania that aims to raise awareness of the many political and social problems facing Albania. ... Otpor! (Cyrillic: ОТПОР!, in English: Resistance!) was a pro-democracy youth movement in Serbia which has been widely credited for leading the eventually successful struggle to overthrow Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević in 2000. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Parihaka, 19. ... The rising sun of Pora! symbolizes a new dawn Pora! (Ukrainian: ), meaning ITS TIME! in Ukrainian, is a civic youth organization in Ukraine espousing nonviolent resistance and advocating increased national democracy, in opposition to what they claimed was the authoritarian governing style of Ukraines president Leonid Kuchma. ... Project Nonviolence or Projeto não-violência em (Portuguese) is a non governmental organisation in Brasil that aims to raise awareness of the many political and social problems facing Brasil. ... Rachad (Arabic رشاد) is an Algerian political movement. ... Russian School Defense Staff or Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools (Russian: Штаб защиты русских школ; Latvian Krievu skolu aizstāvÄ«bas Å¡tābs) — movement in Latvia for protection of public secondary education in Russian. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Zubr (Belarusian: ЗУБР) is a civic youth organization in Belarus in opposition to President Aleksandr Lukashenko. ...

History of nonviolent resistance

By the Jews against the Romans

One of the earliest incidents of nonviolent resistance known to history is found in the works of Flavius Josephus, who relates in both The Wars of the Jews and Antiquities of the Jews (book 18, chapter 3) how Jews demonstrated in Caesarea to try to convince Pilate not to set up Roman standards, with images of the emperor and the eagle of Jupiter, in Jerusalem (both images would be considered idolatrous by religious Jews). Pilate surrounded the Jewish protesters with soldiers and threatened them with death. They replied that they were quite willing to die rather than see the laws of the Torah violated. This protest action was successful in its immediate goal. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ...


In the first stage of the American Revolution

Before the War for Independence started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the American Revolution was mostly nonviolent. There were a few instances of violence against persons (e.g. The Boston Massacre) and against property (e.g. The Boston Tea Party), but for the most part, revolutionary actions during the first ten years (1765 to early 1775) of the Revolution included: Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... Engraving by Paul Revere that sold widely in the colonies The Boston Massacre was an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ...

  • Tax Resistance.
  • Boycotts of British imports.
  • Organization of Committees of Correspondence.
  • Petitions to the King and Parliament.
  • Publication of Pamphlets and Newspapers.

This article is about the historical committee of correspondence. ...

In nineteenth-century Trinidad

Trinidad, in the West Indies, was the site of successful nonviolent protest and resistance that accelerated the liberation of slaves there. The United Kingdom, then the colonial power in Trinidad, first announced in 1833 the impending total liberation of slaves by 1840. In the meantime the authorities expected slaves on plantations to remain in situ and work as "apprentices" for the next six years. For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Slave redirects here. ...


On 1 August 1834, at an address by the Governor at Government House about the new laws, an unarmed group of mainly elderly negroes began chanting: Pas de six ans. Point de six ans ("Not six years. No six years"), drowning out the voice of the Governor. Peaceful protests continued until the passing of a resolution to abolish apprenticeship and the achievement of de facto freedom. The authorities finally legally granted full emancipation for all - ahead of schedule - on 1 August 1838. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In colonial India

The story of nonviolent resistance in colonial India is synonymous with the story of the Non-Cooperation Movement and Mahatma Gandhi. Besides bringing about Independence, Gandhi's nonviolence also helped to improve the status of Untouchables in Indian religion and society. In the conflicts that ensued from Independence and Partition, Gandhi is credited with keeping Calcutta and the whole eastern border of India peaceful. The Khudai Khidmatgar, headed by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, lead a parallel movement of nonviolent resistance against the British colonials in the North-West Frontier Province. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ...


In communist Poland

see Waldemar Frydrych (Orange Alternative), Solidarity

Orange Alternative (Pomarańczowa Alternatywa) is a name for an underground anarchist movement which was started and led by Waldemar Frydrych, known then as Major (Commander of the Festung Breslau), in Wroclaw in 1983. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ...

In the United States

The theory of nonviolent resistance in America may have begun with Henry David Thoreau's essay Civil Disobedience. In 1845, Thoreau refused to pay his taxes as a protest against the Mexican-American War. This essay by Thoreau heavily influenced the hippie revolt in the 1960s. Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... Civil Disobedience is an essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


The African-American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s primarily used the tactics of nonviolent resistance, such as bus boycotts, freedom rides, sit-ins and mass demonstrations, in order to abolish racial discrimination against African Americans. This movement had some success in bringing about legislative changes during this time until the late 1960s when it's aims and tactics were eclipsed by those of the Black Power movement. Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... For the civil rights action by Indigenous Australians, see Freedom Ride (Australia). ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


The Chicano Movement of the 1960s, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving "social liberation" and Mexican American empowerment. The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that sought political empowerment and social inclusion for Mexican Americans. ...


In segregated South Africa

The ANC and allied anti-apartheid groups initially carried out non-violent resistance against pro-segregation and apartheid governments in South Africa, see Defiance Campaign. However, events such as the Sharpeville massacre (21 March 1960) led ANC activists like Nelson Mandela to believe in the necessity of violent (or armed) resistance. Mandela founded Umkhonto we Sizwe (the Spear of the Nation). It initially carried out acts of sabotage but later expanded to guerrilla warfare against the South African security forces, including the use of car bombs. The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) and other groups carried out violent acts against the government. The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission accused all anti-apartheid groups of killing civilians in violent acts. The PAC's armed wing faced accusations of deliberately killing white civilians and blacks who co-operated with the government. The apartheid government regarded all violent acts by anti-apartheid groups as acts of terrorism. For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Defiance Campaign was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... This article is about the color. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...

see also: Nelson Mandela and Steve Biko

For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ...

In Israel and the Palestinian Territories

While Palestinians have often used stone-throwing, armed action and suicide bombings against Israel, including attacks on civilian targets, non-violent methods have also been used. Palestinian groups have worked with Israelis and foreign citizens to organise civilian monitors of Israel military activity in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The best-known of these initiatives is perhaps the International Solidarity Movement. Peace camps and non-violent resistance to Israeli construction of settlements and of the West Bank Barrier have also been consistently adopted as tactics by Palestinians. Citizens of the Palestinian village of Beit Sahour also engaged in a tax strike during the First Intifada. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... For information on the Polish trade union, see Solidarity. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... Beit Sahour (Arabic: بيت ساحور pronounced ) is a Palestinian town in the West Bank, situated to the east of Bethlehem. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly...

see also: Mubarak Awad

In Israel, protestors against Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004 used nonviolent resistance against the impending evacuation of Jewish settlers from the Gaza Strip and some settlements in the West Bank. On May 16, 2005, protesters blocked many traffic intersections at 5:00pm, leading to massive traffic jams and delays throughout the country. Although the police had received advance notification of the action, they had much difficulty in opening the intersections to vehicles, eventually arresting over 400 protesters, many of them juveniles. Organizers of the protests regarded this deed only as an opening volley, with the large protests planned to begin when the Israeli authorities cut off entry into the Gaza Strip in preparation of the disengagement. In the event, large-scale civil disobedience did not occur in Israel proper, although some settlers and their supporters resisted the evacuation non-violently. Mubarak Awad is a Palestinian-American psychologist and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (also known as the disengagement plan, תוכנית ההינתקות) is a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to remove all permanent Israeli presence in the Gaza Strip and northern Samaria (part of what... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

see also: Moshe Feiglin

Moshe Feiglin is an Israeli right-wing politician. ...

In Denmark during World War II

When the Wehrmacht invaded Denmark in 1940, the Danes soon saw that military confrontation would change little except the number of surviving Danes. The Danish government therefore adopted a policy of official co-operation (and unofficial obstruction) which they called "negotiation under protest." The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the industrial front, Danish workers subtly slowed all production that might feed the German war machine, sometimes to a perfect standstill. On the cultural front, Danes engaged in symbolic defiance by organizing mass celebrations of their own history and traditions. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


On the legislative front, the Danish government insisted that since they officially co-operated with Germany, they had an ally's right to negotiate with Germany, and then proceeded to create bureaucratic quagmires which stalled or blocked German orders without having to refuse them outright. Danish authorities also proved conveniently inept at controlling the underground Danish resistance press, which at one point reached circulation numbers equivalent to the entire adult population. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


The Danish government also gave room (and even secret assistance) to underground groups involved in sabotage of machinery and railway lines needed to extract Danish resources or to supply the Wehrmacht. Some may argue that the classification of this kind of resistance as "nonviolent" remains debatable, but there is a strong case also to be made for the theory that it is nonviolent to save life by destroying inanimate material that is itself about to be used to destroy human life.[1] For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


Even after the official dissolution of their government, the Danes managed to block German goals without resorting to bloodshed. Underground groups smuggled over 7000 of Denmark's 8000 Jews temporarily into Sweden, at great personal risk. Workers (and even entire cities like Copenhagen) went on mass strikes, refusing to work for the occupier's benefit on the occupier's terms. After an initial response of greatly increased repression, the war-distracted Germans abandoned strike-breaking efforts in exasperation. For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ...


The Danish resistance against the Nazis proved highly effective[2], but it raises characteristic questions about the efficacy of nonviolence. The Danes clearly lost very few lives, while annoying and draining their foreign occupiers. But some people wonder whether the Danish strategy might not have failed abysmally if applied in other countries occupied by Germany and where German forces ruled through naked terror.


It almost certainly would have proved a more painful strategy for Denmark in such a circumstance (as in the case of the successful but agonizing nonviolent resistance to apartheid in South Africa), but as in the case of the Gandhian solution of perfect global surrender to the Nazis followed by perfect global non-cooperation with them, many questions of efficacy remain in the realm of the hypothetical. And due to the decentralized and various nature of nonviolent advocacy, questions about possible compatibility with violent resistance, or even about precise definitions of "nonviolent tactics" have no categorical answers. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


In Germany during World War II

Main article: German Resistance

Even in Berlin, capital of the Third Reich, Nonviolent Resistance was effectively used to save Jewish lives. In 1943, Frau Israel and other non-Jewish ("Aryan") women protested against the deportation of their Jewish husbands to Auschwitz. The women were in real danger of being massacred themselves. At one point, the SS set up machine guns on Rose Street where the protest was held. In the end, however, the deportations were halted, and some men came back from Auschwitz with their numbers tattooed on their arms. The Nazis planned to exterminate both the Jewish men and their non-Jewish wives after the end of the War, but this was prevented by the victory of the Allies. I LIKE CHOCOLATE MILK!!! Bust of Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin) The German Resistance refers to those individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Rose Street is a street in the New Town of Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


The White Rose student group, including Sophie Scholl, distributed leaflets encouraging Germans to stop Hitler. This article is about the German resistance movement. ... Hans Scholl, Sophie Magdalena Scholl, and Christoph Probst, who were executed for participating in the White Rose resistance movement against the Nazi regime in Germany. ...


The Confessional Church (Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian resistance movement in Nazi Germany. The Confessing Church (German: Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian resistance movement in Nazi Germany. ...


In Norway during World War II

Norway's teachers, in spite of great suffering, successfully prevented the Nazification of Norway's educational system and society attempted by collaborationist leader Vidkun Quisling. Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ...


The British Mandate of Palestine

During the years 1936 to 1947, the British authorities severely restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine. Jewish resistance by a minority was violent, but for the most part it consisted of the smuggling of refugees into the land, evading the British blockade. The most famous incident of such resistance was the voyage of the Exodus 1947. The nonviolent resistance of the Jewish refugees impressed world opinion so much that a majority of the United Nations shortly afterwards voted to establish a Jewish State in Palestine.[citation needed] In the next year, 1948, this became the Nation of Israel. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Berihah (literally escape in Hebrew) was the organized effort to help Jews escape post-Holocaust Europe for the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Exodus ship after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ...


The farmers of Larzac (France)

In 1971, the French government announced their intention to extend the military camp on the Larzac plateau, an arid area in southern France where they claimed that "almost nobody lived". Local farmers strongly disagreed with this assessment and, inspired by the example of Lanza del Vasto (a philosopher and follower of Mahatma Gandhi who had gone on hunger strike for two weeks in their support), they embarked on a campaign of non-violent resistance. The Causse du Larzac is a limestone karst plateau in the south of the Massif Central, France. ... Giuseppe Lanza del Vasto Lanza del Vasto, (Giuseppe Giovanni Luigi Enrico Lanza di Trabia), (September 29, 1901 – January 5, 1981) was a philosopher, poet, artist, and nonviolent activist. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ...


In 1972 the farmers' struggle attracted world-wide media coverage when they brought 60 sheep to graze on the lawn under the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The issue became a famous cause among many groups, from ecologists to conscientious objectors, and in 1973 100,000 people attended a demonstration in Paris in support of the farmers of Larzac. The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... An ecologist studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


The fight lasted until 1981, when the newly-elected socialist French President François Mitterrand abandoned the project. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...


Now instead of a military camp they have the Millau Viaduct and the A75 autoroute. The Millau Viaduct (French: ) is a large cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. ... The A75 is an autoroute (motorway) in France. ...

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Against nuclear weapons

Among the most dedicated to nonviolent resistance against the U.S. arsenal of nuclear weapons has been the Plowshares Movement, consisting largely of Catholic priests, such as Dan Berrigan, and nuns. Daniel Berrigan at College of the Holy Cross, September 28, 2005. ... Daniel Berrigan at the Third Annual Staten Island Freedom & Peace Festival, Oct. ...

see also Mutlangen, Committee for Non-Violent Action

Mutlangen is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district. ... The Committee for Non-Violent Action, formed in 1957 to resist the US Governments program of nuclear weapons testing, was one of the first organisations to employ nonviolent direct action to protest against the nuclear arms race. ...

In the Pacific

  • The Moriori were a branch of the New Zealand Māori that colonized the Chatham Islands. However the Chathams proved too unhospitable for the Māori technology and the Moriori became earth-bound hunter-gatherers. The lack of resources and the scarce population made any kind of war unsustainable. Disputes were resolved nonviolently or with ritual singular combats. When in the 19th century, New Zealand Māoris chartered a ship to invade the Chathams, the Moriori tried to apply their traditional means of resolution, but the Māori enslaved and cannibalized them.
  • In the 1870s through 1890s, the Māori village of Parihaka was subjected to illegal seizure of land by the New Zealand administration. The followers of the prophet Te Whiti o Rongomai carried nonviolent protests.
  • The Mau movement was the name given to the popular nonviolent movement for Samoan independence from colonial rule in the early 20th century. There was a less successful movement in American Samoa.

Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ... Slave redirects here. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Parihaka, 19. ... Te Whiti o Rongomai III (c. ... The Mau movement was the name given to the popular nonviolent movement for Samoan independence from colonial rule. ...

In the Middle-East

Kifayas logo. ... The Tomorrow Party (Hizb al-Ghad) is an active political party in Egypt that was granted license in October 2004. ...

In India

The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (Yasin Malik) is a break away faction of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, lead by Yasin Malik. ...

In China

The Mohist philosophical school disapproved war. However, since they lived in a time of warring polities, they cultivated the science of fortification. Founded by Mo Zi (whose actual surname was Di, and whose given name was Mo), Mohism (墨家), or Moism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought). ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ...


During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, an unknown man was famously photographed putting himself in the way of a column of tanks. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Tank Man stops the advance of a column of tanks on 5 June 1989 in Beijing. ...


In Czechoslovakia

In the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Czechoslovakian citizens responded to the attack on their sovereignty with passive resistance. Russian troops were frustrated as street signs were painted over, their water supplies mysteriously shut off, and buildings decorated with flowers, flags, and slogans like, "An elephant cannot swallow a hedgehog." People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the...


In Ireland

, The Troubles

During the Irish War of Independence, 1919-1921 and the recent Troubles in Northern Ireland, nationalists used many non-violent means to resist British rule. Amongst these was abstention from the British parliament, setting up a local government, tax boycotts, setting up a local court system and a local police force. However, the efficacy of these acts is debatable since they occurred in tandem with violent resistance. In Northern Ireland, six months after the Civil Rights Movement had begun to have astonishing success, violence erupted leaving open questions as to what might have been achieved through strictly non-violent means. Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Troubles is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. ... Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


In Singapore

Dr. Chee Soon Juan, Secretary-General of the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) Dr. Chee Soon Juan (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , born 1962) is the Secretary-General of the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP). ... Party logo The Singapore Democratic Party (abbrev: SDP; Chinese: 新加坡民主党) is a liberal party in Singapore. ...

See also

Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Christian nonviolence is supported by peace churches. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Economic secession is a term that John T. Kennedy introduced to refer to a libertarian/anarchist activist technique. ... Gene Sharp (born 21 January 1928) is a political scientist, author and founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organisation which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action. ... Industrial action (UK) or job action (US) refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour meant to reduce productivity in a workplace. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Passive obedience is a political/religious doctrine advocating the absolute supremacy of the Crown and the treatment of any dissent (or more precisely, disobedience) as sinful and unlawful. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Baron William Stephen Richard King-Hall of Headley (21st January 1893 - 1st June 1966) was a British journalist, politician and playwright. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ...

Publications

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Gene Sharp (born 21 January 1928) is a political scientist, author and founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organisation which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action. ... Dr. Walter Wink is Professor at Auburn Theological Seminary in New York City. ... David McReynolds David McReynolds (born October 25, 1929) is an American socialist politician. ... A Force More Powerful (1999) is a film written and directed by Steve York about non-violent resistance movements around the world. ... Steven H. York (born July 1, 1943) is a documentary filmmaker who has worked in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America on subjects ranging from religious fundamentalism to American history to nonviolent conflict. ...

References

Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nonviolent resistance - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (2315 words)
Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of violence.
Nonviolent resistance in Denmark during World War II When the Wehrmacht invaded Denmark in 1940, the Danes soon saw that military confrontation would change little except the number of surviving Danes.
Nonviolent Resistance in Norway during World War II Norway's teachers, in spite of great suffering, successfully prevented the Nazification of Norway's educational system and society attempted by collaborationist leader Vidkun Quisling.
Nonviolent resistance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2362 words)
The Khudai Khidmatgar, headed by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, lead a parallel movement of nonviolent resistance against the British colonials in the North-West Frontier Province.
Jewish resistance by a minority was violent, but for the most part it consisted of the smuggling of refugees into the land, evading the British blockade.
The most famous incident of such resistance was the voyage of the Exodus 1947.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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