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Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. As an alternative to both passive acceptance of oppression and armed struggle against it, nonviolence (also known as nonviolent resistance) offers a number of tactics for popular struggle ranging from education, to persuasion, to civil disobedience, to nonviolent direct action, to noncooperation with political, economic or social authorities. While frequently used as a synonym for pacifism, since the mid 20th century the terms nonviolence or nonviolent resistance have been adopted by many movements for social change which do not focus on opposition to war. For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... It has been suggested that Social development be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

As technique

As a technique for social struggle, nonviolence has been described as "the politics of ordinary people", reflecting its historically mass-based use by populations throughout the world and history. Struggles most often associated with nonviolence are the non co-operation campaign for Indian independence led by Mohandas Gandhi, the struggle to attain civil rights for African Americans, led by Martin Luther King Jr., and people power in the Philippines. The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “People Power” redirects here. ...


The central tenets of nonviolent philosophy exist in each of the major Abrahamic religious traditions (Islam, Judaism and Christianity) as well as in the major Dharmic religious traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism). It is also found in many pagan religious traditions. Nonviolent movements, leaders and advocates have at times referred to, drawn from and utilised many diverse religious basis for nonviolence within their respective struggles. Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The word Dharmic is an adjective of the word Dharma. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Likewise, secular political movements have utilised nonviolence, either as a tactical tool or as a strategic program on purely pragmatic and strategic levels, relying on its political effectiveness rather than a claim to any religious, moral or ethical worthiness.


People come to use nonviolent methods of struggle from a wide range of perspectives and traditions. A landless peasant in Brazil may nonviolently occupy a parcel of land for purely practical motivations. If they don't, the family will starve. A Buddhist monk in Thailand may "ordain" trees in a threatened forest, drawing on the teachings of Buddha to resist its destruction. A waterside worker in England may go on strike in socialist and union political traditions. All the above are using nonviolent methods but from different standpoints.


Nonviolence has even obtained a level of institutional recognition and endorsement at the global level. On November 10th, 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... On 10 November 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. ...


How it works

The nonviolent approach to social struggle represents a radical departure from conventional thinking about both power and conflict, and yet appeals to a number of widely shared values and everyday ethics.


Central to any understanding of nonviolent strategic theory is the idea that the power of rulers depends upon the consent of the populace. Without a bureaucracy, an army or a police force to carry out his or her wishes and the compliance of key sectors of the population, the ruler is powerless. Power, therefore, depends largely on the co-operation of others. Nonviolence seeks to undermine the power of rulers through the deliberate withdrawal of this consent and co-operation.


Also of primary significance is the notion that just means are the most likely to lead to just ends. When Gandhi said that "the means may be likened to the seed, the end to a tree," he expressed the philosophical kernel of what some refer to as prefigurative politics. Proponents of nonviolence reason that the actions taken in the present inevitably re-shape the social order in like form. They would argue, for instance, that it is fundamentally irrational to use violence to achieve a peaceful society. The term prefigurative politics is widespread within various activist movements, and in short, it describes modes of organization and tactics undertaken that accurately reflect the future society being sought. ...


Some proponents of nonviolence advocate respect or love for opponents. It is this principle which is most closely associated with spiritual or religious justifications of nonviolence, as may be seen in the Sermon on the Mount when Jesus urges his followers to "love thine enemy," in the Taoist concept of wu-wei, or effortless action, in the philosophy of the martial art Aikido, in the Buddhist principle of metta, or loving-kindness towards all beings, and in the principle of ahimsa, or nonviolence toward any being, shared by Buddhism, Jainism and some forms of Hinduism. Respect or love for opponents also has a pragmatic justification, in that the technique of separating the deeds from the doers allows for the possibility of the doers changing their behaviour, and perhaps their beliefs. Martin Luther King said, "Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him." The Christian focus on both nonviolence and forgiveness of sin may have found their way into the story of Abel in the Qur'an. Liberal movements within Islam have consequently used this story to promote Islamic ideals of nonviolence. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Wu wei (trad. ... Aikido ), is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Mettā (मेटा in Devanagari) is a Pali word meaning unconditional loving-kindness. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Finally, the notion of Satya, or truth, is central to the Gandhian conception of nonviolence. Gandhi saw truth as something that is multifaceted and unable to be grasped in its entirety by any one individual. All carry pieces of the truth, he believed, but all need the pieces of others’ truths in order to pursue the greater truth. This led him to believe in the inherent worth of dialogue with opponents, in order to understand motivations. On a practical level, willingness to listen to another's point of view is largely dependent on reciprocity. In order to be heard by one's opponents, one must also be prepared to listen. Satya is a true badman. ...


Why nonviolence?

Most advocates of nonviolence draw their preference for nonviolence either from religious or ethical beliefs, or from political analysis. The first justification for nonviolence is sometimes referred to as principled or ethical nonviolence, while the second is known as pragmatic or strategic. Commonly, both of these dimensions may be present within the thinking of particular movements or individuals.


In the west, nonviolence has been used extensively by the labor, peace, environment and women's movements, that is, sectors without mainstream political power. Less well known is the role that nonviolence has played and continues to play in undermining the power of repressive political regimes in the developing world and the former eastern bloc:

In 1989, thirteen nations comprising 1,695,000,000 people experienced nonviolent revolutions that succeeded beyond anyone's wildest expectations ... If we add all the countries touched by major nonviolent actions in our century (the Philippines, South Africa ... the independence movement in India ...) the figure reaches 3,337,400,000, a staggering 65% of humanity! All this in the teeth of the assertion, endlessly repeated, that nonviolence doesn't work in the 'real' world.

—(Walter Wink, as quoted by Susan Ives in a 2001 talk) Dr. Walter Wink is Professor at Auburn Theological Seminary in New York City. ...


Nonviolence scholar Gene Sharp, in his book The Politics of Nonviolent Action, suggests that the conspicuous absence of nonviolence from mainstream historical study may be due to the fact that elite interests are not served by the dissemination of techniques for social struggle that rely on the collective power of a mobilised citizenry rather than access to wealth or weaponry. Gene Sharp (born 21 January 1928) is a political scientist, author and founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organisation which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action. ...


Methods

Nonviolent action generally comprises three categories. The first, Acts of Protest and Persuasion, which include protest marches, vigils, public meetings and tools such as banners, placards, candles, flowers and the like; secondly, Noncooperation, the deliberate and strategic refusal to co-operate with an injustice; and thirdly, Nonviolent Intervention, the deliberate and often physical intervention into a perceived unjust event, such as blockades, occupations, sit-ins, tree sitting, truck cavalcades to name a few.


Hunger strikes, pickets, candlelight vigils, petitions, sit-ins, tax refusal, go-slows, blockades, draft refusal and public demonstrations are some of the specific techniques that have been deployed by nonviolent movements. Throughout history, these are some of the means used by ordinary people to counter injustice or reveal oppression or bring about progressive change. A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Employees of the BBC form a picket line during a strike in May 2005. ... A candlelight vigil is an event used to remember the victims in a tragedy, such as the Virginia Tech massacre and the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ...


Tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account political and cultural circumstances, and form part of a larger plan or strategy. Walter Wink points to Jesus Christ as an early nonviolence strategist. Many of his teachings on nonviolence are quite sophisticated in the cultural circumstances. For example, among the people he was speaking to, if by collecting debts a person drove someone indebted to him to be naked, great shame fell on the debt collector, not the naked man. So Jesus' suggestion - that if someone asks you for your coat you give him your clothes as well (Luke 6:29) - was a way to bring shame upon the debt-collector and symbolically reverse the power relation while drawing attention to its imbalance. [citation needed]


In early Greece, Aristophanes' Lysistrata gives the fictional example of women withholding sexual favours from their husbands until war was abandoned. Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Lysistrata (Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη Lysistratê, Doric Greek: Λυσιστράτα Lysistrata), loosely translated to she who disbands armies, is an anti-war Greek comedy, written in 411 BCE by Aristophanes. ...


A useful source of inspiration, for those seeking the best nonviolent tactics to deploy, is Gene Sharp’s list of 198 methods of nonviolent action, which includes symbolic, political, economic and physical actions.


Activist/researcher George Lakey says there are three applications of nonviolent action, being for:

  • social defense (as in protection of a neighborhood or country from outside invaders);
  • social change (its most known form, for advocating either reform or revolutionary changes); and
  • third-party nonviolent intervention.

[citation needed]


As a method of intervention across borders to deter attack and promote peaceful resolution of conflicts, the latter has met with several failures (at least on the level of deterring attack) such as the Human Shields in Iraq because it failed to ascertain the value of the goal compared with the value of human life in its context of war; but also many successes, such as the work of Project Accompaniment in Guatemala. Several non-governmental organizations are working in this area including, for example: Peace Brigades International and the Peaceforce. The primary tactics are unarmed accompaniment and human rights observation and reporting. Peace Brigades International (or PBI) is an NGO, founded in 1981, which protects human rights and promotes nonviolent transformation of conflicts. It primarily does this by sending volunteers to accompany human rights workers whose lives are at risk in areas of conflict. ...


There are also many other great nonviolence leaders and theorists who have thought deeply about the spiritual and practical aspects of nonviolence, including: Leo Tolstoy, Lech Wałęsa, Petra Kelly, Thich Nhat Hanh, Dorothy Day, Ammon Hennacy, Albert Einstein, John Howard Yoder, Stanley Hauerwas, David McReynolds, Johan Galtung, Martin Luther King Jr., Mahatma Gandhi, Ida Ford, Daniel Berrigan,Bacha Khan, Mario Rodriguez Cobos (pen name Silo) and César ChávezLeanne Perry. Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... “WaÅ‚Ä™sa” redirects here. ... Petra Kelly, 1987 Petra Karin Kelly (November 29, 1947 – October 1, 1992), German peace activist and Green politician, was born in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany in 1947, and lived and studied in the United States between 1959 and 1970. ... Thich Nhat Hanh Thích Nhất Hạnh (born 1926) is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in English. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Ammon Hennacy Ammon Hennacy (July 24, 1893 - January 14, 1970) was an American pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and a Wobbly, and was known for establishing the Joe Hill House of Hospitality in Salt Lake City, Utah and never paying taxes. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Stanley Hauerwas (b. ... David McReynolds David McReynolds (born October 25, 1929) is an American socialist politician. ... Johan Galtung, second from left, and friends in Kilinochchi, Dec 04/Jan 05 Johan Galtung (born October 24, 1930, in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian professor, founder and co-director of TRANSCEND - A Peace and Development Network for Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Daniel Berrigan at the Third Annual Staten Island Freedom & Peace Festival, Oct. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ... Mario Luis Rodríguez Cobos (born January 6, 1938 in Mendoza, Argentina), pen-name Silo, is a writer and spiritual leader. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was a Mexican American (Chicano) farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ...


Many leftist and socialist movements have hoped to mount a "peaceful revolution" by organizing enough strikers to completely paralyze it. With the state and corporate apparatus thus crippled, the workers would be able to re-organize society along radically different lines. [citation needed]


Living nonviolence

The violence embedded in most of the world's societies causes many to consider it an inherent part of human nature, but others (Riane Eisler, Walter Wink, Daniel Quinn) have suggested that violence - or at least the arsenal of violent strategies we take for granted - is a phenomenon of the last five to ten thousand years, and was not present in pre-domestication and early post-domestication human societies. This view shares several characteristics with the Victorian ideal of the Noble Savage. Riane Eisler is an Austrian born American scholar, writer, and social activist. ... Dr. Walter Wink is Professor at Auburn Theological Seminary in New York City. ... Daniel Quinn (born 1935 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a United States writer. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered...


For many, practicing nonviolence goes deeper than withholding from violent behavior or words. It means caring in one's heart for everyone, even those one strongly disagrees with, that is who are antithetical or opposed. By extrapolation comes the necessity of caring for those who are not practicing nonviolence, who are violent. Of course no one can simply will themselves to have such care, and this is one of the great personal challenges posed by nonviolence - once one believes in nonviolence in theory, how can the person live it?


Green politics and nonviolence

Part of the Politics series on Green politics

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (645x641, 612 KB) I needed to work with a close cropped version of this image. ...

Topics

Green movement
Green party
List of Green topics “Greens” redirects here. ... A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of Green politics. ... This list of Green topics includes people, parties, organizations, and ideas associated with Green politics. ...

Schools

Green anarchism
Ecofeminism
Eco-socialism
Green syndicalism
Green liberalism
Green conservatism This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Green Liberalism is a term used to refer to liberal who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology. ... Green conservatism is a term that is used for a brand of conservatism that espouses and incorporates green concerns. ...

Organizations

Global Greens · Africa · Americas · Asia-Pacific · Europe The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... The Federation of Green Parties of Africa is the organization of Green parties in Africa. ... The Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas is the organization of Green parties in North America and South America. ... The Asia-Pacific Green Network is a federation of national Green parties in countries in the Pacific Ocean and Asia, and is a member of the Global Greens. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ...

Principles

Four Pillars
Global Greens Charter: ecological wisdom
social justice
participatory democracy
nonviolence
sustainability
respect diversity
The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ... The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ... The term ecological wisdom, or ecosophy, is a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to begin with biodiversity of non-human life, is basic to some 20th century studies such as cultural ecology, Queer studies, and anthropological linguistics. ...


Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Nonviolence has been a central concept in green political philosophy. It is included in the Global Greens Charter. Greens believe that society should reject the current patterns of violence and embrace nonviolence. Green Philosophy draws heavily on both Gandhi and the Quaker traditions, which advocate measures by which the escalation of violence can be avoided, while not cooperating with those who commit violence. These greens believe that the current patterns of violence are incompatible with a sustainable society because it uses up limited resources and many forms of violence, especially nuclear weapons, are damaging for the environment. Violence also diminishes one and the group. The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ...


Some green political parties, like the Dutch GroenLinks, evolved out of the cooperation of the peace movement with the environmental movement in their resistance to nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. This article is about the Dutch political party. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ...


As Green Parties have moved from the fringes of society towards becoming more and more influential in government circles, this commitment to nonviolence has had to be more clearly defined. In many cases, this has meant that the party has had to articulate a position on non-violence that differentiates itself from classic pacifism. The leader of the German Greens, for example, was instrumental in the NATO intervention in the Kosovo, arguing that being in favour of non-violence should never lead to passive acceptance of genocide. Similarly, Elizabeth May of the Green Party of Canada has stated that the Canadian intervention in Afganistan is justified as a means of supporting women's rights. Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the leader of the Green Party of Canada. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... Afghanistan (Pashtu/Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the easternmost part of the country. ...


This movement by Green leadership has caused some internal dissension, as the traditional pacifist position is that there is no justification ever for committing violence.


Revolution and Nonviolence

Certain individuals (Barbara Deming, Danilo Dolci, Devere Allen etc.) and partly groups (eg. Socialist Party USA or War Resisters League) have advocated nonviolent revolution as an alternative to violence as well as elitist reformism. This perspective is usually connected to militant anti-capitalism. Barbara Deming (1917 - 1984) was a US-american feminist and advocate of nonviolent social change. ... Danilo Dolci, Anti-Mafia activist Danilo Dolci (Sesana, June 28, 1924 – Partinico, PA, December 30, 1997) was a social activist, sociologist, popular educator and poet. ... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... The War Resisters League (WRL) was formed in 1923 by men and women who had opposed World War I. It is a section of the London-based War Resisters’ International. ... A non-violent revolution is a revolution using mostly nonviolent protest against governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian to advocate democracy, liberalism, and national independence in their nation. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ...


Criticism

Leon Trotsky, Frantz Fanon, Reinhold Niebuhr, Subhash Chandra Bose and Malcolm X were fervent critics of nonviolence, arguing variously that nonviolence and pacifism are an attempt to impose the morals of the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat, that violence is a necessary accompaniment to revolutionary change, or that the right to self-defense is fundamental. Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr (June 21, 1892 – June 1, 1971) was a Protestant theologian best known for his study of the task of relating the Christian faith to the reality of modern politics and diplomacy. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


In the midst of violent repression of radical African Americans in the United States during the 1960s, Black Panther member George Jackson said of the nonviolent tactics of Martin Luther King, Jr.: An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ...

"The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one's adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative."

Malcolm X also clashed with civil rights leaders over the issue of nonviolence, arguing that violence should not be ruled out where no option remained:

"Concerning nonviolence, it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks."

A new generation of historians of the civil rights movement criticise nonviolence as a failed strategy and argue that black armed self-defense and civil violence motivated civil rights reforms more than peaceful appeals to morality and reason (see Lance Hill's "Deacons for Defense")[1].


The efficacy of nonviolence was also challenged by anti-capitalist protesters advocating a "diversity of tactics" during street demonstrations across Europe and the US following the anti-World Trade Organization protests in Seattle, Washington in 1999. American feminist writer D. A. Clarke, in her essay "A Woman With A Sword," suggests that for nonviolence to be effective, it must be "practiced by those who could easily resort to force if they chose." This argument reasons that nonviolent tactics will be of little or no use to groups that are traditionally considered incapable of violence, since nonviolence will be in keeping with people's expectations for them and thus go unnoticed. Such is the principle of dunamis (from the Greek: δύνάμις or, restrained power). “WTO” redirects here. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Feminists redirects here. ... D. A. Clarke has been a radical feminist essayist and activist in the United States of America since 1980. ...


Niebuhr's criticism of nonviolence, expressed most clearly in Moral Man and Immoral Society (1932) is based on his view of human nature as innately selfish, an updated version of the Christian doctrine of original sin. Advocates of nonviolence generally do not accept the doctrine of original sin (though Martin Luther King, Jr., did accept a modified version of Niebuhr's teachings on the subject).


Property or people?

One minor, but commonly debated issue is whether the destruction of or damage to non-living objects, as opposed to people is actual "violence". In much nonviolence literature, including Sharp, various forms of sabotage and damage to property are included within the scope of nonviolent action, while other authors consider destruction or destructive acts of any kind as potentially or actually a form of violence in that it might generate fear or hardship upon the owner or person dependent on that object. Property damage is damage or destruction done to public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena. ...


Other authors or activists argue that property destruction can be strategically ineffective if the act provides a pretext for further repression or reinforces state power. Lakey, for instance, argues that the burning of cars during the Paris uprising of 1968 only served to undermine the growing working and middle-class support for the uprising and undermined its political potential.


Sabotage of machinery used in war, either during its production or after, complicates the issue further. Is saving a life by destroying property that will later be used for violence a violent act, or is passively allowing weapons to be used later the violent act (i.e. non-violence that leads to violence)? At a less abstract level, if someone is being beaten with a stick, it is usually considered an act of violence to take the stick away, but if the stick falls to the ground and you break it, is that still considered a violent action?


In all of these debates it is relevant to consider the question of whether the perpetrator or victim of violence determines what is "violent." Also, relative power of parties and the type of "weapon" being applied is relevant to the issue. Palestinian children throwing rocks at Israeli tanks as an example cited. Force itself here becomes a relative measure of power and petty violence by the disenfranchised may be violence, but ultimately is not the same as overarching "power" to destroy.


But violence is inevitable, and comes from biology

One of the arguments for violence is that it is fated. Research on violence in primates, for example, may be cited.


At least one group of scholars disagreed, and wrote something called the "Seville Statement on Violence", which rejects this view.


Also known in "PACS 164A" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IYos-E3xT4 as the "Seville Declaration on Violence".


[ FIXME ] It took the author of this edit about ten minutes to find the following page in Google, so he thinks it deserves better exposure, and is linking it here for other's future reference. Please preserve something so that searches for the words "Seville Declaration on Violence" will continue to find this page.


http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3247&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html


Organizations promoting nonviolence

The Albert Einstein Institution is a US-based non-profit organization that specializes in the study of the methods of non-violent resistance. ... Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP) was started in 1975 by a group of inmates at Green Haven Prison as a workshop in collaboration with the Quakers. ... Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) is an international organization set up to support teams of peace workers in conflict areas around the world. ... Educators for Nonviolence is a joint project of the Metta Center [1] and The Dalai Lama Foundation [2]. The organization comprises educators, students, and others who share this ideal and are interested in working together to make high quality curricula and other resources available to encourage the integration of the... The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries. ... Logo Food Not Bombs is a loose-knit group of independent collectives, serving free vegan and vegetarian food to others. ... Green parties around the world are formally organized political parties based on the principles of Green politics. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The Humanist Movement is an international volunteer organisation that promotes non-violence and non-discrimination. ... The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (Yasin Malik) is a break away faction of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, lead by Yasin Malik. ... This name of the movement to stop U.S. nuclear weapons testing came into use in the middle 1980s. ... Nonviolence International describes itself as a decentralized network of resource centers that promote the use of nonviolent resistance. ... Nonviolent Peaceforce is an international NGO composed of a federation of 94 member organisations from across the world in order to create a trained, international civilian unarmed peace force that can be sent to conflict areas called in by local groups to protect human rights and allow them the space... Pax Christi is an international Catholic peace movement, which nowadays regards itself as ecumenical. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Peace Brigades International (or PBI) is an NGO, founded in 1981, which protects human rights and promotes nonviolent transformation of conflicts. It primarily does this by sending volunteers to accompany human rights workers whose lives are at risk in areas of conflict. ... Violent conflicts around the world are destroying lives and communities on a scale far exceeding that of recent natural disasters. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... DENIP is the abbreviation of the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (from catalan-valencian-balear: Dia Escolar de la No-violència i la Pau), founded by the majorican poet and pacifist Llorenç Vidal in Spain in 1964 and observed on January 30 or thereabouts every year, on... Abbreviation of the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (from catalan-valencian-balear: Dia Escolar de la No-violència i la Pau), founded in Spain in 1964 and observed on January 30 or thereabouts every year, on the anniversary of the death of Mahatma Gandhi. ... The ShahMai Network is a UK based NGO with spiritual opinions similar to those of Neopaganism and a focus on humanitarian work. ... Soulforce may mean: the English translation of the philosophy of non-violent resistance, Satyagraha. ... Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ... War Resisters International or WRI is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries. ...

See also

Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... The anti-nuclear movement holds that nuclear power is inherently dangerous and thus ought to be replaced with safe and affordable renewable energy. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Christian nonviolence is supported by peace churches. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... The Consistent Life Ethic is an ethical, religious, and political ideology based on the premise that human life is sacred. ... The United States Department of Peace is a proposed cabinet-level department of the executive branch of the U.S. government. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... This is a list of people who have played a prominent role in social movements which have adopted the methods of nonviolent resistance. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nonviolent communication (NVC) is a process developed by Marshall Rosenberg and others which people use to communicate with greater compassion and clarity. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Soulforce may mean: the English translation of the philosophy of non-violent resistance, Satyagraha. ... Dom Hélder Pessoa Câmara (February 7, 1909, Fortaleza, Ceará, North East Brazil - August 27, 1999 Recife) was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Olinda and Recife. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Sermon on the Mount in the Christian New Testament. ... Weak theology -- in close association with deconstruction-and-religion -- is a school of thought within continental philosophical theology that has been heavily influenced by Jacques Derridas style of theorizing known as deconstruction. ...

Further reading

  • ISBN 0-87558-070-X Power and Struggle (Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part 1) by Gene Sharp
  • ISBN 0-87558-071-8 Methods of Nonviolent Action (Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part 2) by Gene Sharp
  • ISBN 0-87558-072-6 Dynamics of Nonviolent Action (Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part 3) by Gene Sharp
  • ISBN 0-87558-162-5 Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice And 21st Century Potential by Gene Sharp with collaboration of Joshua Paulson and the assistance of Christopher A. Miller and Hardy Merriman
  • ISBN 0-8166-4193-5 Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Non-Democracies by Kurt Schock
  • ISBN 0-8006-3609-0 Jesus and Nonviolence: A Third Way (Facets) by Walter Wink
  • ISBN 1-57075-315-6 Peace Is the Way: Writings on Nonviolence from the Fellowship of Reconciliation by Fellowship of Reconciliation (U. S.)
  • ISBN 1-57075-547-7 American Nonviolence: The History of an Idea by Ira Chernus
  • ISBN 0-679-64335-4 Nonviolence: 25 Lessons from the History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky
  • OCLC 03859761 The Kingdom of God is within You by Leo Tolstoy
  • ISBN 1-9307-2235-4 Is There No Other Way? The Search for a Nonviolent Future by Michael Nagler
  • ISBN 0-8156-3003-4 Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963, by Scott H. Bennett, Syracuse Univ. Press, 2003.

External links

Smaller organizations and projects offering training

This list includes only regional organizations that are not big enough to have a Wikipedia article and are therefore not included in the organizations list above.

Other


  Results from FactBites:
 
Common Peace (758 words)
Common Peace was born in 1997 as a 64 day nonviolence campaign called the Season for Nonviolence.
This simple act of nonviolent protest against the laws of segregation was a powerful shot which ultimately rang out as a loud and clear message to the people and government of the United States and the world ---- that what the Declaration of Independence stated, would in fact, be implemented.
"Nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of our time -- the need for man to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to violence and oppression." -- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Nonviolence : An Introduction (8165 words)
Nonviolence can also he the basis for a way of life: it is consistent with a belief in the underlying unity of humankind and it is the only method of action, interpersonal or political, that does not block that path to what has often been called 'self-realisation'.
Nonviolent intervention is a class of methods involving the disruption or destruction of established behaviour patterns, policies, relationships or institutions which are considered objectionable, or the creation of new behaviour patterns, policies, relationships or institutions which are preferred.
In the dialectic of nonviolence both the sufferer and the opponent are transformed: the opponent(s) by being compelled to confront their own views on the truth of the situation which may lead to conversion; and the sufferer who may be morally enriched by not compromising fundamental principles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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