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Encyclopedia > Nonsectarian

Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination. It often implies discrimination, denunciation, or violence against those outside the sect. The term is most often used to refer to religious sectarianism, involving conflict between members of different religions or denominations of the same religion. It is also frequently used to refer to political sectarianism, generally on the part of a tight-knit political faction or party. Look up pejorative on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sect is a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ...


Sectarianism may, in the abstract, be characterized by dogmatism and inflexibility; sentimental or axiomatic adherence to an idea, belief or tradition; and idealism that provides a sense of continuity, orientation, and certainty. As a pejorative term, accusations of sectarianism may sometimes be used to demonize an opposing group and thus serve as a convenient ploy to evade taking what somebody says or does seriously.


The ideological underpinnings of attitudes and behaviours labelled as sectarian are extraordinarily varied. Members of a religious group may feel that their own salvation requires aggressively seeking converts from other groups; adherents of a given faction may believe that for the achievement of their own political or religious project their opponents must be purged. Sometimes a group feeling itself to be under economic or political pressure will attack members of another group thought to be responsible for its own decline. At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or cynically exploited to serve an individual demagogue's ambition. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


In all cases, there is a real or felt opposition between 'Us' and 'Them', between insiders and outsiders. Sectarianism may take the form of hatred and fear of an outside sect or group. In such cases, sectarianism does not require a strong sense of religious belief, as much as a sense of group belonging.


A sectarian conflict usually refers to violent conflict along religious and political lines such as the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. It may also refer to general philosophical or political conflict between different schools of thought such as that between Shia and Sunni Muslims. Non-sectarians espouse that free association and tolerance of different beliefs are the cornerstone to successful peaceful human interaction. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... official_languages = Englishde facto5| Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...

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Religious sectarianism

Religious sectarianism may be found, in varying forms and degrees, wherever religious sects (or their members) are in competition. In many regions, Roman Catholics and Protestants have been in fierce conflict – one contemporary example of this is in Ireland and its diaspora. Within Islam, there has been conflict at various periods between Sunnis and Shias; contrary to the majority Muslim opinion, certain Sunni sects inspired by Wahhabism and other ideologies have declared Shias (and sometimes mainstream Sunnis) to be heretics and/or apostates. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and nations of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Islām is described as a dÄ«n, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... Wahhabism (Arabic الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Apostasy (αποστασις, in classical Greek a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Ireland

See also: the Troubles, Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland

Since the 17th century, there has been sectarian conflict of varying intensity in Ireland. Since the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, this has been particularly intense in Northern Ireland. Irish emigration has taken this conflict to other lands, including western Scotland (see religious rivalry in Glasgow), Newfoundland, Canada's Maritime provinces, New York State, Ontario, Liverpool, and elsewhere. See also Know-Nothings for anti-Catholic sentiment in the United States. The Troubles is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... official_languages = Englishde facto5| Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked... Scottish Executive - official site of the Scottish Executive Scottish Parliament - official site of The Scottish Parliament BBC Scotland - Scottish history, news and travel pages from BBC The Gazetteer for Scotland - Extensive guide to the places and people of Scotland, by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and University of Edinburgh Scotland... In Glasgow, sectarian rivalry between Roman Catholics and Protestants still exists in certain sectors of the population, largely as a result of mass immigration to the city from Ireland in the 19th century. ... Map of Newfoundland Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the northeast coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395... Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...


Persecution of Protestants by Catholics

In Catholic countries, Protestants have historically been persecuted as heretics. For example, the substantial Protestant population of France (the Huguenots) was expelled from the kingdom in the 1680s following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In Spain, the Inquisition sought to root out not only Protestantism but also crypto-Jews and crypto-Muslims (moriscos); elsewhere the Papal Inquisition held similar goals. Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, or historically as the French Calvinists. ... Events and Trends The Treaty of Ratisbon between France and England in 1684 ended the Age of Buccaneers. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France. ... The Spanish Inquisition was the Inquisition acting in Spain under the control of the Kings of Spain. ... Crypto-Judaism is secret practicing of Judaism while publicly pretending to be of another faith. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Artistic (i. ...


Persecution of Catholics by Protestants

In places where Protestantism is the majority or 'official' religion, there have been examples of Catholics being persecuted. In countries where The Reformation was successful, this often lay in the perception that Catholics retained allegiance to a 'foreign' power (the Papacy), causing them to be regarded with suspicion. Sometimes this mistrust manifested itself in Catholics being subjected to restrictions and discrimination, which itself led to further conflict. For example, before Catholic Emancipation in 1829, Catholics were forbidden from voting, running for office or buying land in Ireland. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The term Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity and the Test Acts. ...


Nowadays, bigotry and discrimination in employment usually only remains in a few places where 'strong' forms of Protestantism (such as Calvinism or Presbyterianism) are the norm, or in poor areas with a long history of sectarian violence and tension, such as Northern Ireland. In places where more 'moderate' forms (such as Anglicanism / Episcopalianism) prevail, the two traditions do not become polarized against each other, and usually co-exist peacefully. However, in western Scotland, where many people have some Irish ancestry, sectarianism can frequently be found between Catholics and Protestants. Calvinism is a soteriological system of Christian theology advanced by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and further developed by his followers, associates and admirers. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. ... official_languages = Englishde facto5| Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked... The term Anglican (from the Angles meaning English) describes the people and churches that follow the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... Scottish Executive - official site of the Scottish Executive Scottish Parliament - official site of The Scottish Parliament BBC Scotland - Scottish history, news and travel pages from BBC The Gazetteer for Scotland - Extensive guide to the places and people of Scotland, by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and University of Edinburgh Scotland...


South Asian communalism

Main article: Communalism (South Asia)

In India, sectarianism is known as communalism, which refers particularly to conflict between the Hindu and Muslim communities. It can also refer to Hindu/Sikh conflict and Hindu/Christian conflicts. This article deals with the use of the word communalism as a force separating different communities based on some form of racism. ... This article deals with the use of the word communalism as a force separating different communities based on some form of racism. ... A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, also known as Sanatan (सनातन) Dharma, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural systems of Bharat (India) and Nepal and the island of Bali A popular name for India is Hindustan, or Land of the Hindus. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ...


Violence in Sri Lanka between the Tamil, Sinhalese, and Muslim communities often has heavy sectarian overtones. Tamil may refer to: The Tamil language, which is one of the Dravidian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mosque in Galle, Sri Lanka Muslims, who make up approximately 7 percent of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ...


In Pakistan, there have been many sectarian attacks between Sunnis and Shias, and between Sunnis and Ahmadis. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ...


Sectarianism in Iraq

Main article: Sectarian violence in Iraq

Iraq's Shia population was persecuted during the presidency of Saddam Hussein, and certain elements of the Iraqi insurgency have made a point of targeting Shias in sectarian attacks. In turn, the Sunnis have complained of discrimination and human rights abuses by Iraq's Shia majority government, which is bolstered by the fact that Sunni detainees were allegedly discovered to have been tortured in a compound used by government forces on November 15. [1] Following the invasion and war of Iraq, there has been an increased level of sectarian violence in Iraq in the country. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي), born April 28, 1937 , was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Iraqi militants celebrating orders that the surrounding Coalition forces were given to stand-down. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ...


Ethnic conflict in the Balkans

See also: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia#Breakup

The civil wars in the Balkans which followed the breakup of Yugoslavia have been heavily tinged with sectarianism. Croats and Slovenes have traditionally been Catholic, Serbs and Macedonians Eastern Orthodox, and Bosniaks and (for the most part) Albanians Muslim. Religious affiliation served as a marker of group identity in this conflict, despite relatively low rates of religious practice and belief among these various groups after decades of communism. This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, in Cyrillic Југославија) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Bosniaks (Bosnian: Bošnjaci) are a South Slavic people living chiefly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Communism refers to a theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Christian/Muslim conflict in West Africa

In certain West African countries, particularly Nigeria, competition between Muslims and Christians has exploded into severe violence. West Africa is the region of western Africa that is generally considered to include the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte dIvoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ...


Sectarianism within Judaism

Sectarianism also exists between Orthodox and Reform Jews, with orthodox Jews often characterising reform Jews as being non-religious, disobeying the Torah, rarely attending shul and adopting semi-Christian styles of worship. Reform Jews, on the other hand, often view the orthodox as being intolerant of them and other religions, placing legalistic rules such as the observance of the Sabbath above ethical obligations, being cult-like and hostile to change. Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and the Rabbinical commentary... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of Judaism in America and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th Century Germany. ...


Anti-Semitism

Main article: Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism has traditionally been the most widespread variety of sectarianism in Europe. However, this form of prejudice is not wholly religious in nature, as can be seen by the racial policies of the Nazis, who could be said to be more concerned with the "contamination" of Aryan blood than with the Jewish religion itself, and the experiences of Marranos who were treated with suspicion several generations after their families had converted to Christianity. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Political sectarianism

Political sectarianism differs from religious sectarianism in that political affinity is usually more likely to be elective, as opposed to hereditary, than is religious affinity. In the political realm, the term sectarian is generally used to refer to the tendency of political movements to splinter into mutually antagonistic factions. Various Trotskyist formations, for example, may accuse each other of sectarianism and/or be perceived by outsiders to be sectarian. The same phenomenon may be observed across the political spectrum, to varying degrees, wherever a strong priority is placed on party loyalty and party discipline. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ...


Political sectarianism among Judaean nationalists was parodied by Monty Python in The Life of Brian. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Zealotry. ... The Monty Python troupe in 1970. ... Life of Brian is a film from 1979 by Monty Python which deals with the life of Brian (played by Graham Chapman), a young man born at the nearly the same time as, and in a manger right down the street from Jesus. ...


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