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Encyclopedia > Nomad
Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso in 2005
Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso in 2005
Turkmen nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, by pioneer color photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, ca. 1910
Turkmen nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, by pioneer color photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, ca. 1910

Nomadic people, also known as nomads, are communities of people that move from one place to another, rather than settling down in one location. There are an estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world.[1] Many cultures have been traditionally nomadic, but traditional nomadic behavior is increasingly rare in industrialized countries. There are three kinds of nomads, hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, and peripatetic nomads. Nomad (Kazakh: ; Russian: ) is a 2006 historical epic written by Rustam Ibragimbekov, executive produced by Milos Forman, and directed by Ivan Passer, Sergei Bodrov and Talgat Temenov. ... A nomad is a member of a people who move from place to place. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x650, 89 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Nomad Namtso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x650, 89 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Nomad Namtso Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Tashi Dor monastery overlooking the lake Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso (2005) Namtso (officially: Nam Co; Mongolian: Tengri Nor; “Heavenly Lake”; ) is a mountain lake at the border between Damxung County of Lhasa Prefecture and Baingoin County of Nagqu Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, approximately 112 km... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x654, 132 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x654, 132 KB) Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ...


Nomadic hunter-gatherers have by far the longest-lived subsistence method in human history, following seasonally available wild plants and game. Pastoralists raise herds and move with them so as not to deplete pasture beyond recovery in any one area. Peripatetic nomads are more common in industrialized nations, traveling from one territory to another and offering a trade wherever they go.

Contents

Nomadic hunter-gatherers

Main article: Hunter-gatherer

For more than one million years before domestication, nomadic hunter-gatherers (also known as foragers) moved from campsite to campsite, following game and wild fruits and vegetables. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ...


Examples of nomadic hunter-gatherers

Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda This article is about the Pygmy people. ... The Mbuti people, or Bambuti as they are collectively called, are one of several indigenous hunter-gatherer groups in the Congo region of Africa. ... Map of Ituri within the DRC The Ituri Rainforest is located in the Ituri region of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, !Kung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... The Negritos include the Atis, and at least 5 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Ādivāsīs (आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ...

Pastoral nomads

Mongolian herders moving to their autumn encampment, Khövsgöl aimag, 2006
Mongolian herders moving to their autumn encampment, Khövsgöl aimag, 2006
Main articles: Pastoralism and Transhumance
See also nomadic pastoralism

This nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of social organization. Karim Sadr has proposed the following stages: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2334 × 1556 pixel, file size: 651 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2334 × 1556 pixel, file size: 651 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Founded 1931 Capital Mörön Area 100,600 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2000)  â€¢ Density 119,063 1. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ...

  • Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a symbiosis within the family.
  • Agropastoralism: This is when symbiosis is between segments or clans within an ethnic group.
  • True Nomadism: This is when symbiosis is at the regional level, generally between specialized nomadic and agricultural populations.

The pastoralists are sedentary to a certain area as they move between the permanent spring, summer, autumn and winter pastures for their livestock. The nomads moved depending on the availability of their recources. A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...


Origin of nomadic pastoralism

Nomadic pastoralism seems to have developed as a part of the secondary products revolution proposed by Andrew Sherratt, in which early pre-pottery Neolithic cultures that had used animals as live meat ("on the hoof") began also using animals for their secondary products, for example, milk and its associated dairy products, wool and other animal hair, hides and consequently leather, manure for fuel and fertilizer, and traction. Andrew Sherratts (1981) model of a secondary products revolution involved a widespread and broadly contemporaneous set of innovations in Old World farming: early use of domestic animals for primary carcass products (meat) was broadened from the 4th-3rd millennia BC to include exploitation for renewable secondary products (milk, wool... Professor Andrew Sherratt was born in 1946 and died suddenly of a heart attack on 24 February 2006, in Witney, near Oxford, England. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


The first nomadic pastoral society developed in the period from 8500-6500 BC in the area of the southern Levant. There, during a period of increasing aridity, PPNB cultures in the Sinai were replaced by a nomadic, pastoral pottery-using culture, which seems to have been a cultural fusion between a newly arrived Mesolithic people from Egypt (the Harifian culture), adopting their nomadic hunting lifestyle to the raising of stock. This lifestyle quickly developed into what Jaris Yurins has called the circum-Arabian nomadic pastoral techno-complex and is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East. The rapid spread of such nomadic pastoralism was typical of such later developments as of the Yamnaya culture of the horse and cattle nomads of the Eurasian steppe, or of the Turko-Mongol spread of the later Middle Ages. (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Yamna (from Russian яма pit) or pit grave culture is a prehistoric culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region, dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few... The Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the term often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern border of the steppes of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Examples of pastoral nomads

The Ababdeh are nomads living in the area between the Nile and the Red Sea, in the vicinity of Aswan in Egypt. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ... Two Himba women near Opuwo, Namibia The Himba are an ethnic group of about 20,000 to 50,000 people[1], living in northern Namibia, in the Kunene region (formerly Kaokoland). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Migrants in one of the several migratory waves that brought Indo-Europeans into South-Asia. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Dhangar (Sanskrit / DevanāgarÄ«: धनगर ) caste is primarily located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Motto LUnion Fait La Force(French) Unity is Strength Anthem La Dessalinienne Capital (and largest city) Port-au-Prince Official languages French, Haitian Creole Government Republic  -  President René Préval  -  Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis Formation  -  as Saint-Domingue 1697   -  Independence from France January 1, 1804  Area  -  Total 27... The Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists, subdivided into villages (vish) and headed by a tribal chief (raja) and administered by a priestly caste. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Kuchis (Those who are moving) are a tribe of Pashtun and some Baloch nomads in Afghanistan. ... The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kuchis (Those who are moving) are a tribe of Pashtun and some Baloch nomads in Afghanistan. ... Kurumbar or Kurumans or Kurubaru caste are shepherds of South India. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Moken (Sometimes called Sea Gypsies) are an ethnic group with about 2000 to 3000 members who maintain a nomadic, sea-based culture. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Mrazig are a previously nomadic people who live in and around the town of Douz, Tunisia. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... For the dog breed, see Bulgarian Shepherd Dog. ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ... The Toubou are an ethnic group in northern Chad. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Trekboers were descendents of Dutch settlers, French Huguenot refugees, German Protestants, Friesians and smaller numbers of Belgians, Scandinavians, Scots, also some Indian slaves due to intermarriage, and an a mixture of Khoi and Malay due to absorption into the nascent Boer nation. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... Caribou redirects here. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...

Traditionally nomadic people in industrialized nations

One of the consequences of the break-up of the Soviet Union and the subsequent political independence and economic collapse of its Central Asian republics is the resurgence of pastoral nomadism. Taking the Kyrgyz people as a representative example, nomadism was the center of their economy prior to Russian colonization at the turn of the C19/C20, when they were settled into agricultural villages. The population became increasingly urbanized after World War II, but some people continued to take their herds of horses and cows to the high pasture (jailoo) every summer, i.e. a pattern of transhumance. Since the 1990s, as the cash economy shrunk, unemployed relatives were absorbed back on the family farm, and the importance of this form of nomadism has increased. The symbols of nomadism, specifically the crown of the grey felt tent known as the yurt, appears on the national flag, emphasizing the centrality of their nomadic history and past in the creation of the modern nation of Kyrgyzstan. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... they are the most conservative and compact copact Roma community. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ... Cale may refer to: Cale, Arkansas J.J. Cale This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sinte or Sinti (Singular masc. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... The Yeniche, or Jenisch, are the third-largest population of nomadic people (or Travelers) in Europe, living mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of France. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Nomadism unique to industrialized nations

The RV lifestyle (RV stands for recreational vehicle) is made up of those interested in traveling and camping rather than living in one location, as well as by vacationers. ... An itinerant person who remains connected to the internet. ... The term perpetual traveler (PT, permanent tourist or prior taxpayer) refers to both a lifestyle and a philosophy. ...

See also

Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe. ... Look up itinerant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Armenian dance group performs Kochari. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... The term Snowbird is used to describe Canadians and people from the Pacific Northwest, Northeast or Midwestern United States who spend a large portion of winter in warmer locales such as Arizona, Florida, or elsewhere along the Sunbelt region of the southern United States, areas of the Caribbean, and even... Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ...

References

Mohsen Farsani. Lamentations chez les nomades bakhtiari d'Iran, Paris. 2003.

  1. ^ NOMADS - The FACTS

Further reading

  • Sadr, Karim. The Development of Nomadism in Ancient Northeast Africa, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8122-3066-3
  • Cowan, Gregory. "Nomadology in Architecture: Ephemerality, Movement and Collaboration" University of Adelaide 2002 (available: [1])
  • Chatwin, Bruce. The Songlines (1987)
  • Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus (1980)
  • Grousset, René. L'Empire des Steppes (1939) (French)
  • Michael Haerdter Remarks on modernity, mobility, nomadism and the arts

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