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Encyclopedia > Noise pollution
Pollution
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Natural environment

Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. The dominant form of noise pollution is from transportation sources, principally motor vehicles.[1] The word "noise" comes from the Latin word nausea meaning "seasickness", or from a derivative (perhaps Latin noxia) of Latin noceō = "I do harm", referring originally to nuisance noise.[2] It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Seasickness is hazardous for scuba divers Seasickness is the feeling of nausea and, in extreme cases, vertigo experienced after spending time on a craft on water. ...

Contents

Sources of noise

Main articles: Roadway noise and Aircraft noise

The overarching source of most noise worldwide is generated by transportation systems, principally motor vehicle noise, but also including aircraft noise and rail noise.[3][1] Hybrid vehicles are the first innovation within the last 100 years to achieve significant widespread noise source reduction.[citation needed] Poor urban planning may also give rise to noise pollution, since juxtaposition of industrial to residential land uses, for example, often results in adverse consequences for the residential acoustic environment. Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over flying or landing. ... Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over flying or landing. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


Besides transportation noise, other prominent sources are office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools, lighting hum and audio entertainment systems. Furthermore, with the popularity of digital audio player devices, individuals in a noisy area might increase the volume in order to drown out ambient sounds. Construction equipment also produces noise pollution. Not to be confused with lightning. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...


Noise from recreational vehicles has become a serious problem in rural areas.[citation needed] ATVs, also known as quads, have increased in popularity and are joining the traditional two wheeled dirt motorcycles for off-road riding. The noise produced by these vehicles is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.[citation needed]  A group of “quad bike” all terrain vehicles The term all-terrain vehicle is used to describe a number of small open motorised buggies and tricycles designed for off_road use. ...


Human health

Main article: Noise health effects

Principal noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The following discussion refers to sound levels that are present within 30 to 150 meters from a moderately busy highway. Sound is a particular auditory impression perceived by the sense of hearing. The presence of unwanted sound is called noise pollution. This unwanted sound can seriously damage and affect physiological and psychological health. For instance, noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, and other harmful effects depending on the level of sound, or how loud it is.[4][5] Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.[5][6] Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Behavior (U.S.) or behaviour (U.K.) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hearing

The mechanism for chronic exposure to noise leading to hearing loss is well established. The elevated sound levels cause trauma to the cochlear structure in the inner ear, which gives rise to irreversible hearing loss.[4] A very loud sound in a particular frequency range can damage the cochlea's hair cells that respond to that range thereby reducing the ear's ability to hear those frequencies in the future.[7] However, loud noise in any frequency range has deleterious effects across the entire range of human hearing.[8] Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ...


The outer ear (visible portion of the human ear) combined with the middle ear amplifies sound levels by a factor of 20 when sound reaches the inner ear.[9] For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ...


In Rosen's seminal work on serious health effects regarding hearing loss, one of his findings derived from tracking Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise. This population was systematically compared by cohort group to a typical U.S. population. The findings proved that aging is an almost insignificant cause of hearing loss, which instead is associated with chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise.[4] Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ... Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ... Maaban is a remote populated place in Ghana. ... ... Cohort may mean: Cohort (military unit), a Roman legion. ... Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ... Environmental Noise, is unwanted sound, which may cause either nuisance or damage to health. ...


Cardiovascular health

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten a clear and measurable increase in stress[10] and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ...


Annoyance

Though it pales in comparison to the health effects noted above, noise pollution constitutes a significant factor of annoyance and distraction in modern artificial environments:

  1. The meaning listeners attribute to the sound influences annoyance, so that, if listeners dislike the noise content, they are annoyed. What is music to one is noise to another.[citation needed]
  2. If the sound causes activity interference, noise is more likely to annoy (for example, sleep disturbance)[citation needed]
  3. If listeners feel they can control the noise source, the noise is less likely to be annoying.[citation needed]
  4. If listeners believe that the noise is subject to third-party control, including police, but control has failed, they are more annoyed.[citation needed]
  5. The inherent unpleasantness of the sound causes annoyance.[citation needed]
  6. Contextual sound. If the sound is appropriate for the activity it is in context. If one is at a race track the noise is in context and the psychological effects are absent. If one is at an outdoor picnic the race track noise will produce adverse psychological and physical effects.[citation needed]

A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.[11] A sleep disorder (somnipathy) is a disorder in the sleep patterns of a person or animal. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Environment

Noise and other loud sounds can have a detrimental effect on animals by causing stress, increasing risk of mortality by changing the delicate balance in predator/prey detection and avoidance, and by interfering with their use of sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Very significantly, acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.[12]


Habitat reduction

The most significant impact of noise to animal life is the systematic reduction of usable habitat, which in the case of endangered species may be an important part of the path to extinction. Perhaps the most sensational damage caused by noise pollution is the death of certain species of beached whales, brought on by the extremely loud (up to 200 decibels) sound of military sonar.[13] Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with some other habitat-type. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... A mass stranding of Pilot Whales A beached whale is a whale which has become stranded on land, usually on a beach. ... The decibel is a dimensionless unit (like percent) that is a measure of ratios on a logarithmic scale. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


Lombard vocal response

Noise also makes species communicate louder, which is called Lombard vocal response.[14] Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detecters are on.[15] If creatures don't "speak" loud enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking louder, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem to eventually speak louder. Masks in a Guatemalan Market Teen reading a book, while wearing a dinosaur mask A mask is a piece of material or kit worn on the face. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ...


Other habit changes

Ships may be mistaken by creatures for their predator and of course, either protect themselves, attack, or run away. If they attack, humans might have financial loss, but running away will have an even more deadly result. After they run away several times, it will become part of its habit and start ignoring it. When their natural predators come, they will stay and think that it's the boat.[citation needed]


Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting "sexy" traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus lead to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences.[16] Binomial name Taeniopygia guttata Vieillot, 1817 The Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata is the most common and familiar estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and the tropical far north. ...


Mitigation and control of noise

Main article: Noise mitigation
The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics.
The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics.

There is also technology that has been applied with the aim of mitigating or containing noise as much as possible, provided that it has a sufficiently localized source. Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce unwanted environmental sound. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 269 KB)Heading through the Sound Tube on the Tullamarine Freeway in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 269 KB)Heading through the Sound Tube on the Tullamarine Freeway in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... CityLink is a tolled freeway system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ...

  • Roadway noise is the most widespread environmental component of noise pollution worldwide. There are a variety of effective strategies for mitigating adverse sound levels including: use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy duty vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, innovative tire design and other methods. Thousands of case studies in the U.S. alone have been documented starting in 1970, indicating substantial improvement in roadway planning and design. The most important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of building in mitigation is often quite modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project.
  • Aircraft noise can be reduced to some extent by design of quieter jet engines, which was pursued vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. This strategy has brought limited but noticeable reduction of urban sound levels. Reconsideration of operations, such as altering flight paths and time of day runway use, have demonstrated significant benefits for residential populations near airports. FAA sponsored residential retrofit (insulation) programs initiated in the 1970s has also enjoyed widespread success in reducing interior residential noise in thousands of affected residences across the United States.
  • Exposure of Industrial noise on workers has the longest history of scientific study, having been addressed since the 1930s. This scientific studies have emphasized redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounting assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace. Innovations have had considerable success; however, the costs of retrofitting existing systems is often rather high.

Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the areas aesthetics. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over flying or landing. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Illustration showing the trajectory of a bullet fired at an uphill target. ... FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A residential area is a type of land use where the predominant use is residential. ... Traditionally, workplace noise has been a hazard linked to heavy industries such as ship-building and associated only with noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). ...

Legal status

Main article: Noise regulation

Governments up until the 1970s viewed noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem. In the United States there are federal standards for highway and aircraft noise; states and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning and roadway development. In Canada and the EU there are few national, provincial, or state laws that protect against noise. Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. ... A building code is a set of laws that specify how buildings should be constructed. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.


Most city ordinances prohibit sound above a threshold intensity from trespassing over property line at night, typically between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., and during the day restricts it to a higher decibel level; however, enforcement is uneven. Many municipalities do not follow up on complaints. Even where a municipality has an enforcement office, it may only be willing to issue warnings, since taking offenders to court is expensive. A local ordinance is a law usually found in a municipal code. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ...


Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police. Noise pollution often persists because only five to ten percent of people affected by noise will lodge a formal complaint. Many people are not aware of their legal right to quiet and do not know how to register a complaint. In general use, a complaint is an expression of displeasure, such as poor service at a store, or from a local government, for example. ...


See also

The A-weighting curve is one of a family of curves defined in IEC179 and various other standards for use in sound level meters. ... Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over flying or landing. ... There are numerous health hazards that can affect people in their natural environment. ... The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the areas aesthetics. ... Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an increasingly prevalent disorder that results from exposure to high-intensity sounds, especially over a long period of time. ... Noise measurement is carried out in various fields. ... Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. ... A sound dosimeter or noise dosimeter is a device used to measure an individuals exposure to possibly damaging levels of environmental noise. ... The Hum is a generic name for a series of phenomena involving a persistent and invasive low-frequency humming noise not audible to all people. ... The correct title of this article is tranquility. ... The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ... Properly spelled dB drag racing, with dB meaning deciBels of sound pressure level (SPL). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session
  2. ^ Copia verborum: Latin translations
  3. ^ C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, The relationship between highway planning and urban noise, Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation Division specialty conference, May 21-23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. by American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division
  4. ^ a b c S. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otollaryngology, 82:236 (1965)
  5. ^ a b J.M. Field, Effect of personal and situational variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93: 2753-2763 (1993)
  6. ^ Karl D. Kryter, The Effects of Noise on Man , Academic Press (1985)
  7. ^ http://www.headwize.com/articles/hearing_art.htm
  8. ^ http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA056415
  9. ^ Noise: A Health Problem United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, Washington, DC 20460, August, 1978
  10. ^ S. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otollaryngology, 82:236 (1965)
  11. ^ Jesús Barreiro, Mercedes Sánchez, Montserrat Viladrich-Grau (2005), "How much are people willing to pay for silence? A contingent valuation study", Applied Economics, 37 (11)
  12. ^ Effects of Anthropogenic Noise in the Marine Environment
  13. ^ Balcomb, Ken (2003-05-12). US Navy Sonar blasts Pacific Northwest killer whales. San Juan Islander. Retrieved on 2006-04-30.
  14. ^ www.dosits.org/glossary/pop/lvr.htm
  15. ^ Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to low-frequency sound broadcasts
  16. ^ Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references)

Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... EPA redirects here. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Geographical links


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