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NOU redirects here. For the airport with the same IATA code see La Tontouta International Airport.
For Lady Nō, wife of Oda Nobunaga, see Nohime.

Noh ( ?), or Nōgaku (能楽?) is a major form of classic Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century. Together with the closely-related kyogen farce, it evolved from various popular, folk and aristocratic art forms, including Dengaku, Shirabyoshi, and Gagaku. Although Noh has been slow and stylised for several centuries, its roots can be traced back to Chinese Nuo theater (戏), Sarugaku, and folk theatricals. The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organisation of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... La Tontouta International Airport or Nouméa - La Tontouta International Airport (French: ) (IATA: NOU, ICAO: NWWW) is the main international airport on New Caledonia, serving the city of Nouméa. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Portrait of Nōhime in Gifu Castle Nōhime (濃姫) also Kichō (帰蝶) or Lady/Princess Noh, was the wife of Oda Nobunaga, a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The torii of Itsukushima Shrine, the sites most recognizable landmark, appears to float in the water. ... The town of Miyajima from Mount Misen, with the torii of Itsukushima Shrine at the bottom Miyajima (宮島町; -cho) was a town located on Itsukushima (sometimes referred to as Miyajima Island) in Saeki District, Hiroshima, Japan. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ... Dengaku were rustic japanese harvest celebrations. ... Shirabyoshi Shirabyoshi (who adopted their name from the dance that they performed) appeared at a time when the social structure in Japan was starting to break down. ... Gagaku (雅楽, literally elegant enjoyment) is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial court for several centuries. ... Sarugaku was a form of theater popular in Japan during the 11th to 14th centuries. ...


Kan'ami and his son Zeami brought Noh to its present-day form during the Muromachi period under the patronage of the powerful Ashikaga clan. It would later influence other dramatic forms such as Kabuki and Butoh. During the Meiji era, although its governmental patronage was lost, Noh and Kyogen received official recognition as two of the three national forms of drama. Kanami was a Japanese noh actor, author, and musician during the Muromachi period. ... Zeami Motokiyo (世阿弥 元清; c. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... Ashikaga (足利市; -shi) is a city located in Tochigi, Japan. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Butoh ) is the collective name for a diverse range of techniques and motivations for dance inspired by the Ankoku-Butoh movement. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ...


By tradition, Noh actors and musicians never rehearse for performances together. Instead, each actor, musician, and choral chanter practices his or her fundamental movements, songs, and dances independently or under the tutelage of a senior member of the school. Thus, the tempo of a given performance is not set by any single performer but established by the interactions of all the performers together. In this way, Noh exemplifies the traditional Japanese aesthetic of transience, called by Sen no Rikyu "ichi-go ichi-e". Sen no Rikyu (千利休; 1522 - 1591) is considered the most profound influence on the Japanese tea ceremony. ... Ichi-go ichi-e (一期一会, literally one time, one meeting) is a Japanese term that describes a cultural concept often linked with famed tea master Sen no Rikyu. ...

Contents

Roles

Noh stage. Center: shite; front right: waki; right: eight-member jiutai (chorus); rear center: four hayashi-kata (musicians); rear left: two kohken (stage hands).
Noh stage. Center: shite; front right: waki; right: eight-member jiutai (chorus); rear center: four hayashi-kata (musicians); rear left: two kohken (stage hands).

There are four major categories of Noh performers: shite, waki, kyōgen, and hayashi. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ...

  • The shite (シテ), literally "doers" are the most common roles in Noh
    • Shite (primary actor). In plays where the shite appears first as a human and then as a ghost, the first role is known as the maeshite and the later as the nochijite
    • Tsure (連れ) The shite's companion
  • The waki (脇,ワキ) performs the role that is the counterpart or foil of the shite
  • The wakizure (ワキ連れ) is the companion of the waki
  • The kyōgen (狂言) perform the aikyogen interludes during plays. Kyōgen actors also perform in separate plays between individual noh plays
  • The hayashi or hayashi-kata are the instrumentalists who play the four instruments used in Noh theater: the transverse flute (fue), hip drum (okawa or ōtsuzumi), the shoulder-drum (kotsuzumi), and the stick-drum (taiko).
  • The jiutai (地謡) is the chorus, usually comprising six to eight people
  • Kōken are stage hands, usually one to three people

A typical Noh play will involve four or five categories of actors and usually takes 30-120 minutes. Noh actors were almost exclusively male. Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Samoa), Fue is the god of the sweet potato and a son of Tagaloa. ... A tsuzumi (tsoo zoo mee) (鼓) is a Japanese hourglass-shaped drum that was originally taught with fox skin. ... It has been suggested that Japanese_Taiko_Drumming be merged into this article or section. ...


Plays

There are approximately 250 plays in the current repertoire, which can be divided according to a variety of schemes. The most common is according to content, but there are several other methods of organization.


Categories

  1. Kami mono (神物) or waki nō (脇能, deity plays) typically feature the shite in the role of a human in the first act and a deity in the second and tell the mythic story of a shrine or praise a particular spirit.
  2. Shura mono (修羅物) or asura nō (阿修羅能, warrior plays) have the shite often appearing as a ghost in the first act and a warrior in full battle regalia in the second, re-enacting the scene of his death.
  3. Katsura mono (鬘物, wig plays) or onna mono (女物, woman plays) depict the shite in a female role and feature some of the most refined songs and dances in all of Noh.
  4. There are about 94 "miscellaneous" plays, including kyōran mono (狂乱物) or madness plays, onryō mono (怨霊物) or vengeful ghost plays, and genzai mono (現在物), plays which depict the present time, and which do not fit into the other categories.
  5. Kiri nō (切り能, final plays) or oni mono (鬼物, demon plays) usually feature the shite in the role of monsters, goblins, or demons, and are often selected for their bright colors and fast-paced, tense finale movements.

Mood

  • Mugen nō (夢幻能) usually deals with spirits, ghosts, phantasms, and supernatural worlds. Time is often depicted as passing in a non-linear fashion, and action may switch between two or more timeframes from moment to moment.
  • Genzai nō (現在能), as mentioned above, depicts normal events of the everyday world. However, when contrasted with mugen instead of with the other four categories, the term encompasses a somewhat broader range of plays.

Style

  • Geki nō (劇能) or drama plays are based around the advancement of plot and the narration of action.
  • Furyū nō (風流能) or dance plays focus rather on the aesthetic qualities of the dances and songs which are performed.

Okina (or Kamiuta) is a unique play which combines dance with Shinto ritual. It is considered the oldest type of Noh play, and is probably the most often performed. It will generally be the opening work at any programme or festival. Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


Sources

The Tale of the Heike, a medieval tale of the rise and fall of the Taira clan, originally sung by blind monks who accompanied themselves on the biwa, is an important source of material for Noh (and later dramatic forms), particularly warrior plays. Another major source is The Tale of Genji, an eleventh century work of profound importance to the later development of Japanese culture. Authors also drew on Nara and Heian period Japanese classics, and Chinese sources. The Tale of the Heike (Japanese: 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... St. ... Junko Ueda playing a Satsuma-biwa A biwa (琵琶) is a Japanese short-necked fretted lute, and a close pickles variant of the Chinese pipa. ... Ilustration of ch. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ...


Some famous plays

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Noh plays: A-M N-Z.
Plays with a separate article are listed here.

The following categorization is that of the Kanze school.

Name Meaning Cat
Aoi no Ue Lady Aoi 4
Aya no Tsuzumi (綾鼓) The Damask Drum 4
Dōjōji (道成寺) Dōjōji 4
Hagoromo (羽衣) The Feather Mantle 3
Izutsu The Well Cradle 3
Kagekiyo Kagekiyo 4
Kanawa (鉄輪) The Iron Ring 4
Kumasaka Kumasaka 5
Matsukaze The Wind in the Pines 3
Nonomiya The Shrine in the Fields 3
Sekidera Komachi Komachi at Sekidera 3
Semimaru Semimaru 4
Shakkyo Stone Bridge 5
Shojo The Tippling Elf 5
Sotoba Komachi Komachi at the Gravepost 3
Takasago At Takasago 1
Tsunemasa (経政) Tsunemasa 2
Yorimasa Yorimasa 2
Yuya Yuya 3

Aoi no Ue (葵上, Lady Aoi) is a Noh play written by Zeami Motokiyo based on an episode in the Tale of Genji and named for Lady Aoi, one of the novels characters. ... Dōjōji ) is a very famous Noh play of the fourth category, of unknown authorship. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Matsukaze was said to be a legendary horse. ... Sekidera Komachi ) is a very famous Noh play of the third category by Zeami Motokiyo. ...

Performance elements

Noh performance combines a variety of elements into a stylistic whole, with each particular element the product of generations of refinement according to the central Buddhist, Shinto, and minimalist aspects of Noh's aesthic principles.


Stage

Noh stage before a performance
Noh stage before a performance
1:hashigakari. 2:kyogen spot. 3:stage attendants. 4:stick drum. 5:hip drum. 6:shoulder drum. 7:flute. 8:chorus. 9:waki seat. 10:waki spot. 11:shite spot. 12:shite-bashira. 13:metsuke-bashira. 14:waki-bashira. 15:fue-bashira.
1:hashigakari. 2:kyogen spot. 3:stage attendants. 4:stick drum. 5:hip drum. 6:shoulder drum. 7:flute. 8:chorus. 9:waki seat. 10:waki spot. 11:shite spot. 12:shite-bashira. 13:metsuke-bashira. 14:waki-bashira. 15:fue-bashira.

The traditional Noh stage consists of a pavilion whose architectural style is derived from that of the traditional kagura stage of Shinto shrines, and is normally composed almost entirely of hinoki (Japanese cypress) wood. The four pillars are named for their orientation to the prominent actions during the course of the play: the waki-bashira in the front, right corner near the waki's standing point and sitting point; the shite-bashira in the rear, left corner, next to which the shite normally performs; the fue-bashira in the rear, right corner, closest to the flute player; and the metsuke-bashira, or "looking-pillar", so called because the shite is typically faced toward the vicinity of the pillar. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Noh stage By: Christian Bauer Source: http://wwwthep. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Noh stage By: Christian Bauer Source: http://wwwthep. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kagura is the Japanese word for sacred Shinto dances. ... Binomial name Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc. ... Binomial name Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc. ...


The floor is polished to enable the actors to move in a gliding fashion, and beneath this floor are buried giant pots or bowl-shaped concrete structures to enhance the resonant properties of the wood floors when the actors stomp heavily on the floor. As a result, the stage is elevated approximately three feet above the ground level of the audience.


The only ornamentation on the stage is the kagami-ita, a painting of a pine-tree at the back of the stage. The two most common beliefs are that it represents either a famous pine tree of significance in Shinto at the Kasuga Shrine in Nara, or that it is a token of Noh's artistic predecessors which were often performed to a natural backdrop. Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Kasuga Shrine The Kasuga Shrine (Japanese: 春日大社, Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ...


Another unique feature of the stage is the hashigakari, the narrow bridge to the left of the stage that the principal actors use to enter the stage. This would later evolve into the hanamichi in kabuki. The hanamichi lit. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ...


All stages which are solely dedicated to Noh performances also have a hook or loop in ceiling, which exists only to lift and drop the bell for the play Dōjōji. When that play is being performed in another location, the loop or hook will be added as a temporary fixture. Dōjōji ) is a very famous Noh play of the fourth category, of unknown authorship. ...


Costumes

The garb worn by actors is typically adorned quite richly and seeped in symbolic meaning for the type of role (e.g. thunder gods will have hexagons on their clothes while serpents have triangles to convey scales). Costumes for the shite in particular are extravagant, shimmering silk brocades, but are progressively less sumptuous for the tsure, the wakizure, and the aikyōgen. Raijin ) is a god of thunder and lightning in Japanese mythology. ...


The musicians and chorus typically wear formal montsuki kimono (black and adorned with five family crests) accompanied by either hakama (a skirt-like garment) or kami-shimo, a combination of hakama and a waist-coat with exaggerated shoulders (see illustrations). Finally, the stage attendants are garbed in virtually unadorned black garments, much in the same way as stagehands in contemporary Western theater. A traditional wedding kimono The kimono literally something worn) is the national costume of Japan. ... Hakama worn by an aikidoka (left of the picture) An Edo-era kamishimo outfit, consisting of a kataginu (a sleeveless jacket with exaggerated shoulders) (left) and hakama (centre). ...


Masks

The masks in Noh (能面 nō-men or 面 omote, feature) all have names. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x2261, 544 KB) Masque de No Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Noh ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x2261, 544 KB) Masque de No Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Noh ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 525 KB) Masque de No Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Noh ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 525 KB) Masque de No Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Noh ...


Usually only the shite, the main actor, wears a mask. However, in some cases, the tsure may also wear a mask, particularly for female roles. The Noh masks portray female or nonhuman (divine, demonic, or animal) characters. There are also Noh masks to represent youngsters or old men. On the other hand, a Noh actor who wears no mask plays a role of an adult man in his twenties, thirties, or forties. The side player, the waki, wears no mask either.


Several types of masks, in particular those for female roles, are designed so that slight adjustments in the position of the head can express a number emotions such as fear or sadness due to the variance in lighting and the angle shown towards the audience. With some of the more extravagant masks for deities and monsters, however, it is not always possible to convey emotion. Usually, however, these characters are not frequently called to change emotional expression during the course of the scene, or show emotion through larger body language.


The rarest and most valuable Noh masks are not held in museums even in Japan, but rather in the private collections of the various heads of Noh schools; these treasures are usually only shown to a select few and only taken out for performance on the rarest occasions. This does no substantial harm to the study and appreciation of Noh masks, as tradition has established a few hundred standard mask designs, which can further be categorized as being one of about a dozen different types. Sen no Rikyū, founder of the three main schools of Japanese tea ceremony, by Hasegawa Tōhaku Iemoto (家元) is a Japanese term meaning founder or grand master. ...


Props

The most commonly used prop in Noh is the fan, as it is carried by all performers regardless of role. Chorus singers and musicians may carry their fan in hand when entering the stage, or carry it tucked into the obi. In either case, the fan is usually placed at the performer's side when he or she takes position, and is often not taken up again until leaving the stage. Obi (帯, おび) is a Japanese word referring to several different types of sashes worn with kimono and martial arts uniforms by both men and women. ...


Several plays have characters who wield mallets, swords, and other implements. Nevertheless, during dance sequences, the fan is typically used to represent any and all hand-held props, including one such as a sword which the actor may have tucked in his sash or ready at hand nearby.


When hand props other than fans are used, they are usually introduced or retrieved by stage attendants who fulfill a similar role to stage crew in contemporary theater. Like their Western counterparts, stage attendants for Noh traditionally dress in black, but unlike in Western theater they may appear on stage during a scene, or may remain on stage during an entire performance, in both cases in plain view of the audience. Kuroko (黒子) is a stagehand in kabuki theatre. ...


Stage properties in Noh including the boats, wells, altars, and the aforementioned bell from Dōjōji, are typically carried onto the stage before the beginning of the act in which they are needed. These props normally are only outlines to suggest actual objects, although the great bell, a perennial exception to most Noh rules for props, is designed to conceal the actor and to allow a costume change during the aikyogen interlude.


Chant and music

Hayashi-kata (noh musicians). Left to right: taiko, ōtsuzumi (hip drum), kotsuzumi (shoulder drum), flute.
Hayashi-kata (noh musicians). Left to right: taiko, ōtsuzumi (hip drum), kotsuzumi (shoulder drum), flute.

Noh is a chanted drama, and a few commentators have dubbed it "Japanese opera." However, the singing in Noh involves a limited tonal range, with lengthy, repetitive passages in a narrow dynamic range. Clearly, melody is not at the center of Noh singing. Still, texts are poetic, relying heavily on the Japanese seven-five rhythm common to nearly all forms of Japanese poetry, with an economy of expression, and an abundance of allusion. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that Japanese_Taiko_Drumming be merged into this article or section. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A tsuzumi (tsoo zoo mee) (鼓) is a Japanese hourglass-shaped drum that was originally taught with fox skin. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson The best-known forms of Japanese poetry (outside Japan) are haiku and senryu. ...


It is important to note that the chant is not always performed "in character"; that is, sometimes the actor will speak lines or describe events from the perspective of another character or even a disinterested narrator. Far from breaking the rhythm of the performance, this is actually in keeping with the other-worldy feel of many Noh plays, especially those characterized as mugen.


The chorus is accompanied by four musicians (hayashi-kata): three drummers and a flautist.


Jo, Ha, Kyū

One of the most subtle performance elements of Noh is that of Jo-ha-kyū, which originated as the three movements of courtly gagaku. However, rather than simply dividing a whole into three parts, within Noh the concept incorporates not only the play itself, but the songs and dances within the play, and even the individual steps, motions, and sounds that actors and musicians make. Furthermore, from a higher perspective, the entire traditional Noh program of five plays also manifests this concept, with the first type play being the jo, the second, third, and fourth plays the ha (with the second play being referred to as the jo of the ha, the third as the ha of the ha, and the fourth as the kyū of the ha), and finally the fifth play the kyū. In general, the jo component is slow and evocative, and ha component or components detail transgression or the disordering of the natural way and the natural world, and the kyū resolves the element with haste or suddenness (note, however, that this only means kyū is fast in comparison with what came before it, and those unfamiliar with the concepts of Noh may not even realize the acceleration occurred). Jo-ha-kyÅ« (序破急) is a concept of modulation and movement applied in a wide variety of traditional Japanese arts. ... Gagaku (雅楽, literally elegant enjoyment) is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial court for several centuries. ...


Actors

There are about 1500 professional Noh actors in Japan today, and the art form continues to thrive. Actors begin their training as young children, traditionally at the age of three.


The five extant schools of Noh shite acting are the Kanze (観世), Hōshō (宝生), Komparu (金春), Kita (喜多), and Kongō (金剛) schools. Each school has a leading family known as the sōke, and the head of each family is entitled to create new plays or edit existing songs. Sōke ) is a Japanese title that means headmaster (or sometimes translated as head of the family or even grand master, although the latter usage is a common Western misconception). ... Sen no RikyÅ«, founder of the three main schools of Japanese tea ceremony, by Hasegawa Tōhaku Iemoto (家元) is a Japanese term meaning founder or grand master. ...


The society of Noh strictly protects the traditions passed down from their ancestors (see iemoto). However, several secret documents of the Kanze school written by Zeami, and of the Komparu school written by Zenchiku have been diffused throughout the community of scholars of Japanese theater. Sen no Rikyū, founder of the three main schools of Japanese tea ceremony, by Hasegawa Tōhaku Iemoto (家元) is a Japanese term meaning founder or grand master. ...


Actors normally follow a strict progression through the course of their lives from roles considered the most basic to those considered the most complex or difficult; the role of Yoshitsune in Funa Benkei is one of the most prominent roles a child actor performs in Noh. Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yosai Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka Minamoto no Yoshitsune () (1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ...


Aesthetic terminology

Zeami and Zenchiku describe a number of distinct qualities that are thought to be essential to the proper understanding of Noh as an art form.

  • Hana (花, flower): the true Noh performer seeks to cultivate a rarefied relationship with his audience similar to the way that one cultivates flowers. What is notably about hana is that, like a flower, it is meant to be appreciated by any audience, no matter how lofty or how coarse his upbringing. Hana comes in two forms. Individual hana is the beauty of the flower of youth, which passes with time, while "true hana" is the flower of creating and sharing perfect beauty through performance.
  • Yūgen (幽玄): an aesthetic term used to describe much of the art of the 13th and 14th centuries in Japan, but used specifically in relation to Noh to mean the profound beauty of the transcendental world, including mournful beauty involved in sadness and loss.
  • Kokoro or shin (both 心): among the most difficult of the conceptual elements of Noh, kokoro describes the internal state of mind in which the self is thought to be both formless and total. It appears to be related to the more mainstream Japanese notion of mushin.
  • Rōjaku (老弱): the final stage of performance development of the Noh actor, in which as an old man he eliminates all unnecessary action or sound in his performance, leaving only the true essence of the scene or action being imitated.
  • Myō (妙): the "charm" of an actor who performs flawlessly and without any sense of imitation; he effectively becomes his role.
  • Monomane (物真似, imitation or mimesis): the intent of a Noh actor to accurately depict the motions of his role, as opposed to purely aesthetic reasons for abstraction or embellishment. Monomane is sometimes contrasted with yūgen, although the two represent endpoints of a continuum rather than being completely separate.
  • Kabu-isshin (歌舞一心, "song-dance-one heart"): the theory that the song (including poetry) and dance are two halves of the same whole, and that the Noh actor strives to perform both with total unity of heart and mind.

Mushin (無心) is a state into which very highly trained martial artists are said to enter during combat. ...

See also

Sen no Rikyū, founder of the three main schools of Japanese tea ceremony, by Hasegawa Tōhaku Iemoto (家元) is a Japanese term meaning founder or grand master. ...

Bibliography

  • Karen Brazell. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. New York: Columbia University Press. 1998.
  • Benito Orolani. The Japanese Theatre: From Shamanistic Ritual to Contemporary Pluralism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1990.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Noh video
  • Translations of thirteen Noh plays
  • Kyogen: Classical Japanese Comic Theatre
  • Virtual Reality and Virtual Irreality:On Noh-Plays and Icons
  • Noh mask master Shigeharu Nagasawa Noh Masks / 長澤重春能面集 Japan
  • Noh stage
  • Page on the variable expressions of Noh masks
  • Contemporary work informed by the Noh tradition for an american audience
  • Noh plays Photo Story and Story Paper

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Noh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (959 words)
Noh is unique in its slow, spartan grace and its use of distinctive masks.
Noh is a chanted drama, and some commentators have dubbed it "Japanese opera." However, the singing in Noh involves a limited tonal range, with lengthy, repetitive passages in a narrow dynamic range.
The Noh masks are used to portray female or nonhuman (divine, demonic, or animal) characters.
Phoenix Art Museum - Sculpture in Silk: Costumes from Japan's Noh Theater (642 words)
Noh theater was perfected in Japan in the early Muromachi period (1392-1568) under the patronage of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, a feudal shogun.
Noh costumes are made primarily from silk fibers, which are dyed with natural plant substances and woven of twisted warp threads to create greater strength and texture.
Noh masks are richly varied and expressive, since the words of the actor are not spoken but conveyed through the mask itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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