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Encyclopedia > Noble savage
A detail from Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe; West's idealised depiction of this American Indian is in the tradition of the "Noble savage" (Fryd, 75)
A detail from Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe; West's idealised depiction of this American Indian is in the tradition of the "Noble savage" (Fryd, 75)

In the eighteenth-century cult of "Primitivism" the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more authentically noble than the contemporary product of civilized training. Although the phrase noble savage first appeared in Dryden's The Conquest of Granada (1672), the idealized picture of "nature's gentleman" was an aspect of eighteenth-century sentimentalism, among other forces at work. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x699, 105 KB) Summary Cropped version of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x699, 105 KB) Summary Cropped version of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... The Conquest of Granada was a play written by John Dryden and acted in 1670. ... Sentimentalism (literally, appealing to the sentiments), as a literary and political discourse, has occurred much in the literary traditions of all regions in the world, and is central to the traditions of Indian literature, Chinese literature, and Vietnamese literature (such as Ho Xuan Huong). ...


The term "noble savage" expresses a concept of the universal essential humanity as unencumbered by civilization; the normal essence of an unfettered human. Since the concept embodies the idea that without the bounds of civilization, humans are essentially good, the basis for the idea of the "noble savage" lies in the doctrine of the goodness of humans, expounded in the first decade of the century by Shaftesbury, who urged a would-be author “to search for that simplicity of manners, and innocence of behaviour, which has been often known among mere savages; ere they were corrupted by our commerce” (Advice to an Author, Part III.iii). His counter to the doctrine of original sin, born amid the optimistic atmosphere of Renaissance humanism, was taken up by his contemporary, the essayist Richard Steele, who attributed the corruption of contemporary manners to false education. Central New York City. ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Sir Richard Steele (bap. ...


The concept of the noble savage has particular associations with Romanticism and with Rousseau's Romantic philosophy in particular. The opening sentence of Rousseau's Emile (1762), which has as its subtitle "de l'Éducation ("or, Concerning Education") is Romantics redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Romantics redirects here. ...

“Everything is good in leaving the hands of the Creator of Things; everything degenerates in the hands of man.”

In the later eighteenth-century, the published voyages of Captain James Cook seemed to open a glimpse into an unspoiled Edenic culture that still existed in the unspoiled and un-Christianized South Seas. By 1784 it was so much an accepted element in current discourse that Benjamin Franklin could mock some of its inconsistencies in Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784). Among the classics of the "bnatural" education, the novel Paul et Virginie appeared in 1787 and Chateaubriand's sentimental romance Atala appeared in 1807. This article is about the British explorer. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Pacific redirects here. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Paul et Virginie (or Paul and Virginia) is a novel that was written by Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre in 1787. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Atala is an Italian manufacturer of bicycles and bicycle components, as well as other fitness products. ...


The concept appears in many further books of the early nineteenth century. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein forms one of the better-known examples: her monster embodies the ideal. German author Karl May employed the idea extensively in his Wild West stories. Aldous Huxley provided a later example in his novel Brave New World (published in 1932). Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Karl May. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

Nathaniel Jocelyn's 1839 portrait of Joseph Cinqué, leader of the slave revolt on the ship Amistad
Nathaniel Jocelyn's 1839 portrait of Joseph Cinqué, leader of the slave revolt on the ship Amistad

From the end of the fifteenth century certain European states began expanding overseas, initially in Africa, later in Asia and in the Americas. In general, they sought mineral resources (such as silver and gold), land (for the cultivation of export crops such as rice and sugar, and the cultivation of other foodstuffs to support mining communities) and labor (to work in mines and plantations). In some cases, colonizers killed the indigenous people. In other cases, the people became incorporated into the expanding states to serve as labor. Image File history File links Cinque. ... Nathaniel Jocelyn (January 31, 1796 - January 13, 1881) was an American painter. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Cinqué. Portrait by Nathaniel Jocelyn, 1839 Sengbe Pieh (1815 – ca. ... La Amistad, a 19th century Spanish schooner The Amistad, a 1841 United States court case concerning a slave rebellion on that ship. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Although Europeans recognized these people to be human beings, once the debate on whether they had souls had been settled, they had no plans to treat these social and economic— and, it was often assumed intellectual— inferiors as equals. In part through this and similar processes, Europeans developed a notion of "the primitive" and "the savage" that legitimized genocide and ethnocide on the one hand, and European domination on the other. This discourse extended to people of Africa, Asia, and Oceania as European colonialism, neo-colonialism, and imperialism expanded. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Primitive - A band from St. ... Look up savage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Neo Colonialism is the belife that former colonies of European powers have never recieved economic freedom from their former rulers. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


The idea of the "noble savage" may have served, in part, as an attempt to re-establish the value of indigenous lifestyles and illegitimatize imperial excesses - establishing exotic humans as morally superior in order to counter-balance the perceived political and economic inferiorities. Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...


The attributes of the "noble savage" often included:

  • Living in harmony with Nature
  • Generosity and selflessness
  • Innocence
  • Inability to lie, fidelity
  • Physical health
  • Disdain of luxury
  • Moral courage
  • "Natural" intelligence or innate, untutored wisdom

In the first century CE, all of these features of the eighteenth century Noble Savage had been attributed by Tacitus to Germans in his Germania, in which he contrasted them repeatedly with the softened, romanised, corrupted Gauls— and by inference criticised his own Roman culture in unspoken contrasts. This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Criticism

In the 20th century, the concept of the Noble Savage came to be seen as unrealistic and condescending. Insofar as it was based on certain stereotypes, it came to be considered a form of patronizing racism, even when it replaced the previous stereotype of the bloodthirsty savage. It has been criticized by many, for example Roger Sandall, in academic, anthropological, sociological and religious fields. For instance, some Christians, especially those who believe in the doctrine of original sin, consider mankind to be universally degenerate and sinful at heart, regardless of whatever people group or civilization they are associated with. In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Roger Sandall is an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Original Sin redirects here. ...


Stanley Kubrick, whose films make strong comments on human nature, rejects the idea of the noble savage: Kubrick redirects here. ...

Man isn't a noble savage, he's an ignoble savage. He is irrational, brutal, weak, silly, unable to be objective about anything where his own interests are involved — that about sums it up. I'm interested in the brutal and violent nature of man because it's a true picture of him. And any attempt to create social institutions on a false view of the nature of man is probably doomed to failure.

As a form of racism, the ideology of the noble savage has been criticized heavily by anthropologists who acknowledge that it is a false construct based on European notions of what the "Indian" is like. Anthropologist Lawrence H. Keeley has used ethnographic evidence from Highland New Guinea tribesman, Kalahari San peoples, and other existing "primitive" tribes, combined with anthropological evidence from around the world, to demonstrate the level of violence inherent in these societies. Amongst his aims is to demonstrate the falseness of the myth that "civilized humans have fallen from grace, from a simple primeval happiness, a peaceful golden age." [1]. The author laments the role that the "noble savage" paradigm has had in warping much anthropological literature to political ends. Historically, and in the present, the idea of the noble savage has been used by various parties to create impossible double standards and thus deny indigenous groups their legitimate claims. Violence is a general term to describe actions, usually deliberate, that cause or intend to cause injury to people, animals, or non-living objects. ...


Literature

The noble savage as protagonist or, more often, as companion to the protagonist has long been a popular type of literary character. Perhaps the most notable early example is the character Friday from Robinson Crusoe (1719) by Daniel Defoe. Other examples include Dirk Peters from Edgar Allan Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838), The Noble Savage from Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, Chingachgook and Uncas from James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales (1823 and later), Queequeg from Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Umslpoagaas from H. Rider Haggard's Allan Quatermain (1885), and Winnetou from Karl May´s Winnetou novels (1893 and later). Tonto from the Lone Ranger radio and television programs is one of the best known examples from the 20th century. For other uses, see Robinson Crusoe (disambiguation). ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket is Edgar Allan Poes only complete novel, published in 1838. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Chingachgook was a fictional character in four of James Fenimore Coopers five Leatherstocking Tales, a lone Mohican chief and companion of the series hero Natty Bumppo. ... Uncas (c. ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, each featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as Leatherstocking, and by the Native Americans as Pathfinder, Deerslayer, or Hawkeye. Listed chronologically by story action, the books are: Note that these are the dates... Queequeg is a fictional character presented in the 1851 novel Moby-Dick by U.S. author Herman Melville. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... Winnetou is the Native-American hero of several novels written by Karl May (one of the best selling German writers of all time), in German including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and after initial dramatic... Karl May. ... Winnetou is the Native-American hero of several novels written by Karl May (one of the best selling German writers of all time), in German including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and after initial dramatic... Tonto may mean: Tonto (Lone Ranger character), the fictional sidekick to the Lone Ranger. ... The Lone Ranger was an early, long-running radio and television show based on characters created by George W. Trendle of Detroit, Michigan and developed by writer Fran Stryker of Buffalo, New York. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Twentieth-century popular culture has also expressed its inherited views of the "noble savage" by placing them in fantasy or science fiction settings. Historical fantasy examples include the figures such as "Tarzan". The very meaning of "barbarian" in contemporary popular culture has become sympathetically colored through similar fantasies. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Tarzan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


As sensitivity to racist stereotypes has increased, science fiction has often cast space aliens in the role of the noble savage.


Twentieth-century readers recast as "noble savages" some literary creatures like Caliban in Shakespeare's The Tempest or Dr. Frankenstein's creature in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) // While he is referred to as a mooncalf, a freckled whelp, he is the only human inhabitant of an island that is otherwise not honourd with a human shape“ (Prospero, I.2. ... For other uses, see The Tempest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


Another noble savage archetype appears in the person of the Siberian Nanai hunter Dersu Uzala, who became the main character of the book Dersu Uzala by the Russian explorer Vladimir Arsenyev. It has inspired two movie pictures, the 1961 Soviet film Dersu Uzala by Agasi Babayan (Агаси Бабаян), as well as the 1975 Soviet-Japanese film Dersu Uzala by Akira Kurosawa (黒澤 明). The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... Dersu Uzala (Russian: Дерсу Узала; alternate U.S. title: The Hunter) is the title of a 1923 book by the Russian explorer Vladimir Arsenyev, telling of his travels in the Ussuri basin, and the name of a Nanai hunter (ca. ... Vladimir Arsenyev Vladimir Klavdiyevich Arsenyev (Russian: ) (1872–1930) was a Russian explorer of the Far East who recounted his travels in a series of books (По Уссурийскому Краю (1921), Дерсу Узала (1923)), telling of his military journeys to the Ussuri basin with Dersu Uzala, a native trapper, from 1902 to 1907. ... Dersu Uzala is a 1961 Soviet film by the books of Vladimir Arsenyev about his travels in Russian Far East with a native trapper Dersu Uzala. ... Dersu Uzala (Дерсу Узала) is a 1975 joint Soviet-Japanese film production, directed by Akira Kurosawa. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ...


In 1964, the Australian writer Mary Durack published a fictionalised account of Yagan, an Indigenous Australian warrior who played a key part in early resistance to British settlement around Perth, Western Australia, in her children's novel The Courteous Savage: Yagan of the Swan River. When re-issued in 1976, it was renamed Yagan of the Bibbulmun because the word "Savage" was considered racist. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Dame Mary Durack (born February 20, 1913, died December 16, 1994) was an accomplished Australian author and historian. ... Portrait of Yagan by George Cruikshank. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


The 1980 film The Gods Must Be Crazy by Jamie Uys depicts a group of Bushmen from the Kalahari desert as noble savages. The Gods Must Be Crazy is a film released in 1980, written and directed by Jamie Uys. ... Jacobus Johannes Uys (30 May 1921 – 29 January 1996), better known as Jamie Uys, was a South African film director. ...


The schizophrenic Columbian Indian "Chief" Bromden in Ken Kesey's "One Flew Over the Coocoo's Nest" explodes conventions of the noble savage.


"Noble Savage" is the title of the 1985 album by the American heavy metal band Virgin Steele. The title song is loosely inspired by the noble savage concept. Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Virgin Steele is a Heavy metal band from New York, founded in 1981, but more recently they have displayed progressive and symphonic metal elements. ...


See also

Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Liver-Eating Johnson Mountain men were trappers and explorers that roamed the Rocky Mountains from about 1810 to the early 1840s. ... Neo-Tribalism is the ideology that human beings have evolved to live in a tribal, as opposed to a modern, society, and thus cannot achieve genuine happiness until some semblance of tribal lifestyles has been re-created or re-embraced. ... The Blue Lagoon is a romance novel by Henry De Vere Stacpoole, first published in 1908. ... This article is about the feral child. ... Woodwoses support coats of arms in the side panels of a portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1499 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) Grand arms of Prussia, 1873 The Woodwose or hairy wildman of the woods was the Sasquatch figure of pre-Christian Gaul, in Anglo-Saxon a Woodwoses appear in the carved... The magical negro (sometimes called the mystical negro, magic negro, or our Magical African-American Friend) is a stock character who appears in fiction of a variety of media. ... In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is reflexive if for all a in X, a is related to itself. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

References

  1. ^ Lawrence H. Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford, University Press, 1996), p. 5.
  • Fryd, Vivien Green. "Rereading the Indian in Benjamin West's 'Death of General Wolfe.'" American Art, Vol. 9, No. 1. (Spring, 1995), pp. 72-85.Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1073-9300%28199521%299%3A1%3C72%3ARTIIBW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J

Further reading

  • Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes its Object
  • Lawrence H. Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: University Press, 1996).
  • Eric R. Wolf, 1982. Europe and the People without History (Berkeley: University of California Press)
  • Marianna Torgovnick, 1991. Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives (Chicago)
  • Ter Ellingson, 2001. The Myth of the Noble Savage (Berkeley: University of California Press)
  • Roger Sandall 2001 The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays ISBN 0-8133-3863-8
  • Steven Pinker. 2002. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (Viking) ISBN 0-670-03151-8
  • Fergus M. Bordewich, "Killing the White Man's Indian: Reinventing Native Americans at the End of the Twentieth Century"
  • Robert F. Berkhofer, "The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present"
  • Peter C Rollins, "Hollywood's Indian : the portrayal of the Native American in film"
  • Vine Deloria, Jr., "The Pretend Indian: Images of Native Americans in the Movies"
  • Constant battles: the myth of the peaceful, noble savage / Steven LeBlanc - New York : St Martin's Press, 2003. ISBN 0312310897

Roger Sandall is an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature is a 2002 book (published by Penguin Putnam, ISBN 0670031518) by Steven Pinker arguing against tabula rasa models of psychology, claiming that the human mind is shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations. ...

External links

  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas"; "Primitivism in the Eighteenth Century".
  • The Culture Cult: The Culture Cult

  Results from FactBites:
 
Noble savage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1091 words)
The term "noble savage" expresses a romantic concept of humankind as unencumbered by civilization; the natural essence of the unfettered person.
In the 20th century, the concept of the "noble savage" came to be seen as unrealistic and condescending.
The myth of the "noble savage" may have served, in part, as an attempt to re-establish the value of indigenous lifestyles and delegitimatize imperial excesses - establishing exotic humans as morally superior in order to counter-balance the perceived political and economic inferiorities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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