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Encyclopedia > Noble Eightfold Path
The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path
The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path

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Buddhism
This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline· Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvana · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Samsara · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: ) or Paticcasamuppāda, Pali: ; Tibetan: ; Chinese: ) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Countries
Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ...

Bhutan · Cambodia · China
India · Indonesia · Japan
Korea · Laos · Malaysia
Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal
Singapore · Sri Lanka
Thailand · Tibet · Vietnam
Western countries The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Buddhism in Myanmar is predominantly of the Theravada tradition or the southern school. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna
Early and Pre-sectarian Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
Chinese Song Period Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra Page The texts can be categorized in a number of ways, but the most fundamental division is that between canonical and non-canonical texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Mahayana Sutras Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya 'ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Korean: Hangeul:팔정도, Hanja: 八正道, Paljeongdo; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the way that leads to the end of dukkha, or suffering. Essentially a practical guide of bringing about ethical and meditative discipline, the Noble Eightfold Path forms the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths, which have informed and driven much of the Buddhist tradition. For the town and district in Rajasthan, see Pali, Rajasthan For the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra, see Ballaleshwar Pali Pāli (Devanagari पालि) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fÇŽ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ...


According to the Pali Canon discourses, Noble Eightfold Path is a practice that will lead its practitioner toward self-awakening. It has been re-discovered by Gautama Buddha during his quest for enlightement. It is belived that the Noble Eightfold Path is an ancient path which has been followed and practiced by all the previous Buddhas. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...

In the same way I saw an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. And what is that ancient path, that ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration … I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of aging & death, direct knowledge of the origination of aging & death, direct knowledge of the cessation of aging & death, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death… Knowing that directly, I have revealed it to monks, nuns, male lay followers & female lay followers…“ [1].

The eight elements are divided into three basic categories[2] as follows:

Path Category
1. Right view Wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā, Pāli: paññā)
2. Right intention
3. Right speech Ethical conduct (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla)
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort Mental discipline (Sanskrit and Pāli: samādhi)
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration
Table 1. Three basic category of the eight elements.

In all of the elements of the Noble Eightfold Path, the word "right" is a translation of the word samyañc (Sanskrit) or sammā (Pāli), which denotes completion, togetherness, and coherence, and which can also carry the sense of "perfect" or "ideal".[3] Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ... For other uses, see Sila (disambiguation). ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ...


Though the path is numbered one through eight, it is generally not considered to be a series of linear steps through which one must progress; rather, as the Buddhist monk and scholar Walpola Rahula points out, the eight elements of the Noble Eightfold Path "are to be developed more or less simultaneously, as far as possible according to the capacity of each individual. They are all linked together and each helps the cultivation of the others."[4] A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... The venerable Prof Walpola Sri Rahula Maha Thera (1907-1997) was a Buddhist monk, scholar and writer. ...


In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the Dharma wheel (Sanskrit: dharmacakra, Pāli: dhammacakka), whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path. The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ...

Contents

Wisdom (Prajñā · Paññā)

The "wisdom" subdivision of the Noble Eightfold Path is constituted by those elements that refer primarily to the mental or cognitive aspect of a Buddhist practitioner's practice.


Right view

Right view (samyag-dṛṣṭi · sammā-diṭṭhi) can also be translated as "right perspective", "right vision" or "right understanding". In the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, one of the Buddha Śākyamuni's discourses, right view is explained directly in terms of the Four Noble Truths: The Satipaá¹­á¹­hāna Sutta and the Mahāsatipaá¹­á¹­hāna Sutta are two of the most popular works in the Pali canon, embraced by both Theravada and Mahayana practitioners (see, e. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ...

And what, O bhikkhus, is right understanding? To understand suffering, to understand the origination of suffering, to understand extinction of suffering, to understand the path leading to the extinction of suffering; this is called right understanding[5]. A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...

In the Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta ("Right View Discourse"), Ven. Sariputta instructs that right view can alternately be attained by the thorough understanding of the unwholesome and the wholesome, the four nutriments, the twelve nidanas or the three taints.[6] Additionally, right view is sometimes considered to encompass an understanding of the Buddhist idea of the non-permanence, or even non-existence, of the self, an idea known as anātman in Sanskrit and anatta in Pāli[7]. Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... The Twelve Nidanas (Pali: nidana- foundation, source or origin) are the application of the Buddhist concept of Pratitya-samutpada (dependent origination). ... In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ...


Right view is said to be the "forerunner" of the subsequent path factors.[8] Conversely, "wrong view" (michadiṭṭhi), arising from ignorance (avijja), is the precondition for wrong intent, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, etc.[9]


The purpose of right view is to clear one's path of the majority of confusion, misunderstanding and deluded thinking. It is a means to gain right understanding of reality. According to the Pali Canon commentary, right view should be held with a flexible, open mind, without clinging to that view as a dogmatic position. In this way, right view becomes a route to liberation rather than an obstacle. Direct realization of the Four Noble Truths may come at the peak level of self-development during the practice of Right Concentration.


Right intention

Right intention (samyak-saṃkalpa · sammā-saṅkappa) can also be translated as "right thought", "right resolve", or "right aspiration" or "the exertion of our own will to change". This element of the Noble Eightfold Path deals, fundamentally, with the Buddhist practitioner's reasons for practicing Buddhism within an environment. It enjoins renunciation of worldly things and an accordant greater commitment to spiritual matters; good will; and a commitment to non-violence, or ahiṁsā, towards other living beings. In the Magga-vibhanga Sutta, it is simply explained as follows: Look up renunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...

And what is right thought? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right thought.[10]

Ethical conduct (Śīla · Sīla)

The "ethical conduct" (Śīla) subdivision of the Noble Eightfold Path is considered the cornerstone or foundation upon which unwholesome thoughts and practices end and higher meditative states begin.


In AN 11.2 Cetana Sutta (An Act of Will) Buddha states it is virtue (without clinging to virtue) which gives freedom from remorse, which leads to joy, serenity and subsequent rapturous states of meditation. For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...

It is in the nature of things that freedom from remorse arises in a person endowed with virtue, consummate in virtue.

In Buddhism, this is also one of the Ten Recollections along with the Triple Gem. Anussati (Pāli) means recollection, contemplation, remembrance, meditation and mindfulness. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ...

"There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues, thus: '[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, conducive to concentration.'

This aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path is the most outward-oriented aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path insofar as it deals directly with a Buddhist practitioner's relationship with other members of his or her society.


Right speech

Right speech (samyag-vāc · sammā-vācā), as the name implies, deals with the way in which a Buddhist practitioner would best make use of his or her words. In the Pali Canon, this aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path is explained as follows: Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ...

And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, abstaining from divisive speech, abstaining from abusive speech, abstaining from idle chatter: This, monks, is called right speech[11].

Other discourses in the Canon elaborate:

"Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world....
"Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord....
"Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large....
"Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal...."[12]

Regarding telling the truth about mundane knowledge, the Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta (AN 10.176) ascribes to the Buddha the following elaboration: The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Pali) is used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...

"There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech."[13]

Regarding telling the truth about spiritual knowledge, the Canki Sutta (MN 95) ascribes to the Buddha the following cautionary statements: The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

"If a person has conviction, his statement, 'This is my conviction,' safeguards the truth. But he doesn't yet come to the definite conclusion that 'Only this is true; anything else is worthless.'...
"If a person likes something... holds an unbroken tradition... has something reasoned through analogy... has something he agrees to, having pondered views, his statement, 'This is what I agree to, having pondered views,' safeguards the truth. But he doesn't yet come to the definite conclusion that 'Only this is true; anything else is worthless.'..."[14]

Walpola Rahula glosses this path factor by stating that not engaging in such "forms of wrong and harmful speech" ultimately means that "one naturally has to speak the truth, has to use words that are friendly and benevolent, pleasant and gentle, meaningful and useful"[15]. The venerable Prof Walpola Sri Rahula Maha Thera (1907-1997) was a Buddhist monk, scholar and writer. ...


Right action

Right action (samyak-karmānta · sammā-kammanta) can also be translated as "right conduct" and, as the name implies, deals with the proper way in which a Buddhist practitioner would act in his or her daily life. In the Magga-vibhanga Sutta, this aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path is explained as follows:

And what is right action? Abstaining from taking life, from stealing, & from illicit sex. This is called right action.[16]

The Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta (AN 10.176) expands: The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...

"And how is one made pure in three ways by bodily action?
"There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.
"Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them.
"Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man."[17]

Together with the idea of ahiṁsā and right speech, right action constitutes the Five Precepts (Sanskrit: pañcaśīla, Pāli: pañcasīla), which form the fundamental ethical code undertaken by lay followers of Buddhism, and which are as follows: The five precepts (Pali: PañcasÄ«la, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wÇ” jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ...

1. To refrain from destroying living beings.
2. To refrain from stealing.
3. To refrain from sexual misconduct (adultery, rape, etc.).
4. To refrain from false speech (lying).
5. To refrain from intoxicants, which lead to heedlessness.

Right livelihood

Right livelihood (samyag-ājīva · sammā-ājīva) is based around the concept of ahiṁsā, or harmlessness, and essentially states that Buddhist practitioners ought not to engage in trades or occupations which, either directly or indirectly, result in harm to other living beings or systems. Such occupations include "trading in arms and lethal weapons, intoxicating drinks, poisons, killing animals, [and] cheating", among others:[18]

"Monks, a lay follower should not engage in five types of business. Which five? Business in weapons, business in human beings, business in meat, business in intoxicants, and business in poison." [19]

"[B]usiness in human beings" is traditionally understood to include activities such as slave trading and prostitution.[20] Also forbidden are several other dishonest means of gaining wealth, such as "[s]cheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, [and] pursuing gain with gain."[21]


Mental discipline (Samādhi)

37
DHAMMĀ of
ENLIGHTENMENT
  4
satipaṭṭhāna
 
  4
Efforts
4
Bases
 
5
Faculties
5
Powers
  7
Factors
  
  8
Path Factors
 

The "mental discipline" subdivision of the Noble Eightfold Path is constituted by those elements that deal with how a Buddhist practitioner can best go about shaping his or her outlook towards the world. Image File history File links Buddha. ... Satipatthana refers to the broad conception of Buddhist meditation in the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... The Four Right Exertions (also known as, Four Proper Exertions, Four Right Efforts, Four Great Efforts, Four Right Endeavors or Four Right Strivings) (Pali: ; Skt. ... The Five Powers, or Spiritual Faculties, in Buddhism are: Faith, Effort, Mindfulness, Concentration, and Wisdom. ... The Five Powers, or Spiritual Faculties, in Buddhism are: Faith, Effort, Mindfulness, Concentration, and Wisdom. ... According to Buddhism, the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Bojjhangas, or Sambojjhangas) are: Mindfulness, Sati i. ... Image File history File links Buddha. ...


Right effort

Right effort (samyag-vyāyāma · sammā-vāyāma) can also be translated as "right endeavor", and involves the Buddhist practitioner's continuous effort to, essentially, keep his or her mind free of thoughts that might impair his or her ability to realize or put into practice the other elements of the Noble Eightfold Path; for example, wishing ill towards another living being would contradict the injunction—contained in the "Right thought" element—to have good will towards others, and the "Right effort" element refers to the process of attempting to root out such an ill wish and replace it with a good wish.

And what, monks, is right effort?
[i] "There is the case where a monk generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
[ii] "He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the abandonment of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen.
[iii] "He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
[iv] "He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the maintenance, non-confusion, increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen: This, monks, is called right effort."

— SN 45.8[22]

By making right effort, a Buddhist practitioner is considered to be engaging in an effort that is wholesome in terms of karma; that is, in terms of that effort's ultimate consequences to the practitioner[23].

The four phases of Right Effort:(in simple English)
(1) make effort to prevent the unwholesome that has not yet come.
(2) make effort to destroy the unwholesome that has come.
(3) make effort to produce the wholesome that has not yet come.
(4) make effort to cultivate the wholesome that has come.
For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Right mindfulness

Right mindfulness (samyak-smṛti · sammā-sati), also translated as "right memory", together with right concentration, is concerned broadly with the practice of Buddhist meditation. Roughly speaking, "mindfulness" refers to the practice of keeping the mind alert to phenomena as they are affecting the body and mind. In the Magga-vibhanga Sutta, this aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path is explained as follows: Look up Mindfulness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ...

And what, monks, is right mindfulness?

(i) There is the case where a monk remains focused on (his/her) body in and of itself ... ardent, aware, and mindful ... having already put aside worldly desire and aversion.
(ii) (He/she) remains focused on feelings in and of themselves ... ardent, aware, and mindful ... having already put aside worldly desire and aversion.
(iii) (He/she) remains focused on the mind[24] in and of itself ... ardent, aware, and mindful ... having already put aside worldly desire and aversion.
(iv) (He/she) remains focused on mental qualities[24] in and of themselves ... ardent, aware, and mindful ... having already put aside worldly desire and aversion.
This, monks, is called right mindfulness[25].

This is also an important aspect of what constitutes the concept of "self" or Buddhist concept of Atman: Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ...

"And how, Ananda, is a bhikkhu an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge?
"When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then, truly, he is an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; having the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge.(DN 16 Maha-parinibbana Sutta)

Bhikkhu Bodhi, a monk of the Theravadin tradition, further glosses the concept of mindfulness as follows: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The mind is deliberately kept at the level of bare attention, a detached observation of what is happening within us and around us in the present moment. In the practice of right mindfulness the mind is trained to remain in the present, open, quiet, and alert, contemplating the present event. All judgments and interpretations have to be suspended, or if they occur, just registered and dropped[26].

Right concentration

Right concentration (samyak-samādhi · sammā-samādhi), together with right mindfulness, is concerned broadly with the practice of Buddhist meditation.

And what, monks, is right concentration?

(i) Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unwholesome states, a monk enters in the first jhāna: rapture and pleasure born from detachment, accompanied by movement of the mind onto the object and retention of the mind on the object.
(ii) With the stilling of directed thought and evaluation, (he/she) enters and remains in the second jhāna: rapture and pleasure born of concentration; fixed single-pointed awareness free from movement of the mind onto the object and retention of the mind on the object; assurance.
(iii) With the fading of rapture, (he/she) remains in equanimity, mindful and fully aware, and physically sensitive of pleasure. (He/She) enters and remains in the third jhāna which the Noble Ones declare to be "Equanimous and mindful, (he/she) has a pleasurable abiding."
(iv) With the abandoning of pleasure and pain...as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress...(he/she) enters and remains in the fourth jhāna: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither in pleasure nor in pain.
This, monks, is called right concentration[27].

According to the Pali canon, right concentration is dependent on the development of preceding path factors: A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukha (, Sanskrit and Pāli for “happiness”) is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhāna (Sanskrit: Dhyāna;). It consists in a quiet happiness, while PÄ«ti (Sanskrit: PrÄ«ti) mentions a deep joy, rapture. ... Vitakka (pāli) , both in hinduist yoga and buddhist meditation , means the action of taking care of any object : God, ones body, the Self, a color, any sensation. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukha (, Sanskrit and Pāli for “happiness”) is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhāna (Sanskrit: Dhyāna;). It consists in a quiet happiness, while PÄ«ti (Sanskrit: PrÄ«ti) mentions a deep joy, rapture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Vitakka (pāli) , both in hinduist yoga and buddhist meditation , means the action of taking care of any object : God, ones body, the Self, a color, any sensation. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukha (, Sanskrit and Pāli for “happiness”) is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhāna (Sanskrit: Dhyāna;). It consists in a quiet happiness, while PÄ«ti (Sanskrit: PrÄ«ti) mentions a deep joy, rapture. ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Upeksa, also upekkha in Pali, is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. ...

The Blessed One said: 'Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, & right mindfulness — is called noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions.'[28]

The ninth and tenth elements

In the Great Forty Sutta (Mahācattārīsaka Sutta),[29] which appears in the Pāli Canon, the Buddha explains that cultivation of the Eightfold Path leads to the development of two further stages once enlightenment has been reached. These also fall under the category of paññā and are Right Knowledge (sammāñāṇa) and Right Liberation (or Right Release; sammāvimutti). Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ...


To further the foregoing, Bucknell & Martin (1986: p.6) state:

The Eightfold Path as described gives an impression of orderliness and completeness. However, closer study of the texts indicates that it is not after all a complete account of Gotama's course of practice. A number of suttas describe a Tenfold Path.[30] This differs from the Eightfold Path in having two further stages following right concentration, namely right insight or knowledge or wisdom (sammā ñāṇa) and right liberation (sammā vimutti). These two extra stages are nowhere described, nor is any explanation given for their frequent omission. The tenth state, right liberation, is presumably to be equated with the final goal, nirvāṇna. However, the ninth stage, right insight, which appears from its position in the list to be of crucial importance, remains unaccounted for.

The Noble Eightfold Path and cognitive psychology

In the essay "Buddhism Meets Western Science", Gay Watson explains:

Buddhism has always been concerned with feelings, emotions, sensations, and cognition. The Buddha points both to cognitive and emotional causes of suffering. The emotional cause is desire and its negative opposite, aversion. The cognitive cause is ignorance of the way things truly occur, or of three marks of existence: that all things are unsatisfactory, impermanent, and without essential self.[31]

The Noble Eightfold Path is, from this psychological viewpoint, an attempt to change patterns of thought and behavior. It is for this reason that the first element of the path is right understanding (sammā-diṭṭhi), which is how one's mind views the world. Under the wisdom (paññā) subdivision of the Noble Eightfold Path, this worldview is intimately connected with the second element, right thought (sammā-saṅkappa), which concerns the patterns of thought and intention that controls one's actions. These elements can be seen at work, for example, in the opening verses of the Dhammapada: The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ...

Preceded by perception are mental states,
For them is perception supreme,
From perception have they sprung.
If, with perception polluted, one speaks or acts,
Thence suffering follows
As a wheel the draught ox's foot.
Preceded by perception are mental states,
For them is perception supreme,
From perception have they sprung.
If, with tranquil perception, one speaks or acts,
Thence ease follows
As a shadow that never departs.[32]

Thus, by altering one's distorted worldview, bringing out "tranquil perception" in the place of "perception polluted", one is able to ease suffering. Watson points this out from a psychological standpoint:

Research has shown that repeated action, learning, and memory can actually change the nervous system physically, altering both synaptic strength and connections. Such changes may be brought about by cultivated change in emotion and action; they will, in turn, change subsequent experience.[33]

See also

The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Four Right Exertions (also known as, Four Proper Exertions, Four Right Efforts, Four Great Efforts, Four Right Endeavors or Four Right Strivings) (Pali: ; Skt. ... The five precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wǔ jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... In Buddhism, or or (Pali;[1] Skt. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Nagara Sutta (SN 12.65) (Thanissaro, 2007).
  2. ^ In the Pali canon, these three basic categories (Pali: khandha) are identified by the Bhikkhuni Dhammadinna in the "Culavedalla Sutta" (MN 44)[1] although in this sutta the categories are ordered: sīla, samādhi and paññā. These three basic categories are also similar to those articulated by the Buddha in his Threefold Training, as recorded in the Anguttara Nikaya's Sikkha Sutta (AN 3:88[2] and AN 3:89[3]).
  3. ^ See, for instance, Allan (2008).
  4. ^ Rahula 46
  5. ^ Rewata Dhamma 45
  6. ^ Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta ("Right View Discourse," MN 9) (Ñanamoli & Bodhi, 1991).
  7. ^ Kohn 63
  8. ^ Mahacattarisaka Sutta (MN 117) (Thanissaro, 1997d).
  9. ^ See, for instance, Micchatta Sutta (AN 10.103) (Thanissaro, 2004), and Avijja Sutta (SN 45.1) (Thanissaro, 1997f).
  10. ^ This passage can be found in DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000), MN 141 (Thanissaro, 2005) and SN 45.8 (Thanissaro, 1996). In Pali, this is: "Katamo ca bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo: yo kho bhikkhave, nekkhammasaṅkappo avyāpādasaṃkappo, avihiṃsāsaṅkappo, ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo" (SLTP, n.d., sutta "1. 1. 8").
  11. ^ DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000), MN 141 (Thanissaro, 2005) and SN 45.8 (Thanissaro, 1996). In Pali, this is: "Katamā ca bhikkhave, sammāvācā: yā kho bhikkhave, musāvādā veramaṇī pisunāya vācāya veramaṇī pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī samphappalāpā veramaṇī ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, sammāvācā." (SLTP, n.d., sutta "1. 1. 8").
  12. ^ These words are ascribed to the Buddha and are delivered to a layperson in AN 10.176 (Thanissaro, 1997b) and are descriptive of the behavior of monks in DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997e) and DN 11 (Thanissaro, 1997c).

    In addition, in the Pali Canon, while the Buddha states that laypersons and monastics should "speak words ... pleasing to people at large," in the Abhaya Sutta (MN 58) he states that he himself will at times speak words that are "factual, true, beneficial, but unendearing & disagreeable to others, [because] he [the Buddha] has a sense of the proper time for saying them.... Why is that? Because the Tathagata has sympathy for living beings" (Thanissaro, 1997a). The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Buddha identified the threefold training (sikkhā)[1] as training in: higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā) Pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of lust, hatred and delusion. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

  13. ^ AN 10.176 (Thanissaro, 1997b).
  14. ^ MN 95 (Thanissaro, 1999).
  15. ^ Rahula 47
  16. ^ DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000); see also, MN 141 (Thanissaro, 2005) and SN 45.8 (Thanissaro, 1996). Note that, as indicated below, in the Pali Canon, the clause "abstaining from ... illicit sex" generally refers to abstaining from adulterous-like behaviors (and possibly statutory rape) for laypersons, and to celibacy for monks.
  17. ^ AN 10.176 (Thanissaro, 1997b) (a single paragraph was here separated into four paragraphs for ease of readability). This discourse is delivered to a householder. The first two subfactors (not killing, not stealing) can be found in descriptions of the right actions of monks; the third subfactor for monks though is simply: ""Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way" (DN 2 [Thanissaro, 1997e]; DN 11 [Thanissaro, 1997c]).
  18. ^ Rahula 47
  19. ^ Vanijja Sutta (AN 5.177) (Thanissaro, 2001).
  20. ^ See, e.g., Bogoda (1994/1996), sec. 6; and, Nyanasobhano (1989/2005).
  21. ^ MN 117 (Thanissaro, 1997d). In addition, for an example where the Buddha instructs a householder on the proper way to gain and protect material wealth, see the Dighajanu Sutta.
  22. ^ DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000), MN 141 (Thanissaro, 2005) and SN 45.8 (Thanissaro, 1996). Note that in this discourse, the Buddha answers the question of "What is right effort?" (Pali: Katamo ... sammāvāyāmo?) with an explanation about four types of "exertion" (padahati). (For the Pali version of this discourse, "Vibhaṅgasuttaṃ," see SLTP, n.d., sutta "1. 1. 8" [which the Sinhalese version of the Tipitaka identifies as SN 44.8 and which the PTS/Burmese editions — upon which Thanissaro draws his translations — identifies as SN 45.8].) For more information, see Four Right Exertions.
  23. ^ Kohn 63
  24. ^ a b By the term "mind" is meant the "non-physical phenomenon which perceives, thinks, recognises, experiences and reacts to the environment", as per A View on Buddhism, while "mental qualities" refers to such things as intention, concentration, regret, ignorance, etc. Thus, roughly speaking, the mind is the perceiving/conceiving entity, while mental qualities are the perceptions/conceptions.
  25. ^ DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000), MN 141 (Thanissaro, 2005) and SN 45.8 (Thanissaro, 1996).
  26. ^ Bodhi 1998
  27. ^ Ibid.
  28. ^ Mahacattarisaka Sutta (MN 117) (Thanissaro, 1997d).
  29. ^ Thanissaro, 1997d.
  30. ^ Tipiṭaka: Dīgha ii 217, iii 271, etc (References are to volume and page numbers in the Pali Text Society's edition of Tipiṭaka; D = Dīgha, M = Majjhima, S = Saṃyutta, A = Añguttara. Quoted translations from the Pali Tipiṭaka are, unless otherwise stated, from the Pali Text Society's English versions.) For an analysis of the Tenfold Path and other important variations on the Eightfold Path (including the 'footprints of a Buddha'...) see Bucknell, 'The Buddhist Path to Liberation'.
  31. ^ Watson 2001
  32. ^ Carter & Palihawadana 13
  33. ^ Watson 2001

The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ... The Dighajanu Sutta, also known as Byagghapajja Sutta and Vyagghapajja Sutta, is part of the Anguttara Nikaya (AN 8. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Tripitaka (Sanskrit, lit. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by T.W. Rhys Davids to foster and promote the study of Pali texts. Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism is preserved. ... The Four Right Exertions (also known as, Four Proper Exertions, Four Right Efforts, Four Great Efforts, Four Right Endeavors or Four Right Strivings) (Pali: ; Skt. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

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  • —. Saccavibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Truths (MN 141); 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.141.than.html.
  • Watson, Gay. Buddhism Meets Western Science. Retrieved 8 July 2006.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Buddhist Publication Society is a charity which goal is to explain and spread the doctrine of the Buddha. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... Atthakatha (Pali for explanation, commentary)[1] refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka. ... The Buddhist Publication Society is a charity which goal is to explain and spread the doctrine of the Buddha. ... The Buddhist Publication Society is a charity which goal is to explain and spread the doctrine of the Buddha. ... The venerable Prof Walpola Sri Rahula Maha Thera (1907-1997) was a Buddhist monk, scholar and writer. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (1949 - ) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammatthana tradition. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

Related texts

  • Sangharakshita, 'The Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path', Windhorse Publications, 2007. ISBN 1899579818.

External links

  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2006). Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta: Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone (MN 61). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.061.than.html. In this sutta, the Buddha instructs his son about skillful mental, verbal and bodily actions.
  • The Noble Eightfold Path in Advayavada Buddhism: http://www.religiousfervor.com/category/buddhism/eightfold-path/
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (1949 - ) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammatthana tradition. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Noble Eightfold Path - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1975 words)
In Buddhist symbology, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the Dharma wheel (Sanskrit: dharmacakra, Pāli: dhammacakka), whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path.
5 The Noble Eightfold Path and cognitive psychology
This aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path is the most outward-oriented aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path insofar as it deals directly with a Buddhist practitioner's relationship with other members of his or her society.
Noble Eightfold Path: Information from Answers.com (1971 words)
The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli अरियो अट्ठङ्गीको मग्गो Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, Sanskrit आर्याष्टाङ्गो मार्गो Ārya 'ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ, Chinese 八正道 Bāzhèngdào) is, in the Buddhist tradition as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, considered to be the way that leads to the end of suffering.
The Noble Eightfold Path is essentially a practical guide of ethics, mental rehabilitation and mind deconditioning, and is believed, by Buddhists, to result in an end to dukkha, or suffering, which is a goal that has informed and driven the entire Buddhist tradition since its inception 2500 years ago.
In Buddhist symbology, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the Dharma wheel (Sanskrit: dharmachakra, Pāli: dhammacakka), whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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