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Encyclopedia > Nobility

Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). The term originally referred to those who were "known" or "notable" and was applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies. In the feudal system (in Europe and elsewhere), the nobility were generally those who held a fief, often land and/or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various, mainly military, services to the Monarch and at lower levels to another nobleman. It rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Today, in most countries, "noble status" is a purely honorary dignity that confers no legal privileges; an important exception is the United Kingdom, where certain titles (titles of the peerage, until recently guaranteeing a seat in the Upper House of Westminster Parliament, hence its name House of Lords), still confer some residual privileges. Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are titles, positions or styles that are hereditary(heritable) in particular families. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism. ... torin was here ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on classifications such as occupation, race, ethnicity, etc. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Nobility is a historical, social and often legal notion, which should not be confused with socio-economic status which is mainly statistical based on income and possessions. Being wealthy or influential does not automatically make one a noble, nor are all nobles wealthy and influential (aristocratic families have lost their fortunes in various ways, and the concept of the 'poor nobleman' is almost as old as nobility itself). Social status is the standing, the honour or prestige attached to ones position in society. ...


Countries without a feudal tradition, such as the United States, do not have a nobility as such; various republics have expressedly abolished it, as Italy (a former kingdom) did. Although the United States, like almost every society, has a privileged 'upper class' with great wealth and power, this does not entail a separate legal status, or different forms of address. The U.S. Constitution (Art. 1, Sec. 9, Cl. 7), expressly forbids the U.S. government from granting titles of nobility, and U.S. officials from accepting those proffered by foreign governments without congressional authorization. In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The government of the United States of America, established by the U.S. Constitution, is...

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Western nobility

"The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds.—After a Miniature of the Tournaments of King René (Fifteenth Century) MSS. of the National Library of Paris."
"The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds.—After a Miniature of the Tournaments of King René (Fifteenth Century) MSS. of the National Library of Paris."

European nobility originated from the feudal/seignorial system that arose in Europe during the Middle Ages. Originally, knights or nobles were mounted warriors who swore allegiance to their sovereign and promised to fight for him in exchange for allocation of land (usually together with serfs living there). During the time period known as the Military Revolution, nobles gradually lost their role of raising and commanding private armies, as many nations created cohesive national armies. This was coupled with a loss of the social-economic power of the nobility, owing to the economic changes of the Renaissance and the growing economic importance of the merchant classes (or bourgeoisie), which increased still further during the Industrial Revolution. In countries where the nobility was the dominant class, the bourgeoisie gradually grew in power; a rich city merchant was more influential than a minor rural nobleman. However, in many countries at this time, the nobility retained great social and political importance; for instance, the UK's government was dominated by the nobility until the twentieth century. Download high resolution version (1448x1914, 115 KB)The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Download high resolution version (1448x1914, 115 KB)The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Henry Edgar Paston-Bedingfeld, Her Majestys York Herald of Arms in Ordinary at the College of Arms. ... René dAnjou, René I of Naples (René I the Good, French Le bon roi René) (January 16, 1409 – July 10, 1480), was Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–1480), Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–1480), Duke of Lorraine (1431–1453), King of Naples (1438–1442; titular... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The new buildings of the library. ... Nobility in Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Similar to Charlemagne’s re-establishment of the feudal monarch, the invention of gunpowder for warfare brought another great change and transformation to Europe. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ...


The nobility of a person might be either inherited or earned. Nobility in its most general and strict sense is an acknowledged preeminence that is hereditary, i.e., legitimate descendants (or all male descendants, in some societies) of nobles are nobles, unless explicitly stripped of the privilege. In this respect, nobility is distinguished from British peerage: the latter can be passed to only a single member of the family. The terms aristocrat and aristocracy are a less formal means to refer to persons belonging to this social milieu. Those lacking a distinct title, such as junior siblings of peers (and perhaps even the children of 'self-made' VIPs) may be considered aristocrats, moving within a small social circle at the apex of a hierarchical social pyramid. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy originally meant a system of government with rule by the best. The word is derived from two words, aristos meaning the best and kratein to rule. Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), where a sense of historical gravitas and noblesse oblige demands... A Very Important Person, or VIP (pronouced vee-eye-pee) is a person who is accorded special privileges due to his or her status or importance. ... Social Circles are groups of socially interconnected people. ... A Social Pyramid is a model of social relationships. ...


Blue blood is an English expression recorded since 1834 for noble birth or descent; it is a translation of the Spanish phrase sangre azul, which described the Spanish royal family and other high nobility who claimed to be 'pure', free of Moorish or Jewish blood. There is no connection between the phrase and the actual blood color of nobility; however, in the ancient agricultural societies of Europe the whole upper class had superficial veins that might be more visible and appear bluish by comparison to the rest of the pale-pinkish skin, as the skin itself was not tanned. In contrast with the working class of the time (mainly peasants), nobility and in general upper class people did not have to work outdoors, and mostly lived sheltered from the sun by dwellings and attire. The same contrast could be observed between untanned upper class Europeans - especially of northern stock whose skin tends to be less pigmented - and all social strata of Mediterranean populations with higher levels of genetically determined skin pigmentation. An alternative traditional explanation, argyria (a disease causing a blue-grey skin tone after digestion of silver), is considered less valid as table silverware was not massively and regularly used by much of the nobility. Members of the British Royal Family This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Superficial vein is a term used to describe a vein that is close to the surface of the body. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Human skin color can range from very dark to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... There is also a village named Argyria in Greece (pronunciation: ar-YEE-ree-a) , see Argyria, Greece. ...


The same expression is encountered in several European languages:

Bulgarian синя кръв (sinya krăv)
Czech modrá krev
Croatian plava krv
Danish blåt blod
French sang bleu
Dutch blauw bloed
German blaues Blut
Greek γαλαζοαίματος (galazoaímatos)
Hungarian kékvérű
Italian sangue blu
Lithuanian mėlynas kraujas
Norwegian blått blod or blåblodig
Polish błękitna krew
Portuguese sangue azul
Romanian sange albastru
Russian голубая кровь (golubaya krov’)
Serbian плава крв (plava krv)
Slovenian modra kri
Spanish sangre azul
Swedish blått blod


In France, influential high bourgeois, most particularly the members of the parlements (courts of justice), obtained noble titles from the king. The old nobility of military origin, the noblesse d'épée ("nobility of the sword") became increasingly irritated by this newer noblesse de robe ("nobility of the gown"). In the last years of the ancien régime, before the French Revolution, the old nobility, intent on keeping its privileges, had pushed for restrictions of certain offices and orders of chivalry to noblemen who could demonstrate that their family had enough "noble quarterings" (in French, 'quartiers de noblesse'), a reference to a noble's ability to display armorially their descents from armigerous noble forebears in each of their lines of descent to demonstrate that they were descended from old noble families, who bore arms that could be quartered with their own male line arms, and thus prove that they did not derive merely from bourgeois families recently elevated to noble rank. A noble could be asked to provide proof of noble antecedents by showing a genealogy displaying seize quartiers (sixteen quarterings) or even trente-deux quartiers (thirty-two quartering) indicating noble descent on all bloodlines back five generations (to great-great grandparents) or six generations (great-great-great grandparents), respectively. This illustrates the traditional link in many countries between heraldry and nobility; in those countries where heraldry is used, nobles have almost always been armigerous, and have used heraldry to demonstrate their ancestry and family history. (However, it is important to note that heraldry has never been restricted to the noble classes in most countries, and being armigerous does not necessarily demonstrate nobility.) Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Chivalric Orders were created by European monarchs after the failure of the Crusades. ... The Duties of Nobles Since nearly all nobles were knights, it was their duty to protect the peasants and the Church from enemies. ... An armiger is a person entitled to use a coat of arms. ... Patrilineality (a. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Family history is the study of multiple generations of people who appear to be related. ...


Nobles typically commanded resources, such as food, money, or labor, from common members or nobles of lower rank of their societies, and could exercise religious or political power over them. Also, typically, but not necessarily, nobles were entitled to land property, which was reflected in the title. For example, the title Earl of Chesterfield tells about property, while the title Earl Cairns was created for a surname. However all the above is not universal; quite often nobility was associated only with social respect and certain social privileges. An example of the latter would be Polish szlachta. In the modern age, the notion of inherited nobility with special rights has become, in the Western World, increasingly seen as irrelevant to the modern way of life. The founding fathers of the United States rejected anything that may help in recreating a nobility; the French Revolution abolished the nobility and its special rights (though some nobility titles would be recreated by Napoleon I and III, they were mostly honorific). A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... The Earls of Chesterfield were an aristocratic family from Derbyshire, England. ... The title of Earl Cairns was created in 1878 for Hugh Cairns, 1st Baron Cairns, the Lord Chancellor. ... Polish szlachcic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Special rights is a political term originally used by libertarians to refer to laws granting rights to one or more groups which are not extended to other groups, such as affirmative action or hate crime legislation with regard to ethnic or religious minorities. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an institution, usually a political institution, especially those connected to the origination of its ideals. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ...


A list of noble titles for different European countries can be found at Royal and noble ranks. To learn how to properly address holders of these titles, see Royal and noble styles. Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. ... This page will detail the various styles used by royalty and nobility in Europe, in the final form arrived at in the nineteenth century. ...


Some con artists also sell fake titles of nobility, often with impressive-looking documents to back them up. These may be illegal, depending on local law. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...


Nobility in non-Western countries

Medieval Japan developed a feudal system similar to the European system, where land was held in exchange for military service. The daimyo class, or hereditary landowning nobles, had great social and political power. Like their European counterparts, they commanded private armies made up of samurai, an elite warrior class; for long periods, these held real power without a real central government and often plunged the country into a state of civil war. Although there are differences, the daimyo class can be compared to European peers, and the samurai to European knights. These feudal titles and ranks were abolished in Japan with the Meiji Restoration of 1868 and replaced by the kazoku, a five-rank peerage system after the British example which granted seats in the upper house of the Imperial Diet, but this too was abolished in 1947 following Japan's defeat in World War II. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... 17th Century Brazilian Tapuia A warrior is a person habitually engaged in warfare. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation state. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The kazoku (華族, lit. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


Many other non-Western nations, have had noble or aristocratic classes of various kinds; these are so diverse that it is somewhat misleading to try to translate them all into western feudal terminology. For the feudal hierarchy on the Indian subcontinent, see princely state. Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ...


In Islamic countries, there are no definite nobility titles, but the closest to that are given the title Syed or Sayyid. This exclusive title given to only certain descendants, literally means, 'Sir' or 'Lord'. There are no special rights concerning the title: they are considered more religious than the general population, and many people come to them for first-hand religious questions. Islamic countries may be defined as either the countries which have Muslims making up more than half of their population, or as countries which have Islam as an official religion or countries where the most popular religion is Islam. ...


In East Asia the system was often modelled on imperial China, the leading culture, where the emperor conferred degrees of nobility, which were not permanent but decreased a rank each generation. China had a feudal system in the Shang and Zhou dynasties, but the system gave way to a more bureaucratic system beginning in the Qin dynasty (221 BC). By the Qing dynasty, titles of nobility were still granted by the emperor, but served merely as honorifics: under a centralized system, governance in the empire was the responsibility of the Confucian-educated scholar-officials and local gentry. East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Bronze vessel Beast Face Flat Feet Ding (兽面扁足鼎) dated early Shang Dynasty, 1600 - 1350BC. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BCE - 206 BCE) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912. ... The concept of a centralized system is one which has a major hub or hubs which peers communicate with. ...


In tribal societies, such as and the Polynesian Island states, the system of often (semi-)hereditary tribal chiefs can also be compared to a form of noble class; it is interesting to note that in Tonga, after Tongan contact with Western nations, the traditional system of chiefs developed into a Western-style monarchy with a hereditary class of barons, even adopting that English title. http://www. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Nobility by nation

For full categorized countries, see Category:Nobility by nation; some other follow:

Italian Nobleman of the Fifteenth Century. From a Playing-card engraved on Copper about 1460 (Cabinet des Estampes, National Library of Paris).
Italian Nobleman of the Fifteenth Century. From a Playing-card engraved on Copper about 1460 (Cabinet des Estampes, National Library of Paris).

Download high resolution version (1435x1770, 77 KB)Italian Nobleman of the Fifteenth Century. ... Download high resolution version (1435x1770, 77 KB)Italian Nobleman of the Fifteenth Century. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aristocrats gathering around Emperor Franz Joseph at a ball in the Hofburg Imperial Palace, painting by Wilhelm Gause (1900). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Bohemian nobility refers to the noble families of Bohemia. ... British nobility refers to the noble families of the United Kingdom. ... // Irish Chief of the Name With a history going back hundreds of years, this unique Gaelic tradition has survived much of the turmoil of Irish history. ... // The King or Wang (Chinese: 王 or 國王; wáng) was the title of the Chinese head of state until the Qin dynasty. ... Croatian nobility refers to the noble families of Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, Istria and Republic of Ragusa. ... List of Dutch noble families <A HREF=http://www. ... Ratu is a title used by Fijians of chiefly rank. ... The Finnish nobility (Aateli) was historically a privileged class in Finland, deriving from its period as party of Sweden. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... German nobility was the aristocratic class in Germany. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed aristocracy of Prussia and Eastern Germany - often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... This article deals with some titles of the nobility and royalty in the Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The kazoku (&#33775;&#26063;, lit. ... The Thai royal and noble titles signify distance of the bearers to the King. ... Korean nobility existed in Korea until the Japanese occupations end. ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... The Maltese nobility consist of those titles of nobility recognised by the British and those titles never presented to, or failed recognition by, the Royal Commission, even though the titles were of historical relevance. ... Norwegian nobility. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish szlachcic. ... The Principalía was the ruling class in the municipalities of Spanish Philippines composed of the Gobernadorcillo or the Municipal Captain who presided over it, the First Lieutenant, the former Municipal Captains or ex-Gobernadorcillos, the municipal judges, the newly formed cabezas de baranggay (cabezas reformados), and the awardees of... Categories of Russian nobility and royalty Kniaz (as ancient ruler) Velikiy Kniaz Boyar Tsar (Emperor), Tsarina (Empress, Empress consort) Tsar family Tsarevich, Tsarevna Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Duke) (as title), Velikaya Knyaginya (Grand Duchess), Velikaya Knyazhna (Grand Duchess) Dvoryanstvo Titled Dvoryanstvo Earl Baron Kniaz (as title) Related article Table of Ranks... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... The Spanish nobility is the system of titles and honours of Spain and of the former kingdoms that constitute it. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ...

See also

The Almanach de Gotha was a directory of Europes nobility first published in 1763 at the ducal court of Friedrich III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (which included the city of Gotha). ... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy originally meant a system of government with rule by the best. The word is derived from two words, aristos meaning the best and kratein to rule. Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), where a sense of historical gravitas and noblesse oblige demands... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on classifications such as occupation, race, ethnicity, etc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The term gentleman (from Latin gentilis, belonging to a race or gens, and man, cognate with the French word gentilhomme, the Spanish gentilhombre and the Italian gentil uomo or gentiluomo), in its original and strict signification, denoted a man of good family, the Latin generosus (its invariable translation in English... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. ... Similar to Charlemagne’s re-establishment of the feudal monarch, the invention of gunpowder for warfare brought another great change and transformation to Europe. ... Redorer son blason (literally to re-gild ones coat of arms) was a social practice taking place in France before the French Revolution whereby a poor aristocratic family married a daughter with a rich commoner. ...

Sources and references

    External links

    Look up nobility in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


      Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that French Wiktionary be merged into this article or section. ...

      Bourgeoisie Upper class Ruling class Nobility White-collar
      Petite bourgeoisie Upper middle class Creative class Gentry Blue-collar
      Proletariat Middle class Working class Nouveau riche Pink-collar
      Lumpenproletariat Lower middle class Lower class Old Money Gold-collar
      Slave class Underclass Classlessness
      Social class in the United States
      Middle classes Upper classes Social structure Income Educational attainment

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