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Encyclopedia > Nobel prize in Chemistry

This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. The prize is awarded every year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Nobel Prize medal. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ...

Year Name Country Topics
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff The Netherlands "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer Germany "for his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
1903 Svante August Arrhenius Sweden "for his electrolytic theory of dissociation"
1904 Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom "for his discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air"
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany "for his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
1906 Henri Moissan France "for his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the electric furnace named after him" See:Moissan electric furnace
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany "for his biochemical research and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
1908 Ernest Rutherford New Zealand and United Kingdom "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany "his work on catalysis and for his investigations into chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
1910 Otto Wallach Germany "for his work in the field of alicyclic compounds"
1911 Maria Sklodowska-Curie Poland/France "for her discovery of radium and polonium "
1912 Victor Grignard France "for his the discovery of the Grignard reagent"
Paul Sabatier France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds"
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland "for his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules"
1914 Theodore William Richards U.S. "for his determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of elements"
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter Germany "for his research on plant pigments"
1918 Fritz Haber Germany "for his synthesis of ammonia"
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst Germany "for his work in thermochemistry"
1921 Frederick Soddy United Kingdom "for his work on the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into isotopes"
1922 Francis William Aston United Kingdom "for his discovery of isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his whole-number rule"
1923 Fritz Pregl Slovenia "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and the methods used"
1926 Theodor Svedberg Sweden "for his work on disperse systems"
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany "for his investigations of the bile acids and related substances"
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany "for his research into sterols and their connection with vitamins"
1929 Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin United Kingdom, Germany "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
1930 Hans Fischer Germany "for his research into haemin and chlorophyll"
1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius Germany, Germany "for their contributions to chemical high pressure methods"
1932 Irving Langmuir U.S. "for his work in surface chemistry"
1934 Harold Clayton Urey U.S. "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"
1935 Frédéric Joliot, Irene Joliot-Curie France, France "for their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye The Netherlands "for his work on molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom "for his work on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his work on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany "for his work on sex hormones"
Lavoslav Ružička Switzerland "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1943 George de Hevesy Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers to study chemical processes"
1944 Otto Hahn Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"
1946 James Batcheller Sumner U.S. "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
John Howard Northrop, Wendell Meredith Stanley U.S., U.S. "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products, especially the alkaloids"
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis"
1949 William Francis Giauque U.S. "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics"
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder Germany, Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis. Diels-Alder reaction."
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan, Glenn Theodore Seaborg U.S., U.S. "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"
1952 Archer John Porter Martin, Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom, United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography"
1953 Hermann Staudinger Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
1954 Linus Carl Pauling U.S. "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond"
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud U.S. "for his work on sulphur compounds, especially the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов) United Kingdom, U.S. "for their research into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
1957 Sir Alexander Todd United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
1958 Frederick Sanger United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially insulin"
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
1960 Willard Frank Libby U.S. "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination"
1961 Melvin Calvin U.S. "for his research on carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz, John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta Germany, Italy "for their discoveries relating to high polymers"
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"
1965 Robert Burns Woodward U.S. "for his achievements in organic synthesis"
1966 Robert Sanderson Mulliken U.S. "for his work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules"
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, George Porter Germany, United Kingdom, United Kingdom "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions"
1968 Lars Onsager U.S. and Norway "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name"
1969 Derek Harold Richard Barton, Odd Hassel United Kingdom, Norway "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation"
1970 Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada "for his contributions to electronic structure and the geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen U.S. "for his work on ribonuclease"
Stanford Moore, William H. Stein U.S., U.S. "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the ribonuclease molecule"
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson Germany, United Kingdom "for their work on the chemistry of organometallic compounds"
1974 Paul J. Flory U.S. "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"
1975 John Warcup Cornforth United Kingdom and Australia "for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"
Vladimir Prelog Switzerland "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"
1976 William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr. U.S. "for his studies on the structure of Boranes"
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics"
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom "for his formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"
1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig United Kingdom, Germany "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into reagents in organic synthesis"
1980 Paul Berg U.S. "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"
Walter Gilbert,Frederick Sanger U.S., United Kingdom "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
1981 Kenichi Fukui (福井謙一), Roald Hoffmann Japan, U.S. "for their theories concerning the course of chemical reactions"
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom, South Africa "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"
1983 Henry Taube U.S. "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions"
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield U.S. "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle U.S., U.S. "for their achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee (李遠哲), John C. Polanyi U.S., U.S., Canada "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen U.S., France, U.S. "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel Germany, Germany, Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech Canada and U.S., U.S. "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
1990 Elias James Corey U.S. "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus U.S. "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith U.S., Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"
1994 George A. Olah U.S. "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"
1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland The Netherlands, Mexico, U.S. "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, in particular ozone depletion"
1996 Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley U.S., United Kingdom, U.S. "for their discovery of fullerenes"
1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker U.S., United Kingdom "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate"
Jens C. Skou Denmark "for his discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+/K+-ATPase"
1998 Walter Kohn U.S. "for his development of the density functional theory"
John A. Pople United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt and U.S. "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"
2000 Alan J. Heeger, Alan G MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa (白川英樹) U.S., U.S. and New Zealand, Japan "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"
2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori (野依良治) U.S., Japan "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"
K. Barry Sharpless U.S. "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"
2002 Kurt Wüthrich, John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka (田中耕一) Switzerland, U.S., Japan "for their development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"
2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon U.S., U.S. "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"
2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose Israel, Israel, U.S. "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"
2005 Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock and Yves Chauvin U.S., U.S., France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
2006 Roger D. Kornberg U.S. "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in chemistry. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Osmotic pressure or turgor (also called turgor pressure) is the pressure produced by a solution in a space that is enclosed by a differentially permeable membrane. ... Hermann Emil Fischer (October 9, 1852 - July 15, 1919) was a German chemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1902. ... Magnification of typical sugar showing monoclinic hemihedral crystalline stucture. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... An inert gas is any gas that is not reactive under normal circumstances. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, often called simply an element, is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical processes. ... Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... The French chemist Henri Moissan (1852--1907) won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... Eduard Buchner (May 20, 1860 -- August 12, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anaerobic respiration. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), was a nuclear physicist from New Zealand. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... For other meanings, see Catalyst (disambiguation). ... Chemical equilibrium is the state in which the concentrations of the reactants and products have no net change over time. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride and ammonia meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... Otto Wallach (March 27, 1847 at Königsberg - February 26, 1931 at Göttingen) was a German Chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1910 for work on alicyclic compounds. ... Cyclopropane is the smallest alicyclic compound. ... Maria SkÅ‚odowska-Curie (French: Marie Curie, born Maria SkÅ‚odowska, also widely known as Madame Curie; Warsaw, Russian-occupied Poland, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934, Sancellemoz, France) was a Polish-French physicist and chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass (226) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass (209) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... François Auguste Victor Grignard (born in Cherbourg, 6 May 1871, died in Lyon, 13 December 1935) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist. ... A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ... Paul Sabatier (November 5, 1854 – August 14, 1941) was a French chemist, born at Carcassonne. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ... Alfred Werner (December 12, 1866 - November 15, 1919) was a German Nobel prize-winning chemist. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure... Theodore William Richards was an American chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... ... Richard Willstätter Richard Martin Willstätter (August 13, 1872 – August 3, 1942) was a German chemist whose study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... Fritz Haber in 1918. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Walther Nernst. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Frederick Soddy in 1922. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Francis William Aston (born Birmingham, September 1, 1877; died Cambridge, November 20, 1945) was a British physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of the mass spectrometer. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Fritz (Friderik) Pregl (September 3, 1869 – December 13, 1930) was an Austrian chemist of Slovenian descent. ... Microanalysis is the chemical identification and quantitative analysis of very small amounts of matter. ... Richard Zsigmondy Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (April 1, 1865 in Vienna, Austrian Empire (now Austria) - September 23, 1929 in Göttingen, Germany) was an Austrian-German chemist of Hungarian ancestry who studied colloids. ... In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases, a type of mixture intermediate between a homogeneous mixture (also called a solution) and a heterogeneous mixture with properties also intermediate between the two. ... Theodor (The) Svedberg (August 30, 1884 – February 25, 1971) was a Swedish chemist and Nobel laureate. ... In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases, a type of mixture intermediate between a homogeneous mixture (also called a solution) and a heterogeneous mixture with properties also intermediate between the two. ... Heinrich Otto Wieland (June 4, 1877 – August 5, 1957) was a German chemist. ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. ... Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (December 25, 1876 – June 9, 1959) was a significant German chemist. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Arthur Harden (October 12, 1865 – June 17, 1940) was an English biochemist. ... Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (1873 - 1964) was a Swedish (German-born) biochemist. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Hans Fischer (July 27, 1881 – March 31, 1945) was a German organic chemist and the recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. ... Definition Haemin: a red-brown to blue-black crystalline salt C34 H32 N4 O4 Fe Cl derived from oxidized heme but usually obtained in a characteristic crystalline form from hemoglobin by treatment with hot glacial acetic acid containing sodium chloride; ferriprotoporphyrin chloride -- called also protohemin. ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Carl Bosch (August 27, 1874 - April 26, 1940) was a German chemist and engineer. ... Friedrich Bergius (October 11, 1884 - March 30, 1949) was born near Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw in Poland). ... High pressure science and engineering is studying the effects of high pressure on materials and the design and construction of devices which can create high pressure. ... Irving Langmuir -- chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was a chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 and later led him to theories of planetary evolution. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of planet Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Frédéric Joliot-Curie Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie (September 12, 1897 – March 17, 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch physical chemist. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... This article is about the electromagnetic phenomenon. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Sir Walter Norman Haworth (March 19, 1883 – March 19, 1950) was a British chemist who is best known for his groundbreaking work on ascorbic acid (vitamin C). ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ... Paul Karrer (April 21, 1889 – June 18, 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his work on vitamins. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Riboflavin Flavin is a tricyclic heteronuclear organic ring based on pteridine whose biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin. ... Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2 or vitamin G, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Richard Kuhn (December 3, 1900 – August 1, 1967) was a German biochemist, born in Vienna, Austria. ... Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (March 24, 1903 _ January 18, 1995) was a German biochemist. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... Lavoslav (Leopold) Ružička (September 13, 1887 – September 26, 1976) was a winner of Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the first one from Croatia. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... George Charles de Hevesy (born as Hevesy György, also known as Georg Karl von Hevesy) (August 1, 1885 in Budapest – July 5, 1966) was a Hungarian chemist who was important in the development of the tracer method where radioactive tracers are used to study chemical processes, e. ... A radioactive tracer is a substance containing a radioactive isotope (radioisotope). ... Meitner and Hahn working together at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (IPA: ) (January 15, 1895 – November 11, 1973) was a Finnish chemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 - August 12, 1955) was an American chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... John Howard Northrop (July 5, 1891 – May 27, 1987) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946 (with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley) for purifying and crystallizing certain enzymes. ... Wendell Meredith Stanley (August 16, 1904 – June 15, 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel prize laureate. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Molecular Virology is the study of viruses at the molecular level. ... Sir Robert Robinson (1886 - 1975). ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ... Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Stockholm 10 August 1902 – Uppsala 29 October 1971), Swedish biochemist. ... Electrophoresis is the movement of an electrically charged substance under the influence of an electric field. ... William Giauque (May 12, 1895 – March 28, 1982) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1949 for his studies in the properties of matter at temperatures close to absolute zero. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... In the thermodynamics and physical chemistry, thermochemistry is the study of the heat evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions. ... Otto Paul Hermann Diels (January 23, 1876 - March 7, 1954), a German chemist. ... Kurt Alder (10 July 1902 - 20 June 1958) was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with Otto Paul Hermann Diels in 1950. ... The Diels-Alder reaction The Diels-Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system. ... Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907-September 7, 1991) was the first scientist to produce a transuranium element. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... Archer John Porter Martin was a British chemist and Nobel Prize winner. ... Richard Laurence Millington Synge (born Liverpool, October 28, 1914, died Norwich, August 18, 1994) was a British biochemist, and winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography. ... A chemist is shown using column chromatographic apparatus in the mid-1950s to separate constituents in a coal tar color analysis Pictured is a sophisticated gas chromatography system. ... Hermann Staudinger (March 23, 1881 in Worms- Sept. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A chemical bond is the physical phenomenon (or phenomena) responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms that confers stability to di- and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Vincent du Vigneaud (May 18, 1901 - December 11, 1978) was a U.S. biochemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about the chemical element. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood was an English physical chemist. ... Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов) (April 15 (April 3, Old Style), 1896 – September 25, 1986) was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride and ammonia meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... The Right Honourable Alexander Robert Todd, Baron Todd, OM, FRS (2 October 1907–10 January 1997) was a British biochemist whose research on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes gained him the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... A coenzyme (a. ... Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in Chemistry. ... A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Jaroslav Heyrovský listen â–¶(?) (December 20, 1890 – March 27, 1967) was a Czech chemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1959. ... Voltammetry is a category of electroanalytical methods used in analytical chemistry and various industrial processes. ... Willard Frank Libby (December 17, 1908 – September 8, 1980) was an American chemist, famous for his role in the development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Melvin Calvin Melvin Calvin (April 8, 1911 – January 8, 1997) was a chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle (along with Andrew Benson), for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Max Ferdinand Perutz (May 19, 1914 - February 6, 2002) was an Austrian molecular biologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... Karl Waldemar Ziegler (November 26, 1898 – August 12, 1973) was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963, with Giulio Natta, for work on high polymers. ... Giulio Natta (February 26, 1903 – May 2, 1979) was an Italian chemist. ... Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, OM , FRS (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British founder of protein crystallography. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917–July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Manfred Eigen (born May 9, 1927, Bochum) is a German biophysicist and a former director of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen. ... Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (November 9, 1897 – June 7, 1978) was a British chemist. ... The Right Honourable George Porter, Baron Porter of Luddenham, OM, FRS (6 December 1920–31 August 2002) was an English chemist. ... Lars Onsager (November 27, 1903 – October 5, 1976) was a Norwegian physical chemist, winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton was a British physical chemist and Nobel Prize Laureate. ... Odd Hassel was a Norwegian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate. ... In biochemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein is its overall shape. ... Luis Federico Leloir, born September 6, 1906 – died December 2, 1987, was a biochemist born in Paris but who lived all his life in Argentina. ... Gerhard Herzberg (December 25, 1904 – March 3, 1999) was a pioneering theoretical chemist. ... Free-radical theory. ... Christian Boehmer Anfinsen, Jr. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Stanford Moore (September 4, 1913 – August 23, 1982) was a U.S. biochemist. ... William Howard Stein (1911 - 1980) was a U.S. biochemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Ernst Otto Fischer is a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize for pioneering work in the area of organometallic chemistry. ... Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson was an English chemist He was born 14 July 1921 in the village of Springside, near Todmorden in Yorkshire. ... An organometallic compound is partially characterized by the presence of one or more metal-carbon bonds, in which the carbon involved would, apart from the metal-carbon bond, be otherwise considered a part of an organic compound. ... Paul John Flory (June 19, 1910 – September 9, 1985) was an American chemist who was known for his prodigious volume of work in the field of polymers, or macromolecules. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A macromolecule is a large molecule with a large molecular mass, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... John Kappa Cornforth was born in Australia, and has been profoundly deaf since his teens. ... The different types of isomers. ... Vladimir Prelog (July 23, 1906 – January 7, 1998) was a renowned Bosnian - Croatian chemist who worked in Prague, Zagreb and Zurich and who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1975. ... William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A borane is an inorganic chemical compound of boron and hydrogen. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Peter D. Mitchell (September 29, 1920- April 10, 1992) was a British biochemist who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for formulation of the chemiosmotic theory of mitochondrial function. ... Peter D. Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic hypothesis in 1961. ... Herbert Charles Brown (May 22, 1912 – December 19, 2004) was a chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1979 (along with Georg Wittig) for his work with organoboranes. ... Georg Wittig (June 16, 1897 in Berlin (Germany) - August 26, 1987) was a german chemist who reported a method for synthesis of alkenes from aldehydes and ketones using compounds called phosphonium ylides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ... Paul Berg, born June 30, 1926 in Brooklyn, New York, USA, is an American biochemist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Schematic diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix. ... Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American physicist, biochemist, entrepreneur, and molecular biology pioneer. ... Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in Chemistry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Schematic diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Kenichi Fukui (福井謙一 Fukui Kenichi, October 4, 1918 – January 9, 1998) was a Japanese chemist. ... Roald Hoffmann (born July 18, 1937 as Roald Safran --- Hoffmann is the surname of his stepfather) is an American theoretical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Sir Aaron Klug, OM, FRS (born 11 August 1926 in Zelvas, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian-born British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... A transmission electron microscope. ... Professor Henry Taube, Ph. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Robert Bruce Merrifield (July 15, 1921 – May 14, 2006) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1984. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Dr. Herbert A. Hauptman (born February 14, 1917) is a world renowned American mathematician and Nobel laureate. ... Jerome Karle is an American physical chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Dudley Robert Herschbach (born June 18, 1932), a chemist and Frank B. Baird Jr. ... Yuan Tseh Lee (Chinese: 李遠哲 Pinyin: Lǐ YuÇŽnzhé, Wade-Giles: Li³ Yüan³-che²) (born November 19, 1936) is a famous chemist. ... John Charles Polanyi (born January 23, 1929) is a German/Canadian chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Donald James Cram (April 22, 1919 – June 17, 2001) was an American chemist who shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “synthesizing three-dimensional molecules that could mimic the functioning of natural molecules. ... Jean-Marie Lehn (born September 30, 1939) is a French chemist. ... Charles J. Pedersen (October 3, 1904–October 26, 1989) was an American organic chemist best known for describing methods of synthesizing crown ethers. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Johann Deisenhofer (born September 30, 1943) is a German biochemist who, along with Hartmut Michel and Robert Huber, received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1988 for their determination of the structure of a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis. ... Robert Huber is a German biochemist and Nobel laureate. ... Hartmut Michel is a German biochemist and Nobel Laureate. ... In the process of photosynthesis, light is absorbed by a photosystem (ancient Greek: phos = light and systema = assembly) to begin an energy-producing reaction. ... Sidney Altman (born May 7, 1939) is a Canadian-born molecular biologist, who is currently the Sterling Professor of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and Chemistry at Yale University. ... Thomas R. Cech received Nobel Prize in 1989 because he discovered the catalytic properties of RNA with Sidney Altman. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Elias James Corey (born July 12, 1928) is an American organic chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Richard Robert Ernst (born August 14, 1933) is a Swiss chemist and Nobel Laureate. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... Rudolph Rudy Arthur Marcus (born July 21, 1923) received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his theory of Electron transfer. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Kary Banks Mullis (b. ... Michael Smith, C.C., O.B.C., Ph. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... PCR redirects here. ... George Andrew Olah (born 1927) is a U.S. (Hungarian-born) chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A carbocation is an ion with a positively-charged carbon atom. ... Paul J. Crutzen (December 3rd, 1933 - ) is a Dutch nobel prize winning atmospheric chemist. ... Mario Molina (left) with Luis E. Miramontes Mario J. Molina (born March 19, 1943) was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earths ozone layer of chlorofluorocarbon gases (or CFCs). ... Frank Sherwood Rowland (born June 28, 1927) is a Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount The term ozone depletion is used to describe two distinct but related observations: a slow, steady decline, of about 3 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in the Earths stratosphere (the ozone layer) during the past twenty years and a... Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. ... Sir Harold Walter Kroto KBE , FRS , Ph. ... Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The fullerenes, discovered in 1985 by researchers at Rice University, are a family of carbon allotropes named after Buckminster Fuller. ... Paul Delos Boyer (born July 31, 1918) is an American biochemist. ... John Ernest Walker (born January 7, 1941) is an English chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Jens Christian Skou (born October 8, 1918) is a Danish chemist and Nobel laureate. ... ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. ... Simplified Diagram of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+/K+ pump or Na+/K+ exchanger) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Walter Kohn (born March 9, 1923 in Vienna, Austria) is an Austrian-born American physicist who was awarded, with John A. Pople, the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1998. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Density functional theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical method used in physics and chemistry to investigate the electronic structure of many-body systems, in particular molecules and the condensed phases. ... Sir John Anthony Pople (October 31, 1925 – March 15, 2004) was a theoretical chemist. ... Linus Pauling, as a pioneer of the valence bond theory, is one of the first quantum chemists. ... Ahmed Zewail Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Arabic: أحمد زويل) (born February 26, 1946) is an Egyptian American chemist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10-15 of a second. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of matter and its properties by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed or scattered by the matter under investigation. ... Alan Jay Heeger (born 22 January 1936 in Sioux City, Iowa) is a United States chemistry and physics academic and Nobel Prize winner. ... Alan Graham MacDiarmid ONZ, (born April 24, 1927) is a chemist. ... Professor Hideki Shirakawa 白川 英樹 Shirakawa Hideki, born in Tokyo on August 20, 1936) is a Japanese chemist and winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of conductive polymers together with Alan J. Heeger and Alan G MacDiarmid. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A conductive polymer is an organic polymer semiconductor, or an organic semiconductor. ... William S. Knowles (born June 1, 1917) is a American chemist. ... Ryoji Noyori (野依良治) (born September 3, 1938) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ... Karl Barry Sharpless (born April 28, 1941) is an American chemist renowned for his work on organometallic chemistry. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Kurt Wüthrich (born October 4, 1938) is a Swiss chemist and Nobel laureate. ... Dr. John B. Fenn Dr. John Bennett Fenn (born June 15, 1917 in New York City) is a research professor of analytical chemistry who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002. ... Koichi Tanaka (田中 耕一, born August 3, 1959) is a Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A macromolecule is a large molecule with a large molecular mass, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949) is an American biologist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (which he shared with Roderick MacKinnon) for his discovery of aquaporins. ... Roderick MacKinnon (born 19 February 1956 in Burlington, Massachusetts) is a professor of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics at Rockefeller University who in 2003 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the structure and operation of ion channels. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Illustration of a lipid bilayer The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma, is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer which comprises the outer layer of a cell. ... Aaron Ciechanover (אהרון צחנובר) (born October 1, 1947) is an Israeli biologist. ... Avram Hershko (born December 31, 1937) is an Israeli biologist. ... Irwin A. Rose (born 16 July 1926 in NY) is an American biologist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ubiquitin is a very conserved small regulatory protein that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... Robert Howard Grubbs (b. ... Richard Royce Schrock (born January 4, 1945) was the recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to the metathesis method in organic chemistry. ... Yves Chauvin (born October 10, 1930) is a French chemist and Nobel Prize winner. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Olefin metathesis or transalkylidenation (in some literature, a disproportionation) is an organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic (alkene) bonds. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Roger D. Kornberg two days after his Nobel Prize was declared, at the felicitation at Stanford University held at Fairchild audotorium, in the same building complex where he works. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately...

References

  • The Nobel Foundation (2005). The Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Retrieved December 14, 2005.

December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nobel Prize in Chemistry winners


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Past winners of the Wolf Prize in Chemistry: 1978 Carl Djerassi 1979 Herman F. Mark 1980 Henry Eyring 1981 Joseph Chatt 1982 John C. Polanyi, George C. Pimentel 1983/4 Herbert S. Gutowsky, Harden M. McConnell, John A. Waugh 1984/5 Rudolph A. Marcus 1986 Elias James Corey, Albert Eschenmoser... The Priestley Medal is awarded by the American Chemical Society (ACS) for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. ...


External links

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Prize in memory of Alfred Nobel: Economics

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1794 words)
The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are involved.
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
, née Marie Sklodowska, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.
The Nobel Prize - A guide to the Nobel Prizes (397 words)
The Nobel Prize (pronounced no-BELL) is awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society.
The first ceremony to award the Nobel Prizes in literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine was held at the Old Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm in 1901; since 1902, the prizes have been formally awarded by the King of Sweden.
The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiology or medical works by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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