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Encyclopedia > Nobel prize
Nobel Prize
Awarded for Outstanding contributions in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly "identified with" the Nobel Prize, is awarded for outstanding contributions in Economics.
Presented by Swedish Academy
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Karolinska Institutet
Norwegian Nobel Committee
Country  Sweden,  Norway
First awarded 1901
Official website

The Nobel Prize (Swedish: Nobelpriset) was established in Alfred Nobel's will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. An associated prize, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.[1] The Nobel Prizes in the specific disciplines (Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature) and the Prize in Economics, which is commonly "identified with" them, are widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those fields.[1] The Nobel Peace Prize conveys social prestige, and that award also is often politically controversial. The Nobel Prizes, with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize, and the Prize in Economics are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The Nobel Foundation refers to those six prizes awarded in Stockholm as the "Swedish Prizes."[2] The Nobel Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, also on December 10.[3][4] The lectures by the recipients of the "Swedish Prizes" occur in the days prior to December 10.[5] "Since the Nobel Prize is regarded by far as the most prestigious prize in the world, the Award Ceremonies as well as the Banquets in Stockholm and Oslo on 10 December have been transformed from local Swedish and Norwegian arrangements into major international events that receive worldwide coverage by the print media, radio and television."[5] Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics,[1] is awarded each year for outstanding contributions in the field of economics. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 on the personal initiative of King Gustav III The Swedish Academy in Stockholm The Swedish Academy or Svenska Akademien, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... The Karolinska Institutet (often translated from Swedish into English as the Karolinska Institute, and in older texts often as the Royal Caroline Institute) is a medical university in Stockholm, founded in 1810. ... The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics,[1] is awarded each year for outstanding contributions in the field of economics. ... Sveriges Riksbank (Swedish National Bank) is the central bank of Sweden, sometimes called just the Bank of Sweden. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ...

Contents

Alfred Nobel's will

Alfred Nobel.

The five Nobel Prizes were instituted by the final will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist and industrialist, who was the inventor of the high explosive dynamite. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on November 27, 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish Kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[6] Alfred Nobel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alfred Nobel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A bequest is the disposition of property by will. ...

The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way:

The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement ; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.


The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not.[7]

Although Nobel's will established the prizes, his plan was incomplete and, due to various other hurdles, it took five years before the Nobel Foundation could be established and the first prizes awarded on December 10, 1901.[8] The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ...


Nomination and selection

Compared with some other prizes, the Prize nomination and selection process is long and rigorous. This is a key reason why the Prizes have grown in importance over the years to become the most important prizes in their field.[9]


The Nobel Laureates are selected by their respective committees. For the Prizes in Chemistry, Physics and Economics, a committee consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; for the Prize in Literature, a committee of four to five members of the Swedish Academy; for the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the committee consists of five members selected by The Nobel Assembly, which consists of 50 members elected by Karolinska Institutet; for the Peace Prize, the Norwegian Nobel Committee consists of five members elected by the Norwegian Storting (the Norwegian parliament).[10] In its first stage, several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates. These names are scrutinized and discussed by experts in their specific disciplines until only the winners remain. This slow and thorough process, insisted upon by Alfred Nobel, is arguably what gives the prize its importance. Despite this, there have been questionable awards and questionable omissions over the prize's century-long history. The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... The Karolinska Institutet (often translated from Swedish into English as the Karolinska Institute, and in older texts often as the Royal Caroline Institute) is a medical university in Stockholm, founded in 1810. ... The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ...


Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about three thousand selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations. For the peace prize, inquiries are sent to such people as governments of states, members of international courts, professors and rectors at university level, former Peace Prize laureates, current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, among others. The Norwegian Nobel Committee then bases its assessment on nominations sent in before 3rd of February.[11] The submission deadline for nominations for Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Economics is January 31.[12] Self-nominations and nominations of deceased people are disqualified. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the Prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. In practice some nominees do become known. It is also common for publicists to make such a claim, founded or not.


After the deadline has passed, the nominations are screened by committee, and a list is produced of approximately two hundred preliminary candidates. This list is forwarded to selected experts in the relevant field. They remove all but approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institution. The Assembly for the Medicine Prize, for example, has fifty members. The institution members then select prize winners by vote.


The selection process varies slightly between the different disciplines. The Literature Prize is rarely awarded to more than one person per year, whereas other Prizes now often involve collaborators of two or three.


While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can occur if the individual died in the months between the nomination and the decision of the prize committee. The scenario has occurred twice: The 1931 Literature Prize of Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. As of 1974, laureates must be alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate—William Vickrey (1996, Economics)—who died after the prize was announced but before it could be presented. Categories: Stub | 1864 births | 1931 deaths | Members of the Swedish Academy | Nobel Prize in Literature winners | Swedish language poets ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... William Spencer Vickrey (June 21, 1914, Victoria, British Columbia - October 11, 1996, New York State) was a Columbia University professor, who was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics just three days before he died. ...


Recognition time lag

The interval between the accomplishment of the achievement being recognized and the awarding of the Nobel Prize for it varies from discipline to discipline. Prizes in Literature are typically awarded to recognize a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement. In this case the notion of "lag" does not directly apply. Prizes in Peace, on the other hand, are often awarded within a few years of the events they recognize. For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the UN. Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Awards in the scientific disciplines of physics and chemistry require that the significance of achievements being recognized is "tested by time." In practice it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on stellar structure and evolution from the 1930s. Unfortunately, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a Prize, if the discoverers have died by the time the impact of their work is realized. Chandrasekhar redirects here. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


Award ceremonies

The committees and institutions serving as the selection boards for the Nobel Prizes typically announce the names of the laureates in October, with the Prizes awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.[5] In 2005 and 2006, these Prize ceremonies were held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel Banquet following immediately in the Blue Hall of Stockholm City Hall. Previously, the Nobel Prizes ceremony was held in a ballroom in Stockholm's Grand Hotel.[5] is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... The Stockholm Concert Hall (Konserthuset) is the main hall for orchestral music in Stockholm, Sweden. ... Stockholm City Hall, seen from the south. ...


The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905-1946); at the Aula of the University of Oslo (1947-1990); and most recently at the Oslo City Hall.[5] The Norwegian Nobel Institute was established in 1904 in Oslo (Kristiania), Norway. ... Avola (Sicilian: Aula) is a city and commune in the province of Syracuse, Sicily (Italy). ... The University of Oslo (Norwegian: , Latin: ) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... The Oslo City Hall, seen from the harbour side. ...


A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Each award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. Each "Nobel Prize Award" consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a monetary grant:

The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.[13] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

The grant is currently 10 million SEK, slightly more than 1 million (US$1.5 million).[14] ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ...


If there are two winners in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally amongst the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient, and one-quarter to each of the others. It is not uncommon for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural or humanitarian causes.


Since 1902, the King of Sweden has, with the exception of the Peace Prize, presented all the prizes in Stockholm. At first King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners, but is said to have changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ...


Until the Norwegian Nobel Committee was established in 1904, the President of Norwegian Parliament made the formal presentation of the Nobel Peace Prize. The Committee's five members are entrusted with researching and adjudicating the Prize as well as awarding it. Although appointed by the Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget), they are independent and answer to no legislative authority. Members of the Norwegian government are not permitted to sit on the Committee. The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ...


The Nobel Prize medals

The Nobel Prize medals, which have been minted in Sweden since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Their engraved designs are internationally-recognized symbols of the prestige of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ...

All of these medal designs feature an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on their front sides (the "face" of the medal). Four of the five Nobel Prize medals (Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature) feature the same design on their faces (front sides). The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Physics and Chemistry share a design, while the designs of the reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Physiology or Medicine and Literature are unique to those fields. Both sides of the Nobel Peace Prize Medal and the Medal for The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel are unique designs.[13][2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 648 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (908 × 840 pixels, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // This image is an edited photograph of the front side of a tridimensional object engraved and minted in 1933. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics,[1] is awarded each year for outstanding contributions in the field of economics. ...

The Nobel Prize medals in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature are identical on the face: it shows the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833-1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the Nobel Peace Prize Medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design. The image on the reverse varies according to the institution awarding the prize. All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Today, they are made from 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold.[13][2] Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics,[1] is awarded each year for outstanding contributions in the field of economics. ...

Controversies and criticisms

Alfred Nobel became increasingly uneasy with the military use of the explosives which he had created in the course of his work; his discomfort increased apparently after he read his own premature obituary, published in error by a French newspaper on the occasion of the death of Nobel's brother Ludvig, which condemned Alfred as a "merchant of death."[15] The Nobel Prize controversies are contentious disputes regarding the Nobel Prize. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ...


Since the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901, the proceedings, nominations, awardees and exclusions have generated criticism and engendered much controversy.


Overlooked achievements

Mahatma Gandhi was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize five times between 1937 and 1948 but never received the prize before being assassinated on 30 January 1948, two days before the closing date for the 1948 Peace Prize nominations. The Norwegian Nobel Committee had very likely planned to give him the Peace Prize in 1948 as they considered a posthumous award, but ultimately decided against it and instead chose not to award the prize that year.[16] “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


The strict rules against a prize being awarded to more than three people at once is also a cause for controversy. Where a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, inevitably one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, a Prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that failed to recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.[17] Koichi Tanaka (田中 耕一, born August 3, 1959) is a Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules. ... Dr. John B. Fenn (born June 15, 1917) is a research professor of analytical chemistry who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... I.G.Farben Building at Campus Westend The Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy...


Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by a collaborator who happens to die before the prize is awarded. Rosalind Franklin, who was key in the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, died of ovarian cancer in 1958, four years before Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins (one of Franklin's collaborators) were awarded the Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1962.[18] Franklin's significant and relevant contribution was only briefly mentioned in Crick and Watson's Nobel Prize-winning paper: "We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. M.H.F. Wilkins, Dr. R.E. Franklin, and co-workers..."[19] Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ...


In some cases, awards have arguably omitted similar discoveries made earlier. For example, the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery and development of conductive organic polymers" (1977) ignored the much earlier discovery of highly-conductive charge transfer complex polymers: the 1963 series of papers by Weiss, et al. reported even higher conductivity in similarly iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole.[20][21] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A charge transfer complex (CT complex) is defined as an electron donor–electron acceptor complex, characterized by electronic transition(s) to an excited state. ...


Lack of a prize in mathematics

There are several possible reasons why Nobel did not create a prize in mathematics. One reason may relate to the specific terms of Alfred Nobel's will, in which he institutes prizes for those inventions or discoveries of greatest benefit to mankind, suggesting perhaps practical rather than theoretical works. In that mathematics is not considered as practical a science as the others recognized (chemistry, physics, and physiology or medicine), he may have omitted it for that reason.[22] In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


Another possible reason is that there was already a well-known Scandinavian prize for mathematicians. The existing mathematical awards at the time were mainly due to the work of Gösta Mittag-Leffler, who founded the Acta Mathematica, a century later still one of the world's leading mathematical journals. Through his influence in Stockholm he persuaded King Oscar II to endow prize competitions and honor distinguished mathematicians all over Europe, including Hermite, Bertrand, Weierstrass, and Poincaré. Magnus Gustaf (Gösta) Mittag-Leffler (16 March 1846–7 July 1927) was a Swedish mathematician. ... Acta Mathematica is a journal publishing original research papers in all fields of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Oscar II boating. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Charles Hermite (pronounced air meet) (December 24, 1822 - January 14, 1901) was a French mathematician who did research on number theory, quadratic forms, invariant theory, orthogonal polynomials, elliptic functions, and algebra. ... Joseph Louis François Bertrand (March 11, 1822 - April 5, 1900, born and died in Paris) was a French mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, and thermodynamics. ... Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstraß (October 31, 1815 – February 19, 1897) was a German mathematician who is often cited as the father of modern analysis. (The letter ß may be transliterated as ss; one often writes Weierstrass. ... Jules TuPac Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [][1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ...


A legend persists that Nobel refused to endow a mathematics prize after his wife had an affair with the mathematician Mittag-Leffler; however, it is apocryphal, since Alfred Nobel never actually married.[23] An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... Magnus Gustaf (Gösta) Mittag-Leffler (16 March 1846–7 July 1927) was a Swedish mathematician. ...


Some mathematicians have won the Nobel Prize in other fields: Bertrand Russell for literature (1950), Max Born and Walther Bothe for physics (1954). Ohers have won the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel: Kenneth Arrow (1972), Leonid Kantorovich (1975), John Forbes Nash (1994), Clive W. J. Granger (2003), Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling (2005), Leonid Hurwicz (2007) [24] Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891 – February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. ... Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... Leonid V. Kantorovich. ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. ... Sir Clive Granger (born 1934) is an USA. Along with Robert Engle of New York University he shared the 2003 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. ... Israel Robert John Aumann (born June 8, 1930, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) is an Israeli mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... Thomas Schelling Thomas Crombie Schelling (born 14 April 1921) is an American economist and professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the University of Maryland, College Park School of Public Policy. ... Leonid Leo Hurwicz (born August 21, 1917, Moscow, Russia) is Regents’ Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of Minnesota. ...


Several prizes in mathematics have some similarities to the Nobel Prize. The Fields Medal is often described as the Nobel Prize of mathematics, but it differs in being awarded only once every four years to people younger than forty years old. A comparison may be made with the Crafoord Prize, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 1982. Other comparable prizes are the Abel Prize, awarded by the Norwegian government as of 2001; the Shaw Prize in mathematical sciences given since 2004; and the Gauss Prize, first introduced by the International Mathematical Union and the Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung at the 2006 International Congress of Mathematicians for practical and applied mathematics research. The Clay Mathematics Institute has set up seven "Millennium Problems,"[25] the solving of which results in a significant cash award. This prize differs from the Nobel in that it has a clear, predetermined objective for its award, and these prizes can be awarded whenever a problem is solved. The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ... The Crafoord Prize was established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, the inventor of the artificial kidney, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... The Abel Prize is awarded annually by the King of Norway to outstanding mathematicians. ... The Shaw Prize is established by Sir Run Run Shaw (邵逸夫 1907–), a leader in the media industry in Hong Kong and a long-time philanthropist, to, in the official words, honor individuals, regardless of race, nationality and religious belief, who have achieved significant breakthrough in academic... Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ... The Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize for Applications of Mathematics is a mathematics award, granted jointly by the International Mathematical Union and the German Mathematical Society for outstanding mathematical contributions that have found significant applications outside of mathematics.[1] It was awarded for the first time in 2006, and then every... The International Mathematical Union is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of mathematics. ... The German mathematical society (german:Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung - DMV) is the main professional society of german mathematicians. ... The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) is the biggest congress in mathematics. ... The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) is a private, non-profit foundation, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge. ...


Uniquely distinguished laureates

Multiple laureates

Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize, four people have received two Nobel Prizes:[26]

Although Otto Heinrich Warburg is rumored to have been selected for a second Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1944, this rumor is not true according to the Nobel Foundation.[27] (See Otto Heinrich Warburg for details.) This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... four sp³ orbitals three sp² orbitals In chemistry, hybridisation or hybridization (see also spelling differences) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in chemistry. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Otto Heinrich Warburg (October 8, 1883, Freiburg im Breisgau – August 1, 1970, Berlin), son of Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist and medical doctor. ... Otto Heinrich Warburg (October 8, 1883, Freiburg im Breisgau – August 1, 1970, Berlin), son of Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist and medical doctor. ...


As a group, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times: in 1917, 1944, and 1963. The first two prizes were specifically in recognition of the group's work during the world wars. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has won the Peace Prize twice: in 1954 and 1981. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


Family laureates

A number of families have included multiple laureates.[26] The Curie family claim the most Nobel Prizes, with five:

  • Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Physics 1903 and Chemistry 1911
  • Her husband Pierre Curie, Physics 1903
  • Their daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, Chemistry 1935
  • Their son in law Frederic Joliot-Curie, Chemistry 1935

Furthermore, Henry Labouisse, the husband of the Curies' second daughter Ève, was the director of UNICEF when it won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965. Marie Curie, one of the few people to win two Nobel Prizes in different fields, was one of the most significant researchers of radiation and its effects as a pioneer of radiology. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist. ... Henry Richardson Labouisse, Jr. ... Ève Denise Curie Labouisse (born December 6, 1904 in Paris) is a U.S. (French-born) author and writer. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


Age extremes

William Lawrence Bragg, who was only 25 when he shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his father William Henry Bragg, is the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize.[28] Doris Lessing, 87, is the oldest woman ever to win a Nobel Prize when she was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Literature. [29] Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg. ... Sir William Henry Bragg OM, Cantab, OKW (Westward, Cumbria, England July 2, 1862 – March 10, 1942) was an English physicist and chemist, educated at King Williams College, Isle of Man, and Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran,[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


See also

Jakob von Uexkull, founder of the Right Livelihood Award The Right Livelihood Award, established in 1980 by Jakob von Uexkull, is presented annually in the Swedish Parliament building in Stockholm, usually on December 9, to honour those working on practical and exemplary solutions to the most urgent challenges facing the... Marie Curie is one of the four people and the only woman to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes. ... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... Winners of the Nobel Prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following list provides information on nobel laureates and their affiliation to academic institutions. ... The Nobel Library (Swedish: Nobelbiblioteket or, officially, Svenska Akademiens Nobelbibliotek, e. ... The Nobel Museum is a museum devoted to circulate information on the Nobel Prize, Nobel laureates from 1901 to present, and the life of the instituter Alfred Nobel (1833-1896). ... The Nobel Peace Center, situated right next to the Oslo City Hall. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed November 14, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9056008>.

    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969. Although not technically a Nobel Prize, it is identified with the award; its winners are announced with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the Prize in Economic Sciences is presented at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

  2. ^ a b c Birgitta Lemmel, "The Nobel Prize Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics", nobelprize.org, Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2006, accessed November 9, 2007. Original designs ®© The Nobel Foundation. Copyright © Nobel Web AB 2007.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders", nobelprize.org, accessed November 6, 2007.
  4. ^ Nobel Peace Prize 2007, nobelprize.org, accessed October 18, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies", nobelprize.org, accessed November 5, 2007.
  6. ^ "The Will of Alfred Nobel", nobelprize.org, accessed November 6, 2007.
  7. ^ Alfred Nobel, "Alfred Nobel's Will", nobelprize.org, accessed February 15, 2007. (English version).
  8. ^ "First Nobel Prizes: December 10, 1901", This Day in History, The History Channel, accessed July 30, 2006.
  9. ^ "Nobel Prizes: Selection Process", Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2007), accessed October 18, 2007.
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Economics", nobelprize.org, accessed March 4, 2007.
  11. ^ The Nobel Foundation. Nomination and Selection Process. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on November 13, 2006..
  12. ^ Nobel Foundation. Nomination and Selection Process. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on July 30, 2006..
  13. ^ a b c "What the Nobel Laureates Receive", nobelprize.org, Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2007, accessed November 9, 2007.
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts", nobelprize.org, Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 2007, accessed November 9, 2007.
  15. ^ Frederic Golden, "The Worst and the Brightest", Time & CNN.com, October 16, 2000, accessed November 5, 2007.
  16. ^ Nobel Foundation. Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on October 7, 2006..
  17. ^ Laura Spinney, "News Analysis: Nobel Prize Controversy", The Scientist 3.1 (11 Dec. 2002): 20021211-03, accessed October 28, 2006.
  18. ^ Nobel Foundation. The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix. Retrieved on July 30, 2006.
  19. ^ J.D. Watson and F.H.C. Crick, "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids"PDF, Nature 171.4356 (1953): 737-38.
  20. ^ Peter H. Proctor. Electronic Conduction in Polymers--Historic Papers. organicsemiconductors.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-12..
  21. ^ J. McGinness and P. Proctor, "Amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins", Science 183.127 (1974): 853-55. Links PMID: 4359339 (PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE), accessed October 28, 2006.
  22. ^ The Nobel Prize Internet Archive. "Why Is There No Nobel Prize in Mathematics?". almaz.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2006.
  23. ^ The Prize's Rite. Snopes (2001-03-02).
  24. ^ "Mathematicians Who Have Won the Nobel Prize", PlanetMath, accessed October 18, 2007.
  25. ^ Clay Millenium Problems. Clay Institute (2000-03-02).
  26. ^ a b Nobel Prize Facts, nobelprize.org, accessed October 18, 2007.
  27. ^ Schück et al. 1972, p. 210
  28. ^ List of the youngest Nobel Laureates at the time of the award, "Frequently Asked Questions", nobelprize.org, accessed October 18, 2007.
  29. ^ List of the oldest Nobel Laureates at the time of the award, "Frequently Asked Questions", nobelprize.org, accessed October 18, 2007.

The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scientist is a news journal particularly concerning biology Its stated mission is: External links http://www. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable general-purpose scientific journals, first published on November 4, 1869. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science, the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), is one of the worlds most prestigious scientific publications. ... It has been suggested that GoPubMed be merged into this article or section. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Snopes, also known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is a website dedicated to determining the truth about many urban legends, Internet rumors, email forwards, and other such stories of uncertain or questionable origin. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PlanetMath is a free, collaborative, online mathematics encyclopedia. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) is a private, non-profit foundation, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Henrik Schück, born 2 November 1855, died 3 October 1947, Swedish literary historian. ... Elseviers logo. ...

External links

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Karolinska Institute or Karolinska institutet is a medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[1] (Swedish: Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, or more acurately the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual...


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