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Encyclopedia > Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria.
Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine since 1901. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, a German, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths." This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in these fields. It is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. "The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. ... Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). In 2007 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Mario Capecchi (of Italy), Sir Martin Evans (of the United Kingdom), and Oliver Smithies (of the United Kingdom and the United States), "for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"; they share the prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than 1 million, or US$1.4 million). The front side of "The medal of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute" provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side "represents the Genius of Medicine holding an open book in her lap, collecting the water pouring out from a rock in order to quench a sick girl's thirst" ("The Nobel Prize Medals"). Image from [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image from [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Emil Adolf von Behring( March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Eylau, Germany(as Emil Adolf Behring) . Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Army Medical College in Berlin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The Karolinska Institutet (often translated from Swedish into English as the Karolinska Institute, and in older texts often as the Royal Caroline Institute) is a medical university in Stockholm, founded in 1810. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... Emil Adolf von Behring( March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Eylau, Germany(as Emil Adolf Behring) . Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Army Medical College in Berlin. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. ... Mario Renato Capecchi (born 6 October 1937) is an Italian-born American molecular geneticist and a co-winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Sir Martin Evans is a British scientist, he is credited with discovering embryonic stem cells in 1981, and for the development of the knockout mouse Categories: Geneticists | Scientist stubs ... Oliver Smithies (born July 23, 1925) is a British-born American geneticist and Nobel laureate,[1] credited with the discovery of gel electrophoresis in 1950, and the simultaneous discovery, with Mario Capecchi, of the technique of homologous recombination of transgenic DNA with genomic DNA, a much more reliable method of... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ...

Contents

List of the Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

In the following list, in some instances, the national status (nation state) of some countries changed after a Nobel laureate lived in the country and became a Nobel Laureate.[1]


The flag that precedes the country of citizenship reflects the earlier of the following circumstances:

  1. the state of the country when the Nobel Laureate emigrated; or
  2. the state of the country when he/she became a Nobel Laureate.

Some Nobel Laureates obtained additional citizenships during their lifetime.


For those with multiple citizenships, the year they obtained an additional citizenship, when known, precedes the country of citizenship.


For Nobel Laureates who obtained additional citizenships after winning the Nobel Prize, the flag that precedes the country of citizenship reflects the earlier of the following two circumstances:

  1. the state of the country at their death; or
  2. the current state of the country.

The Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

Year Name Nationality Citation
1901 Emil Adolf von Behring Flag of German Empire German Empire "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[2]
1902 Ronald Ross  United Kingdom "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[3]
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen  Denmark "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[4]
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Flag of Russia Russian Empire "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[5]
1905 Robert Koch Flag of German Empire German Empire "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[6]
1906 Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Spain Spain
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[7]
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran  France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[8]
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
Paul Ehrlich
Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Flag of German Empire German Empire
"in recognition of their work on immunity"[9]
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher  Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[10]
1910 Albrecht Kossel Flag of German Empire German Empire "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[11]
1911 Allvar Gullstrand  Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[12]
1912 Alexis Carrel  France "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[13]
1913 Charles Robert Richet  France "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"[14]
1914 Robert Bárány  Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[15]
1915 [No award]
1916 [No award]
1917 [No award]
1918 [No award]
1919 Jules Bordet  Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[16]
1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh  Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" (for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion)[17]
1921 [No award]
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill  United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[18]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof  Weimar Republic "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[18]
1923 Frederick Grant Banting
John James Richard Macleod
 Canada
 United Kingdom
"for the discovery of insulin"[19]
1924 Willem Einthoven  Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[20]
1925 [No award]
1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger  Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[21]
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg  Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[22]
1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle  France "for his work on typhus"[23]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman  Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[24]
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins  United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[24]
1930 Karl Landsteiner  Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[25]
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg  Weimar Republic "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[26]
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Edgar Douglas Adrian
 United Kingdom
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[27]
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[28]
1934 George Hoyt Whipple
George Richards Minot
William Parry Murphy,
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[29]
1935 Hans Spemann Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[30]
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Otto Loewi
 United Kingdom;
Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany 1903:  Austria 1946:  United States
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[31]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Flag of Hungary Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[32]
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans  Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[33]
1939 Gerhard Domagk Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[34]
1940 [No award]
1941 [No award]
1942 [No award]
1943 Carl Peter Henrik Dam  Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[35]
Edward Adelbert Doisy Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[35]
1944 Joseph Erlanger
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[36]
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming
Ernst Boris Chain
Sir Howard Walter Florey,
 United Kingdom;
Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany  United Kingdom;
 Australia  United Kingdom
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[37]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller Flag of the United States United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[38]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[39]
Bernardo Alberto Houssay  Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[39]
1948 Paul Hermann Müller  Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[40]
1949 Walter Rudolf Hess  Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[41]
Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz Flag of Portugal Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"[41]
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeusz Reichstein
Philip Showalter Hench
Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of Poland Poland  Switzerland;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[42]
1951 Max Theiler  South Africa  Switzerland "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[43]
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman Flag of Russia Russian Empire, 1916: Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[44]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs  West Germany  United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[45]
Fritz Albert Lipmann  West Germany Flag of the United States United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[45]
1954 John Franklin Enders
Thomas Huckle Weller
Frederick Chapman Robbins
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[46]
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell  Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[47]
1956 André Frédéric Cournand
Werner Forssmann
Dickinson W. Richards
 France, 1941: Flag of the United States United States;
 West Germany
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[48]
1957 Daniel Bovet  Switzerland  Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[49]
1958 George Wells Beadle
Edward Lawrie Tatum
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[50]
Joshua Lederberg Flag of the United States United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[50]
1959 Severo Ochoa
Arthur Kornberg
Flag of Spain Spain Flag of the United States United States;
Flag of the United States United States
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[51]
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Peter Brian Medawar
 Australia  United Kingdom;
Flag of Brazil Brazil  United Kingdom
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[52]
1961 Georg von Békésy Flag of Hungary Hungary "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[53]
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick
James Dewey Watson
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
 United Kingdom;
 United States;
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand  United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[54]
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
 Australia
 United Kingdom
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[55]
1964 Konrad Bloch
Feodor Lynen
 West Germany,  United States
 West Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[56]
1965 François Jacob
André Lwoff
Jacques Monod
 France
 France
 France
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[57]
1966 Peyton Rous  United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[58]
Charles B. Huggins  Canada  United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[58]
1967 Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
 Finland 1940:  Sweden;
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[59]
1968 Robert W. Holley
Har Gobind Khorana
Marshall W. Nirenberg
 United States;
 India 1966:  United States;
 United States
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[60]
1969 Max Delbrück
Alfred Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
 West Germany  United States;
 United States;
 Italy
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[61]
1970 Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
 Germany 1941:  United Kingdom;
 Sweden
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[62]
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.  United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[63]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman
Rodney R. Porter
 United States
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[64]
1973 Karl von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolaas Tinbergen
 Austria
 Austria
 Netherlands
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[65]
1974 Albert Claude
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade
 Belgium;
 Belgium;
 Romania 1952:  United States
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[66]
1975 David Baltimore
Renato Dulbecco
Howard Martin Temin
 United States;
 Italy  United States;
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[67]
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg
D. Carleton Gajdusek
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[68]
1977 Roger Guillemin
Andrew Viktor Schally
 France 1965:  United States;
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[69]
Rosalyn Yalow  United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[69]
1978 Werner Arber
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
 Switzerland
 United States
 United States
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[70]
1979 Allan M. Cormack
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
 South Africa 1966:  United States;
 United Kingdom
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"[71]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf
Jean Dausset
George D. Snell
 Venezuela 1943:  United States;
 France;
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[72]
1981 Roger W. Sperry  United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[73]
David H. Hubel
Torsten N. Wiesel
 United States
 Sweden
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[73]
1982 Sune Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John R. Vane
 Sweden
 Sweden
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[74]
1983 Barbara McClintock  United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[75]
1984 Niels K. Jerne
Georges J.F. Köhler
César Milstein
 Denmark;
 West Germany;
 Argentina  United Kingdom
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[76]
1985 Michael S. Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[77]
1986 Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
 United States;
 Italy  United States
"for their discoveries of growth factors"[78]
1987 Susumu Tonegawa  Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[79]
1988 Sir James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
 United Kingdom
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[80]
1989 J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
 United States
 United States
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[81]
1990 Joseph E. Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[82]
1991 Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
 Germany
 Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[83]
1992 Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
 Switzerland  United States;
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[84]
1993 Richard J. Roberts
Phillip A. Sharp
 United Kingdom
 United States
"for their discoveries of split genes"[85]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
 United States
 United States
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[86]
1995 Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
 United States
 Germany
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[87]
1996 Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
 Australia
 Switzerland
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[88]
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner  United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[89]
1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
 United States
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[90]
1999 Günter Blobel  Germany 1987:  United States "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[91]
2000 Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
 Sweden
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[92]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
 United States
 United Kingdom
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[93]
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
 South Africa  United Kingdom 2003:  Singapore[94] (honorary);
 United States;
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[95]
2003 Paul Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
 United States
 United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[96]
2004 Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
 United States
 United States
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[97]
2005 Barry J. Marshall
J. Robin Warren
 Australia
 Australia
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[98]
2006 Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
 United States
 United States
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[99]
2007 Mario Capecchi
Sir Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
 Italy  United States;
 United Kingdom;
 United Kingdom  United States
"for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[100]

Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emil Adolf von Behring( March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Eylau, Germany(as Emil Adolf Behring) . Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Army Medical College in Berlin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ronald Ross Sir Ronald Ross (May 13, 1857 – September 16, 1932) was a Scottish physician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Niels Ryberg Finsen (December 15, 1860 – September 24, 1904) was a Icelandic/Faroese/Danish physician and scientist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist who first described the phenomenon now known as conditioning in experiments with dogs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Camillo Golgi, 1906. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Human Nervous System. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Laveran won a Nobel Prize in 1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (June 18, 1845 – May 18, 1922) (sometimes spelled Alfons or Alfonse) was a French physician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья Ильич Мечников, also known as Eli Metchnikoff, May 16, 1845, Ukraine – July 16, 1916, Paris) was a Russian microbiologist best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emil Theodor Kocher (August 25, 1841 - July 27, 1917), Nobel Prize winner in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland Born in Bern. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (September 16, 1853 - July 5, German medical doctor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Allvar Gullstrand Allvar Gullstrand (June 5, 1862 in Landskrona – July 28, 1930 in Stockholm) was a Swedish ophthalmologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Telescopes | Astronomy stubs ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Robert Richet (August 26, 1850 _ December 4, 1935) was a French physiologist who won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on anaphylaxis, his term for the sometimes fatal reaction by a sensitized individual to a second injection of an antigen. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Robert Bárány Robert Bárány (April 22, 1876 – April 8, 1936) was an Austrian physician of Hungarian-Jewish descent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... See also Labyrinth, an article treating the mythical maze that imprisoned the Minotaur. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (Soignies (Belgium) 13 June 1870 – 6 April 1961) was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Schack August Steenberg Krogh (November 15, 1874 - September 13, 1949) was a professor of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen 1916-1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Archibald Vivian Hill CH CBE (September 26, 1886–June 3, 1977) was a British physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Otto Fritz Meyerhof (April 12, 1884 – October 6, 1951), German-born physician and biochemist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, MD, FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the co-discovers of insulin. ... John James Richard Macleod John James Richard Macleod (September 6, 1876 – March 16, 1935) was a Scottish physician, physiologist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Willem Einthoven Willem Einthoven (May 21, 1860 – September 29, 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fibiger won a Nobel Prize in 1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (April 23, 1867 - January 30, 1928) was a Danish scientist who won the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Spiroptheria Carcinoma is a very deadly disease, which was claimed to cause gastric tumors in rats: discovered by Johannes Fibiger, it is common only with mice. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Julius Wagner Ritter von Jauregg, after the abolition of titles of nobility in Austria in 1919 Julius Wagner-Jauregg, (March 7, 1857 Wels, Upper Austria – September 27, 1940 Vienna) was an Austrian physician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (September 21, 1866 - February 28, 1936) was a bacteriologist who earned the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christiaan Eijkman (August 11, 1858—November 5, 1930) was a Dutch physician and pathologist whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of vitamins. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861 - 1947) was an English biochemist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Landsteiner Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist and physician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto Heinrich Warburg (October 8, 1883, Freiburg im Breisgau – August 1, 1970, Berlin), son of Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist and medical doctor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sherrington is considered one of the fathers of neuroscience. ... Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian (born London, 30 November 1889, died London, 4 August 1977) was a British electrophysiologist and recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physiology, won jointly with Sir Charles Sherrington for work on the function of neurons. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 - February 1, 1976) was one of three recipients in 1934 of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their work on liver therapy in cases of anemia. ... George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 (Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) - February 25, 1950) won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William P. Murphy and George H. Whipple for their work in the study of anemia. ... See William Beverly Murphy for the food businessman. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Hans Spemann (June 27, 1869 - September 12, 1941) was a German embryologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1935 for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, the influence exercised by various parts of the embryo that directs the development of groups... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir Henry Hallett Dale (June 9, 1875 - July 23, 1968) was an English scientist. ... Otto Loewi (June 3, 1873 – December 25, 1961) was a Austrian-German-American pharmacologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Szent-Györgyi at the time of his appointment to the National Institutes of Health Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_(state). ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Fumaric acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-butenedioic acid), also called allomaleic acid, boletic acid or lichenic acid, is a colorless crystalline flammable carboxylic acid based on butene and molecular formula C4H4O4. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Corneille Jean François Heymans (March 28, 1892 - July 18, 1968) was a Belgian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for for showing how blood pressure and oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtÉ™] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (October 30, 1895 - April 24, 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist and Nobel laureate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Prontosil is the first successful oral antibiotic developed by Gerhard Domagk, who received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henrik Dam (Full name Carl Peter Henrik Dam) (February 21, 1895 - April 18, 1976) was a Danish biochemist and physiologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Dr. Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 3, 1893 - October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1943 with Henrik Dam for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Erlanger (San Francisco, January 5, 1874 – December 5, 1965 in St. ... Herbert Spencer Gasser, (July 5, 1888 – May 11, 1963) was an American physiologist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for his work with action potentials in nerve fibers. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hermann Joseph H. J. Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was a Nobel Prize-winning American geneticist and educator, best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Ferdinand Cori (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was an American biochemist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) - a derivative of glucose... Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz, (August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was an American biochemist born in Prague (then Austria-Hungary) who, together with her husband Carl Ferdinand Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for their discovery of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bernardo Alberto Houssay (April 10, 1887–September 21, 1971) was an Argentinian physiologist who received (with Carl and Gerty Cori) the 1947 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Hermann Müller (January 12, 1899 - October 12, 1965) was a chemist and winner of the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT. Categories: People stubs | 1899 births | 1965 deaths | Swiss chemists ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Rudolf Hess (March 17, 1881 – August 12, 1973 not to be confused with prominent nazi Walther Rudolf Hess) was a Swiss physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for mapping the areas of the brain involved in the control of internal organs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (November 29, 1874 - December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese physician and neurologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 - May 4, 1972) was an American chemist who, with Philip S. Hench and Tadeus Reichstein, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for research on the structure and biological effects of adrenal cortex hormones. ... Tadeusz Reichstein (July 20, 1897 – August 1, 1996) was a Polish-born Swiss Nobel Prize-winning chemist. ... Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 - March 30, 1965) was an American physician who, with E. C. Kendall, in 1948 successfully applied an adrenal hormone (later known as cortisone) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Max Theiler (January 30, 1899 – August 11, 1972) was a South African virologist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951 for developing a vaccine for yellow fever. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1888 births | 1973 deaths | Biochemists ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (August 25, 1900 – November 22, 1981) was a German, later British medical doctor and biochemist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... Categories: Stub | Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Franklin Enders (February 10, 1887 – 1985) was an American medical scientist. ... Dr. Thomas Huckle Weller (born June 15, 1915) was an American virologist. ... Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916-2003) was a Nobel laureate in Medicine and Physiology in 1956 along with Enders and Weller. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... This article is about the disease. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (July 6, 1903 _ August 15, 1982) was a Swedish scientist and Nobel Prize laureate in medicine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. André Frédéric Cournand (September 24, 1895 – February 19, 1988) was a physician and physiologist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1956 along with Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards for the development of cardiac catheterization. ... Werner Forssmann, (August 29, 1904-June 1, 1979) was a physician from Eberswalde, Germany. ... Dr. Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr (October 30, 1895 - February 23, 1973) was an American physician and physiologist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Daniel Bovet (March 23, 1907 – April 8, 1992) was a Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist who won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of drugs that block the actions of specific neurotransmitters. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Jan. ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ... Tatum won the Nobel Prize for his work in genetics Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Joshua Lederberg speaking at a conference in 1997 Joshua Lederberg (born May 23, 1925) is an American molecular biologist who is known for his work in genetics, artificial intelligence, and space exploration. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Severo Ochoa Statue outside the School of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). ... Arthur Kornberg Arthur Kornberg (born March 3, 1918) is an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) together with Dr. Severo Ochoa of New York University. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain_under_Franco. ... Image File history File links US_flag_49_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_49_stars. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet OM, AK, KBE (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology. ... Sir Peter Brian Medawar (February 28, 1915 - October 2, 1987) was a British medical scientist who won the 1960 Nobel Prize in Medicine jointly with Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, for research into the nature of the immunological meaning of self as evidenced in skin graft acceptance and rejection in both... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Immune or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Békésy won a Nobel Prize in 1961 for his research on the workings of the inner ear. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_(1957-1989). ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick, OM (June 8, 1916 – July 28, 2004) was one of the discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. ... James Watson James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is one of the discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir John Carew Eccles (January 27, 1903 – May 2, 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse. ... Alan Lloyd Hodgkin photo: taken 1963 Nobel prize photo Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, OM, KBE, FRS (February 5, 1914 – December 20, 1998) was a British physiologist and biophysicist, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Andrew Fielding Huxley on the basis of nerve... Andrew Huxley at Trinity College, Cambridge, July 2005 Family tree Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM, FRS (born 22 November 1917, Hampstead, London) is an English physiologist and biophysicist, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Konrad Emil Bloch (January 21, 1912 - October 15, 2000) was a German-American biochemist. ... Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen (6. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... François Jacob (June 17, 1920 Nancy, France -- ) is a French biologist, who together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells happens through feedback on transcription. ... Andre Michael Lwoff (1902 - 1994) was a French microbiologist. ... Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976) was a French biologist and a Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine in 1965. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879, Baltimore - February 16, 1970, New York City) was an American pathologist whose discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Dr. Charles Breton Huggins (September 22, 1901 – January 12, 1997) was a Canadian-born American physician and physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specialising in prostate cancer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hormonal therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment for cancer, others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics). ... Prostate cancer is a group of cancerous cells (a malignant tumor) that begins most often in the outer part of the prostate. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Ragnar Arthur Granit (October 30, 1900, Helsinki, Finland - March 12, 1991, Stockholm, Sweden) was a Finnish scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1967, along with Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald. ... Haldan Keffer Hartline (December 22, 1903 - March 17, 1983) was an American physiologist who was a cowinner (with George Wald and Ragnar Granit) of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision. ... George Wald (November 18, 1906–April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who is best known for his work with pigments in the retina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert W. Holley, the structure of a tRNA is shown in the background Dr Robert W. Holley (January 28, 1922 - February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and... Har Gobind Khorana (born January 9, 1922) is an American molecular biologist born of Indian Punjabi heritage in British India. ... Marshall Nirenberg won a Nobel Prize in 1968 Marshall Warren Nirenberg (born April 10, 1927) was a U.S. biochemist and geneticist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Max Delbrück in the early 1940s at Vanderbilt University. ... Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist. ... Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 - February 6, 1991) was a naturalized American microbiologist whose pioneering work on phage helped open up molecular biology. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (March 26, 1911 – April 20, 2003) was a German-born biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve biochemistry. ... Ulf von Euler, a Nobel laureat Ulf Svante von Euler (February 7, 1905 – March 9, 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. ... Julius Axelrod won a Nobel Prize in 1970 Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an influential American biochemist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerald Maurice Edelman (born July 1, 1929) is a biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system. ... Rodney Robert Porter (1917 - 1985) was a British physiologist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (November 20, 1886 – June 12, 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Nikolaas Niko Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 – December 21, 1988) was a Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Claude (August 24, 1899 – May 22, 1983) was a Belgian biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. ... Christian de Duve (born October 2, 1917) is a biochemist. ... Dr. Palade won the Nobel Prize in 1974. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania_(1947-1989). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Baltimore (b. ... Renato Dulbecco (born February 22, 1914) is an Italian-born virologist. ... Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 – February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baruch Samuel Blumberg (born 1925) is a American scientist and recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Medicine for discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. ... Daniel Carleton Gajdusek in 1976 when he won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Roger Guillemin (born January 11, 1924 in Dijon, Bourgogne, France) received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for his work on neurohormones. ... Andrzej Viktor Schally, also known as Andrew V. Schally, born November 30, 1926 in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), is an endocrinologist and Nobel Prize laureate (1977) in Medicine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (born on July 19, 1921) is an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Radioimmunoassay is a scientific method used to test hormone levels in the blood without the need to use a bioassay. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Werner Arber (born June 3, 1929) is a Swiss microbiologist. ... Daniel Nathans (October 30, 1928 - November 16, 1999) was a U.S. microbiologist. ... Dr. Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Allan McLeod Cormack (February 1924 - May 7, 1998) was a South Africa-born American physicist who shared a part of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan. ... Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (28 August 1919 - 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of computerized axial tomography (CAT). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Baruj Benacerraf, M.D. Baruj Benacerraf (born 29 October 1920) is a Venezuelan-American immunologist who shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune systems distinction between self and non... Jean Dausset (b. ... George Davis Snell (December 19, 1903 - June 6, 1996), U.S. geneticist; corecipient of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Baruj Benacerraf and Jean Dausset, for discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune systems distinction between... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela_1930-2006. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Roger Wolcott Sperry (August 20, 1913 - April 17, 1994) was a neurobiologist and Nobel laureate who, together with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work with split-brain research. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... David Hunter Hubel (b. ... Torsten Nils Wiesel (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Sune Karl Bergström (January 10, 1916 - August 15, 2004) was a Swedish biochemist. ... Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (born May 21, 1934) is a biochemist. ... Sir John Robert Vane (March 29, 1927 - November 19, 2004) was a British pharmacologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ... This article is about the year. ... Niels Kaj Jerne (December 23, 1911 - October 7, 1994) was a British-Danish-Swedish (English-born) immunologist. ... Georges Jean Franz Köhler (March 17, 1946 in Munich - March 7, 1995 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German biologist. ... César Milstein (October 8, 1927 – March 24, 2002) was an Argentine-born scientist who spent most of his life in Great Britain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... This article is about the year. ... Dr. Michael S. Brown (b. ... Joseph L. Goldstein (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Stanley Cohen (born November 17, 1922) is an American-born researcher and Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology and Medicine (1986). ... Rita Levi-Montalcini (born April 22, 1909) is an Italian neurologist who, together with colleague Stanley Cohen, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of growth factors. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 6, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987 for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir James Whyte Black, OM, FRS, FRSE, FRCP (born 14 July 1924) is a Scottish pharmacologist who invented Propranolol, synthesized Cimetidine and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988 for these discoveries. ... Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, and a 1988 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... George H. Hitchings (April 18, 1905 – February 27, 1998) shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir James Black and Gertrude Elion for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment, Hitchings specifically for his work on chemotherapy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... J. Michael Bishop (born February 22, 1936) is an American immunologist and microbiologist who won the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Harold Elliot Varmus (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... For the former commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see Joseph Philip Robert Murray. ... Dr. Edward Donnall (Don) Thomas (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Erwin Neher (born 1944 in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria) is a German biologist. ... Bert Sakmann (born June 12, 1942) is a German cell physiologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Dr Edmond H. Fischer (born April 6, 1920) is a Swiss-American biochemist. ... Dr Edwin Gerhard Krebs (born June 6, 1918) is an American biochemist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard J. Roberts (b. ... Philip Allen Sharp (born 1944), U.S. geneticist and molecular biologist; co-discovered gene splicing; shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard J. Roberts for the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Alfred Goodman Gilman (born July 1, 1941) is an American scientist. ... Martin Rodbell won a Nobel Prize in 1994 Martin Rodbell (December 1, 1925- December 7, 1998) was an American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who is best known for his discovery of G-proteins. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Edward B. Lewis (May 20, 1918 – July 21, 2004) was an American geneticist, the winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (born October 12, 1942 in Magdeburg) is a German biologist. ... Eric F. Wieschaus (born June 8, 1947) is an American developmental biologist and Nobel Prize-winner. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Prof. ... Rolf Martin Zinkernagel (January 6, 1944 in Riehen, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland) is Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Stanley Ben Prusiner (born May 28, 1942[1]) is an American neurologist and biochemist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert F. Furchgott (born June 4, 1916 in Charleston, South Carolina) is a Nobel Prize-winning American chemist. ... Dr. Louis J. Ignaro (b. ... Dr. Ferid Murad Ferid Murad (born September 14, 1936) is an American physician and pharmacologist, and a co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... This article is about the year. ... Günter Blobel (born May 21, 1936) is a German biologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Arvid Carlsson (b. ... Paul Greengard (b. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a psychiatrist, a neuroscientist and professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Columbia University. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... The Human Nervous System. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Leland H. Hartwell (born October 30, 1939, in Los Angeles, California) is president and director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. ... Dr. R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt (b. ... Sir Paul M. Nurse (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its replication. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... H. Robert Horvitz is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. ... Sir John Edward Sulston PhD, FRS (born March 27, 1942) was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge graduating in 1963. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Christian Lauterbur, (born May 6, 1929) is an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible. ... Sir Peter Mansfield, FRS, (born 9 October 1933), is a British physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... “MRI” redirects here. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Axel, M.D. (born July 2, 1946, New York City) is an American scientist whose work on the olfactory system won him and Linda B. Buck, a former post-doctoral scientist in his research group, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004. ... Linda B. Buck, Ph. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Olfactory receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barry J. Marshall, M.D. is an Australian doctor and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. ... Press Release: The 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 3 October 2005 The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2005 jointly to Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Binomial name ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) ICD-9 code: 041. ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Z. Fire Andrew Zachary Fire (born on April 27th 1959) is an American professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. ... Craig C. Mello Craig Cameron Mello (born October 19, 1960 in Worcester, Massachusetts), is one of the laureates of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. Fire, for the discovery of RNA interference. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mario Renato Capecchi (born 6 October 1937) is an Italian-born American molecular geneticist and a co-winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Sir Martin Evans is a British scientist, he is credited with discovering embryonic stem cells in 1981, and for the development of the knockout mouse Categories: Geneticists | Scientist stubs ... Oliver Smithies (born July 23, 1925) is a British-born American geneticist and Nobel laureate,[1] credited with the discovery of gel electrophoresis in 1950, and the simultaneous discovery, with Mario Capecchi, of the technique of homologous recombination of transgenic DNA with genomic DNA, a much more reliable method of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Medicine" – Index webpage on the official site of the Nobel Foundation.
  • "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies" – Official hyperlinked webpage of the Nobel Foundation.
  • "The Nobel Prize Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics" – By Birgitta Lemmel; an article on the history of the design of the medals featured on the official site.
  • "The Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine" – Official webpage of the Nobel Foundation.
  • "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine" – Official site of the Nobel Foundation.
  • "What the Nobel Laureates Receive" – Featured link in "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies".

  Results from FactBites:
 
MIT World » : 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel Lecture (244 words)
In October 2002, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to H. Robert Horvitz, Sydney Brenner and John El Sulston "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death."
Robert Horvitz is the David H. Koch Professor of Cancer Biology at MIT, an investigator for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and for the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, and a member of the MIT Center for Cancer Research.
Horvitz received bachelor's degrees in mathematics and economics from MIT (1968) and the master's degree (1972) and Ph.D. (1974) in biology from Harvard University.
2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - - Revisionist History? (1431 words)
On October 6, 2003, the Nobel Committee announced that Paul C. Lauterbur, PhD, an American chemist and Sir Peter Mansfield, PhD, a British physicist were the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on the development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Nobel Prize winners assume an elite place in the historical record, however, and Damadian is concerned that history will therefore not acknowledge his role.
Nobel Prizes should be awarded for discoveries, not for personality or religious beliefs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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