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Encyclopedia > Nobel Prize in Physics
Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1].

List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. 178 awards have been given as of 2006. The prize is awarded every year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Image File history File links Hannes-alfven. ... Image File history File links Hannes-alfven. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995), winning the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ...

Contents

Laureates



1901-1925

Year Name Country [1] Topics
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Flag of German Empire German Empire "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)"
1902 Hendrik Lorentz
Pieter Zeeman
 Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena". See Zeeman effect.
1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel  France "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
Pierre Curie
Marie Curie
 France "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
1904 John William Strutt  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
1905 Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Flag of German Empire German Empire "for his work on cathode rays"
1906 Joseph John Thomson  United Kingdom "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson  United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid". See Michelson-Morley experiment.
1908 Gabriel Lippmann  France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
1909 Guglielmo Marconi
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Italy
Flag of German Empire German Empire
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals  Netherlands "For his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids." See van der Waals force.
1911 Wilhelm Wien Flag of German Empire German Empire "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat."
1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén  Sweden "invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and light-buoys."
1913 Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes  Netherlands "For his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
1914 Max von Laue Flag of German Empire German Empire "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals."
1915 William Henry Bragg
William Lawrence Bragg
 United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays."
1916 no award prize purse allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1917 Charles Glover Barkla  United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements."
1918 Max Planck Flag of German Empire German Empire "In recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta." See Planck constant.
1919 Johannes Stark Flag of German Empire German Empire "For his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields."
1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume  Switzerland "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
1921 Albert Einstein  Germany
 Switzerland
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his explanation of the photoelectric effect"
1922 Niels Henrik David Bohr Flag of Denmark Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan  United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
1924 Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn  Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
1925 James Franck
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
 Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (in English: William Conrad Roentgen) (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays, an achievement... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray or Röntgen ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 nanometers to 100 picometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz to 3 EHz). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (July 18, 1853, Arnhem – February 4, 1928, Haarlem) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect. ... Pieter Zeeman (May 25, 1865 – October 9, 1943) (pronounced zāmän) was a physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... The Zeeman effect (IPA ) is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pierre Curie (Paris, France, May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... See also Rayleigh fading Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh waves Rayleigh-Jeans law External links Nobel website bio of Rayleigh About John William Strutt MacTutor biography of Lord Rayleigh Categories: People stubs | 1842 births | 1919 deaths | Nobel Prize in Physics winners | Peers | British physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (born in Bratislava on June 7, 1862 – died May 20, 1947 in Messelhausen) was a physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... A schematic diagram of a Crookes tube apparatus. ... Sir Joseph John Thomson Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940), often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... His signature. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Michelson-Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the history of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University, and is considered by some to be the first strong evidence against the theory of... Gabriel Jonas Lippmann (August 16, 1845 – July 13, 1921) was a Franco-Luxembourgian physicist and inventor. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Named after Gabriel Lippmann, physicist. ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... Guglielmo Marconi [gue:lmo marko:ni] (25 April 1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 in Fulda, Germany – 20 April 1918 in New York City, USA) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... // Within the timeline of radio, many people were involved in the invention of radio transmission of information as we know it today. ... van der Waals Johannes Diderik van der Waals (November 23, 1837 – March 8, 1923) was a Dutch scientist famous for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids, for which he won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1910. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... In chemistry, the term van der Waals force originally referred to all forms of intermolecular forces; however, in modern usage it tends to refer to intermolecular forces that deal with forces due to the polarization of molecules. ... Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (January 13, 1864 – August 30, 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to compose Wiens displacement law, which relates the maximum emission of a blackbody to its temperature. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Nils Gustaf Dalén (November 30, 1869 - December 9, 1937) was a Swedish inventor and founder of AGA. Laureate for the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1912 for his work on automatic gas regulator controlled buoys. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... A Sun valve, (aka Solventil, solar valve) is a form of flow control valve, notable because it earned its inventor, Gustaf Dalén the Nobel prize in physics. ... The Peggys Point lighthouse in Nova Scotia, Canada An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. ... Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – February 21, 1926) was a Dutch physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Helium exists in liquid form only at very low temperatures. ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Sir William Henry Bragg OM, Cantab, OKW (Westward, Cumbria, England July 2, 1862 – March 10, 1942) was an English physicist and chemist, educated at King Williams College, Isle of Man, and Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Charles Glover Barkla (June 7, 1877 – October 23, 1944) was a British physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Wilhelm Röntgen X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Fig. ... Plancks constant, denoted h, is a physical constant that is used to describe the sizes of quanta. ... Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874 – June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... Charles Édouard Guillaume (February 15, 1861, Fleurier – June 13, 1938, Sèvres), was a French-Swiss Physicist that received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920 in recognition of the service he had rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Not to be confused with Robert S. Mulliken. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (December 3, 1886 - September 26, 1978) was a Swedish physicist, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924 for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Gustav Ludwig Hertz (July 22, 1887, Hamburg – October 30, 1975, Berlin) was a German physicist, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...

1926-1950

Year Name Country Topics
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin  France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
1927 Arthur Holly Compton  United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him". See Compton effect.
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson  United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour". See cloud chamber.
1928 Owen Willans Richardson  United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
1929 Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie  France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons". See De Broglie hypothesis.
1930 Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Flag of India India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
1931 no award prize purse allocated to the Special Fund for this prize.
1932 Werner Karl Heisenberg  Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
1933 Erwin Schrödinger
Paul Dirac
Flag of Austria Austria
 United Kingdom
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
1934 no award prize purse allocated half to the Main Fund and half to the Special Fund for this prize.
1935 James Chadwick  United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron"
1936 Victor Franz Hess Flag of Austria Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
Carl David Anderson  United States "for his discovery of the positron"
1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson
George Paget Thomson
 United States
 United Kingdom
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals". See wave-particle duality.
1938 Enrico Fermi Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
1939 Ernest Lawrence  United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
1940 no award prize purse allocated half to the Main Fund and half to the Special Fund for this prize.
1941
1942
1943 Otto Stern  United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi  United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Flag of Austria Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman  United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"
1947 Edward Victor Appleton  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett  United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
1949 Hideki Yukawa  Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces". See Yukawa potential.

Jean Baptiste Perrin (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sedimentation equilibrium is an analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) method for measuring protein molecular masses in solution and for studying protein-protein interactions. ... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the effect named after him. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Compton Effect is the second album from rapper Greydon Square. ... Charles Thomson Rees Wilson CH (February 14, 1869 – November 15, 1959) was a Scottish physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ... Owen Willans Richardson (down) Solvay conference 1927 Sir Owen Willans Richardson (April 26, 1879 - February 15, 1959) was a British physicist, a professor at Princeton University from 1906 to 1913, and a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil. ... Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil. ... Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, generally known as Louis de Broglie (August 15, 1892–March 19, 1987), was a French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In physics, the de Broglie hypothesis is the statement that all matter (any object) has a wave-like nature (wave-particle duality). ... Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, CBE (Tamil: சந்திரசேகர வெங்கடராமன்) (November 7, 1888 – November 21, 1970) was an Indian physicist, who was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon. ... Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Fig. ... Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. ... Sir James Chadwick, CH (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate who is best known for discovering the neutron. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Victor Francis Hess (June 24, 1883 – December 17, 1964) was an Austrian-American physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Carl Anderson at LBNL 1937 Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Clinton Joseph Davisson (22 October 1881–1 February 1958), was an American physicist. ... Joe has no friends what-so-ever Sir George Paget Thomson FRS (May 3, 1892 – September 10, 1975) was a Nobel-Prize-winning, English physicist who discovered the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Ernest O. Lawrence Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his invention, utilization, and improvement of the cyclotron beginning in 1929, and his later work in uranium-isotope separation in the Manhattan Project. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... Otto Stern Otto Stern (February 17, 1888 – August 17, 1969) was an German physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A bar magnet. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Isidor Isaac Rabi (July 29, 1898 - January 11, 1988) was an American physicist of Austro-Hungarian origin. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about Austrian-Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... The Pauli exclusion principle, commonly referred to simply as the exclusion principle, is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state. ... Percy Williams Bridgman (April 21, 1882–August 20, 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... High pressure physics is a specialized field in physics that involves the science and technology challenges of basic and applied materials at high pressures and temperatures. ... Sir Edward Victor Appleton (September 6, 1892 – April 21, 1965) was an English physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Appleton layer is another name for the F layer of the Ionosphere. ... Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (November 18, 1897—July 13, 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ... Hideki Yukawa Hideki Yukawa FRSE (湯川 秀樹, January 23, 1907 - September 8, 1981) was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese to win the Nobel prize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... A Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form Hideki Yukawa showed in the 1930s that such a potential arises from the exchange of a massive scalar field such as the field of the pion whose mass is . ...

1950-1975

Year Name Country Topics
1950 Cecil Frank Powell  United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
1951 John Douglas Cockcroft
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
 United Kingdom
Flag of Ireland Ireland
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
1952 Felix Bloch
Edward Mills Purcell
 United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
1953 Frits Zernike  Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
1954 Max Born  United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
Walther Bothe  West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
1955 Willis Eugene Lamb  United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum". See Lamb shift.
Polykarp Kusch  United States "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
1956 William Bradford Shockley
John Bardeen
Walter Houser Brattain
 United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
1957 Chen Ning Yang (楊振寧)
Tsung-Dao Lee (李政道)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Čerenkov
Il'ia Frank
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect"
1959 Emilio Gino Segrè
Owen Chamberlain
 United States "for their discovery of the antiproton"
1960 Donald Arthur Glaser  United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"
1961 Robert Hofstadter  United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer  West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name". See Mössbauer effect.
1962 Lev Davidovich Landau Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
1963 Eugene Paul Wigner  United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Maria Goeppert-Mayer
J. Hans D. Jensen
 United States
 West Germany
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
1964 Charles Hard Townes
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov
Aleksandr Prokhorov
 United States
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
Julian Schwinger
Richard Phillips Feynman
 Japan
 United States
 United States
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
1966 Alfred Kastler  France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
1967 Hans Albrecht Bethe  United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez  United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
1969 Murray Gell-Mann  United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions". See Eightfold way.
1970 Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén  Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Louis Eugene Félix Néel  France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
1971 Dennis Gabor  United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"
1972 John Bardeen
Leon Neil Cooper
John Robert Schrieffer
 United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
1973 Leo Esaki
Ivar Giaever
 Japan
 United States
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Brian David Josephson  United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"
1974 Martin Ryle
Antony Hewish
 United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
1975 Aage Niels Bohr
Ben Roy Mottelson
Leo James Rainwater
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Denmark Denmark
 United States
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Cecil Frank Powell (December 5, 1903 - August 9, 1969) was a British physicist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a heavy subatomic particle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... See also: John Cockroft (politician) Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (May 27, 1897 - September 18, 1967) was a British physicist. ... Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (October 6, 1903 – June 25, 1995) was an Irish physicist, the winner of the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physics along with Sir John Douglas Cockcroft. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Felix Bloch (October 23, 1905 – September 10, 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the USA. // A stamp from Guyana commemorating Felix Bloch. ... Edward Mills Purcell (August 30, 1912 – March 7, 1997) was an American physicist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for his independent discovery (published 1946) of nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and in solids. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Frederik Zernike (Amsterdam, July 16, 1888 – March 10, 1966) was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel prize for physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase contrast microscope, an instrument that permits the study of internal cell structure without the need to stain and thus kill the... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... A phase contrast microscope is a microscope that does not require staining to view the slide. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Fig. ... Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891 – February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Willis Eugene Lamb, Junior (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms. ... In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a small difference in energy between two energy levels and of the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics. ... Polykarp Kusch (January 26, 1911 - March 20, 1993) was a German-American physicist who, with Willis Eugene Lamb, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1955 for his accurate determination that the magnetic moment of the electron was greater than its theoretical value, thus leading to reconsideration of and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist at Bell Labs who, along with John Bardeen and William Shockley invented the transistor. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Transistor (disambiguation). ... Zhen-Ning Franklin Yang (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born 22 September[1], 1922) is a Chinese American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics and symmetry principles. ... Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee, 李政道 Pinyin: Lǐ Zhèngdào) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese American physicist, well known for parity violation, Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to -1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... Pavel Alekseyevich ÄŒerenkov (Russian: , 1904-1990) was a Russian physicist of great repute and a recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics in 1958 for his scientific contributions. ... Ilya Mikhailovich Frank (Russian: Илья́ Миха́йлович Франк) (1908 – 1990) was a Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Igor Y. Tamm, also... Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (Russian И́горь Евге́ньевич Та́мм, also transcribed sometimes as Igor Evgenevich Tamm) (July 8, 1895 – April 12, 1971) was a Russian physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor Cherenkov radiation (also spelled Cerenkov or sometimes ÄŒerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in the medium. ... Portrait of Emilio Segrè Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... Owen Chamberlain Owen Chamberlain (July 10, 1920 – February 28, 2006) was a prominent American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... Donald Arthur Glaser (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A bubble chamber A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. ... Robert Hofstadter (February 5, 1915 - November 17, 1990) was the winner of the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (born January 31, 1929) is a German physicist who studied gamma rays from nuclear transitions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... The Mössbauer effect, a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1957, refers to the resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms bound in a solid form. ... Lev Davidovich Landau (Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics whose broad field of work included the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity, quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics and particle physics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... It has been suggested that Solid state physics be merged into this article or section. ... Helium exists in liquid form only at very low temperatures. ... Eugene Wigner (left) and Alvin Weinberg Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Maria Goeppert Mayer: Physicist (Women in Science) ISBN 0791072479 Maria Goeppert-Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was born Maria Goeppert in Katowice, Silesia (then in Germany, now part of Poland). ... Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (June 25, 1907 – February 11, 1973) was a German physicist who shared half of the 1963 Nobel Prize for Physics with Maria Goeppert-Mayer for their proposal of the shell nuclear model. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (Russian: Александр Михайлович Прохоров) (July 11, 1916 – January 8, 2002) was an Australian-Russian physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Quantum electronics is an area of physics dealing with the effect of quantum mechanics on the behaviour of electrons in solid-state matter. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... A hydrogen radio frequency discharge, the first element inside a hydrogen maser (see description below) A maser is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification due to stimulated emission. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 -- July 16, 1994) was an American theoretical physicist. ... This article is about the physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. ... Alfred Kastler (May 3, 1902 - January 7, 1984) is a French physicist, born in Guebwiller, who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1966. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (born July 2, 1906), is a German-American physicist from Strassburg (then part of Germany, now Strasbourg, France). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) of San Francisco, California, USA, was a famed physicist who worked at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A bubble chamber A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into quark model. ... Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (May 30, 1908; Norrköping, Sweden - April 2, 1995; Djursholm, Sweden) was a Swedish electrical power engineer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... MHD Simulation of Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), or magnetofluiddynamics, is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically-conducting fluids. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Louis Eugène Félix Néel (November 2, 1904 – November 17, 2000), a French physicist born in Lyons, was corecipient (with the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén) of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes) (June 5, 1900, Budapest – February 9, 1979, London) was a Hungarian physicist and inventor who is most notable for inventing holography. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Holography (from the Greek, όλος-hòlòs whole + γραφή-grafè writh) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Leon Neil Cooper (born February 28, 1930) is an American physicist and winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics, along with John Bardeen and John Robert Schrieffer, for his role in developing the BCS theory (named for their initials) of superconductivity. ... John Robert Schrieffer (born May 31, 1931) is an American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon Neil Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ... Leo Esaki, born Leona Esaki [1] (江崎 玲於奈 Esaki Reona, born March 12, 1925) is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling. ... Ivar Giaever (originally spelled Giæver) (born April 5, 1929 in Bergen, Norway) is a physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Leo Esaki and Brian David Josephson for work in solid-state physics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ... Brian David Josephson (born Cardiff, Wales, UK, January 4, 1940) is a British physicist whose discovery of the Josephson effect as a 22-year-old graduate student won him the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics, which he shared with Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of current flow across two weakly coupled superconductors, separated by a very thin insulating barrier. ... Sir Martin Ryle (September 27, 1918 – October 14, 1984) was a British radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems (see e. ... Antony Hewish (born Fowey, Cornwall, May 11, 1924) is a British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with fellow radio-astronomer Martin Ryle) for his work on the development of radio aperture synthesis and its role in the discovery of pulsars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Aperture synthesis is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection instruments to produce measurements having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection. ... It has been suggested that Radio pulsar be merged into this article or section. ... Aage Niels Bohr Aage Niels Bohr (born in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 19, 1922) is the son of Margrethe and Niels Bohr. ... Ben Roy Mottelson (born July 9, 1926) is an American-Danish physicist. ... Leo James Rainwater (December 9, 1917 - May 31, 1986) was an American physicist who won a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1975 for his part in determining the asymmetrical shapes of certain atomic nuclei. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

1976-2000

Year Name Country Topics
1976 Burton Richter
Samuel Chao Chung Ting
 United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind". In other words: for discovery of the J/Ψ particle as it confirmed the idea that baryonic matter (such as the nuclei of atoms) is made out of quarks.
1977 Philip Warren Anderson
Nevill Francis Mott
John Hasbrouck van Vleck
 United States
 United Kingdom
 United States
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
1978 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Arno Allan Penzias
Robert Woodrow Wilson
 United States
 United States
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow
Abdus Salam
Steven Weinberg
 United States
 Pakistan
 United States
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
1980 James Watson Cronin
Val Logsdon Fitch
 United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons". See CP-violation.
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
 United States
 United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn  Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson  United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar  United States "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". See Chandrasekhar limit.
William Alfred Fowler  United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
1984 Carlo Rubbia
Simon van der Meer
 Italy
 Netherlands
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
1985 Klaus von Klitzing  West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
1986 Ernst Ruska  West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Gerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer
 West Germany
 Switzerland
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz
Karl Alexander Müller
 West Germany
 Switzerland
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
1988 Leon Max Lederman
Melvin Schwartz
Jack Steinberger
 United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey  United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Hans Georg Dehmelt
Wolfgang Paul
 United States
 West Germany
"for the development of the ion trap technique"
1990 Jerome I. Friedman
Henry Way Kendall
Richard E. Taylor
 United States
 United States
 Canada
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes  France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
1992 Georges Charpak  France "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
1993 Russell Alan Hulse
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
 United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
1994
Bertram Brockhouse  Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
Clifford Glenwood Shull  United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
1995 Martin Lewis Perl  United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
Frederick Reines  United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
1996 David Morris Lee
Douglas D. Osheroff
Robert Coleman Richardson
 United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
1997 Steven Chu
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
William Daniel Phillips
 United States
 France
 United States
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
1998 Robert B. Laughlin
Horst Ludwig Störmer
Daniel Chee Tsui
 United States
 West Germany
 United States
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations". See Quantum Hall effect.
1999 Gerardus 't Hooft
Martinus J.G. Veltman
 Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Burton Richter (Born March 22, 1931) is a Nobel Prize-winning American physicist. ... Samuel Chao Chung Ting (丁肇中 pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng; Wade-Giles: Ting¹ Chao⁴-chung¹) (born January 27, 1936) is a Michigan-born Chinese American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the discovery of the subatomic J particle with Burton Richter. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Combinations of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... The six flavours of quarks and their most likely decay modes. ... Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is one of the most influential theoretical physicists of the 20th century. ... Sir Nevill Francis Mott (September 30, 1905 – August 8, 1996) was a British physicist. ... John Hasbrouck van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Semenov (on the right) and Kapitsa (on the left), portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Russian Пётр Леонидович Капица) (July 9, 1894 – April 8, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian physicist who discovered superfluidity with some contribution from John F. Allen and Don Misener in 1937. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, 1933) is an American physicist and winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (most often abbreviated CMB but occasionally CMBR, CBR or MBR, also referred as relic radiation) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1965 that fills the entire universe. ... Sheldon Glashow at Harvard University Professor Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is an American physicist. ... For other uses, see Abdus Salam (disambiguation). ... Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In physics, the electroweak theory presents a unified description of two of the four fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. ... A neutral current is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak nuclear force. ... James Watson Cronin (born September 29, 1931) is an American nuclear physicist. ... Val Logsdon Fitch (born March 10, 1923) is an American nuclear physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In particle physics, a kaon (also called K-meson and denoted K) is any one of a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ... Nicolaas Bloembergen (born Dordrecht, March 11, 1920) is a Dutch physicist. ... Arthur Leonard Schawlow Arthur Leonard Schawlow (May 5, 1921 – April 28, 1999) was an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn (born April 20, 1918) is a Swedish physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Kenneth Geddes Wilson (born June 8, 1936) is an American theoretical physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Chandrasekhar redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Chandrasekhar limit, is the maximum mass possible for a white dwarf (one of the end stages of stars when they cool down) and is approximately 3 × 1030 kg, around 1. ... There is another William Fowler who was a Scottish poet and uncle of William Drummond of Hawthornden William Alfred Willie Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American astrophysicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Carlo Rubbia (born March 31, 1934) is an Italian physicist. ... Simon van der Meer (born November 24, 1925) is a Dutch physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Klaus von Klitzing, (born June 28, 1943 in German occupied Åšroda Wielkopolska) is a German physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The quantum Hall effect is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance takes on the quantized values where is the elementary charge and is Plancks constant. ... Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (December 25, 1906–May 25, 1988) was a German physicist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Gerd Binnig (born July 20, 1947) is a German-born physicist who shared with Heinrich Rohrer half of the 1986 Nobel Prize for Physics for their invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). ... Heinrich Rohrer (born June 6, 1933) is a Swiss physicist who, with Gerd Binnig, received half of the 1986 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image of substitutional Cr impurities (small bumps) in the Fe(001) surface. ... Johannes Georg Bednorz (born May 16, 1950) is a German physicist who, along with Karl Alex Muller, was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint discovery of superconductivity in certain substances at temperatures higher than had previously been thought attainable. ... Karl Alexander Müller (born April 20, 1927) is a Swiss physicist who, along with J. Georg Bednorz, was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint discovery of superconductivity in certain substances at higher temperatures than had previously been thought attainable. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Leon Max Lederman (born July 15, 1922 in New York) is an American experimental physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1988 for his work on neutrinos. ... Melvin Schwartz (born November 2, 1932) is an American physicist. ... Jack Steinberger (born May 25, 1921) is a physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Neutrinos are elementary particles denoted by the symbol ν. Travelling close to the speed of light, lacking electric charge and able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed, they are extremely difficult to detect. ... In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ... Norman Foster Ramsey (born August 27, 1915) is an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hans Georg Dehmelt (born September 9, 1922 in Görlitz, Germany) is a German-born American physicist, who co-developed the ion trap. ... Wolfgang Paul (August 10, 1913 - December 7, 1993) was a German physicist, who co-developed the ion trap. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... An ion trap is a combination of electric or magnetic fields that captures ions in a region of a vacuum system or tube. ... Jerome Isaac Friedman (born 1930) is a U.S. physicist. ... Henry Way Kendall (December 9, 1926 – February 15, 1999) was an American physicist. ... Richard E. Taylor Professor Richard E. Taylor, CC , FRS , FRSC , Ph. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Deep Inelastic Scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons. ... In physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks, i. ... Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (October 24, 1932 in Paris – May 18, 2007 in Orsay) was a French physicist and the Nobel laureate in 1991. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schlieren texture of Liquid Crystal nematic phase Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Georges Charpak (born August 1, 1924) is a Polish-French physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics winner. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Russell Alan Hulse (born November 28, 1950) is an American physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, shared with his thesis advisor Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. ... Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... PSR B1913+16 is a pulsar in a binary star system, in orbit with another star around a common center of mass. ... It has been suggested that Radio pulsar be merged into this article or section. ... In physics, a gravitational wave is a fluctuation in the curvature of spacetime which propagates as a wave, traveling outward from a moving object or system of objects. ... Bertram Neville Brockhouse (July 15, 1918 – October 13, 2003) was a Nobel prize-winning Canadian physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... It has been suggested that Solid state physics be merged into this article or section. ... Clifford Glenwood Shull (September 23, 1915 - March 31, 2001) was a Nobel prize-winning American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Neutron diffraction is a crystallography technique that uses neutrons to determine the atomic structure of a material. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... It has been suggested that Solid state physics be merged into this article or section. ... Martin Lewis Perl (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The tau lepton (often called the tau or occasionally the tauon) is a negatively charged elementary particle with a lifetime of 3×10−13 seconds and a high mass of 1777 MeV (compared to 939 MeV for protons and 0. ... In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ... Frederick Reines Frederick Reines (March 16, 1918 - August 26, 1998) was an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Neutrinos are elementary particles denoted by the symbol ν. Travelling close to the speed of light, lacking electric charge and able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed, they are extremely difficult to detect. ... In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Douglas Dean Osheroff (born August 1, 1945) is a American physicist. ... Robert Coleman Richardson (born June 26, 1937 in Washington D.C.) is an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... Image:Stevenchu. ... Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (born April 1, 1933) is a French physicist working at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, France, where he has also studied physics. ... Photograph of William Daniel Phillips William Daniel Phillips (born November 5, 1948 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) is an American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is an American theoretical physicist who, with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui, was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in physics for his explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. ... Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949 in Frankfurt, Germany) is a German physicist who shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin. ... Daniel Chee Tsui 崔琦 (pinyin: Cuī Qí)(born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The quantum Hall effect is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance takes on the quantized values where is the elementary charge and is Plancks constant. ... Gerard t Hooft at Harvard University Gerardus (Gerard) t Hooft [ut-hooft] (The prefix ’t is pronounced as ‘ut’ and stands for ‘het’) (born July 5, 1946) is a professor in theoretical physics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. ... Martinus J.G. Veltman (Tini for short) (born June 27, 1931) is a 1999 Nobel prize laureate for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics, work done at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

2000-2006

Year Name Country Topics
2000
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov
Herbert Kroemer
 Russia
 West Germany
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"
Jack St. Clair Kilby  United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
2001 Eric Allin Cornell
Wolfgang Ketterle
Carl Edwin Wieman
 United States
 West Germany
 United States
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
2002 Raymond Davis Jr.
Masatoshi Koshiba
 United States
 Japan
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Riccardo Giacconi  United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
2003 Alexei Alexeevich Abrikosov
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg
Anthony James Leggett
 USA  Russia
 Russia
 United Kingdom  USA
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
2004 David J. Gross
H. David Politzer
Frank Wilczek
 United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
2005 Roy J. Glauber  United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
John L. Hall
Theodor W. Hänsch
 United States
 Germany
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
2006 John C. Mather
George F. Smoot
 United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (also Alfyorov) (Russian: Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров) (born March 15, 1930) is a Russian physicist who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. ... Herbert Kroemer (born August 25, 1928) is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at University of California, Santa Barbara, received a Ph. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light, and thus is usually considered a sub-field of photonics. ... Jack St. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Carl Wieman (left) and Eric Cornell (right) on the University of Colorado at Boulder campus Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995. ... Wolfgang Ketterle (born October 21, 1957, in Heidelberg, Germany) is a German physicist and a professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is a Nobel-prize winning American physicist at the University of British Columbia who (with Eric Allin Cornell), in 1995, produced the first true Bose-Einstein condensate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvins or -273. ... Raymond Davis Jr. ... Masatoshi Koshiba (小柴 昌俊 Koshiba Masatoshi, born on September 19, 1926 in Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture -) is a Japanese physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Neutrinos are elementary particles denoted by the symbol ν. Travelling close to the speed of light, lacking electric charge and able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed, they are extremely difficult to detect. ... Riccardo Giacconi (born October 6, 1931) is an Italian-born American Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alexei Alexeevich Abrikosov (Алексей Алексеевич Абрикосов) (born June 25, 1928, in Moscow, Russian SFSR, USSR.) is a Russian theoretical physicist whose main contributions are in the field... Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg (Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург) (born October 4, 1916 in Moscow) is a Soviet/Russian theoretical physicist and astrophysicist, a member of the Academy of Sciences of the... Sir Anthony James Leggett, KBE, FRS, (born March 26, 1938 in Camberwell, London, England), is John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Chair and Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941 in Washington, D.C.) is an American particle physicist and string theorist (although hes stated to the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo, on 09/27/2006, that the second area is included in the first one). ... Prof. ... Frank Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is a Nobel prize winning American physicist. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In physics, asymptotic freedom is the property of some gauge theories in which the interaction between the particles, such as quarks, becomes arbitrarily weak at ever shorter distances, i. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... Roy Jay Glauber (born 1 September 1925) is the Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics at Harvard University and Adjunct Professor of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coherence is the property of wave-like states that enables them to exhibit interference. ... John L. Hall (born 1934) is a JILA (formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) fellow and Physics lecturer at the University of Colorado at Boulder Physics department. ... Theodor Wolfgang Hänsch (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... An ultrashort pulse of light in the time domain. ... John Cromwell Mather (b. ... George Smoot celebrating his Nobel Prize on October 3, 2006 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... Look up anisotropy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (most often abbreviated CMB but occasionally CMBR, CBR or MBR, also referred as relic radiation) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1965 that fills the entire universe. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ All Nobel Laureates in Physics. the Nobel Foundation (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  • The politics of excellence, beyond the nobel prize, R. Friedman, 2002.
  • "Nobel Century: a biographical analysis of physics laureates", in Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, by Claus D. Hillebrand, June 2002, No 2. p.87-93.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Nobel Prize in Physics winners


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Nobel Prize - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2909 words)
The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.
For example, in 2002, a Prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, failing to recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.
Criticism was levied towards the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics, specifically the recognition of Roy Glauber and not George Sudarshan for the award.
Nobel Prize in Physics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2263 words)
Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1].
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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