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Encyclopedia > Nobel Prize in Literature
René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect."

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words from the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det utmärktaste i idealisk riktning).[1][2] The "work" in this case refers to an author's work as a whole, though individual works are sometimes also cited. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year and announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October.[3] Prudhomme This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Prudhomme This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Ren -Fran ois-Armand Prudhomme (March 16, 1839 - September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in literature, 1901. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... The following is an abbreviated list of essayists, arranged alphabetically by last name (years of birth and death, if applicable, and country of birth, are noted in parentheses). ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... In philosophy, idealism is any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. ... This article is about Svenska Akademien. ...


Nobel's choice of emphasis on "idealistic" or "ideal" (in English translation) in his criteria for the Nobel Prize in Literature has led to recurrent controversy. (In the original Swedish, the word idealisk can be translated as either "idealistic" or "ideal".[2]) In the early twentieth century, the Nobel Committee interpreted the intent of the will strictly and did not award certain world-renowned authors of the time such as Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen and Henry James.[4] More recently, the wording has been interpreted more liberally, and the Prize is awarded both for lasting literary merit and for evidence of consistent idealism on some significant level, most recently a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale, and hence more political, some would argue.[2][5] Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


"The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. ... Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). In 2007 the Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Doris Lessing, an English citizen of the United Kingdom, cited as "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"; she receives a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than 1 million, or US$1.4 million). Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran,[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ...


The Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism in recent years. Some contend that many well-known writers have not been awarded the prize or even been nominated, whereas others contend that others, who are already well known, do not deserve it. There have also been controversies involving alleged political interests relating to the nomination process and ultimate selection of some of the recent literary Laureates.[5]

Contents

Nomination procedure

Each year the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate. However, it is not permitted to nominate oneself.[6] This article is about Svenska Akademien. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


Thousands of requests are sent out each year, and about fifty proposals are returned. These proposals must be received by the Academy by February 1, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates, and by summer the list is reduced further to some five names. The subsequent months are then spent in reviewing the works of eligible candidates. In October members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel Laureate in Literature. The process is similar to that of other Nobel Prizes.[7] is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The prize money of the Nobel Prize has been fluctuating since its inauguration but at present stands at ten million Swedish kronor.[8] The winner also receives a gold medal and a Nobel diploma and is invited to give a lecture during "Nobel Week" in Stockholm; the highlight is the prize-giving ceremony and banquet on December 10.[9] This article is about the Swedish unit of currency. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Non-laureates and controversies

The Prize in Literature has a history of controversial awards. From 1901 to 1912, the committee was characterized by an interpretation of the "ideal direction" stated in Nobel's will as "a lofty and sound idealism", which caused Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen, Émile Zola and Mark Twain to be rejected.[4] During World War I and its immediate aftermath, the committee adopted a policy of neutrality, favouring writers from non-combatant countries.[4] For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


Some attribute W. H. Auden's not being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature to errors in his translation of 1961 Peace Prize winner Dag Hammarskjöld's Vägmärken ("Markings")[10] and to statements that Auden made during a Scandinavian lecture tour suggesting that Hammarskjöld was (like Auden) a homosexual.[11] Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


In 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined it, stating that "It is not the same thing if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre or if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre, Nobel Prize winner. A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form." Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


The winner in 1970, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, did not attend the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm for fear that the U.S.S.R. would prevent his return afterwards (his works there were circulated in samizdat — clandestine form). After the Swedish government refused to honor Solzhenitsyn with a public award ceremony and lecture at its Moscow embassy, Solzhenitsyn refused the award altogether, commenting that the conditions set by the Swedes (who preferred a private ceremony) were "an insult to the Nobel Prize itself." Solzhenitsyn did not accept the award, and prize money, until December 10, 1974, after he was deported from the Soviet Union.[12] Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1974 Graham Greene, Vladimir Nabokov, and Saul Bellow were considered but rejected in favor of a joint award for Swedish authors Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson, both Nobel judges themselves. Bellow would win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1976; neither Greene nor Nabokov was awarded the Prize.[13] This article is about the writer. ... This page is about the novelist. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Eyvind Johnson, (July 29, 1900- August 25, 1976) was a Swedish author. ... Harry Martinson (May 6, 1904 – February 11, 1978) was an author and poet. ...


Jorge Luis Borges was nominated for the Prize several times but, as Edwin Williamson, Borges's biographer, states, the Academy did not award it to him, perhaps because of his political activities, which, according to Tóibín's review of Williamson's Borges: A Life, had complex social and personal contexts.[14] Swedish children's author Astrid Lindgren has also been overlooked, with some critics complaining that the Academy does not adequately recognize children's literature.[15] Borges redirects here. ... Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( , née Ericsson, November 14, 1907 – January 28, 2002) was a Swedish childrens book author and screenwriter, whose many titles were translated into 85 languages and published in more than 100 countries. ...


The award to Dario Fo in 1997 was initially considered "rather lightweight" by some critics, as he was seen primarily as a performer and had previously been censured by the Roman Catholic Church.[16] Salman Rushdie and Arthur Miller had been strongly favored to receive the Prize, but the Nobel organisers were later quoted as saying that they would have been "too predictable, too popular."[17] Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, playwright, theater director, actor, and composer. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ...


There was also criticism of the academy's refusal to express support for Salman Rushdie in 1989, after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for Rushdie to be killed, and two members of the Academy resigned over its refusal to support Rushdie.[18][19] Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


The choice of the 2004 winner, Elfriede Jelinek, was protested by a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund, who had not played an active role in the Academy since 1996; Ahnlund resigned, alleging that selecting Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage" to the reputation of the award.[18][19] Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian feminist playwright and novelist. ... Knut Ahnlund (b. ...


The selection of Harold Pinter for the Prize in 2005 was delayed for a couple of days, apparently due to Ahnlund's resignation, and led to renewed speculations about there being a "political element" in the Swedish Academy's awarding of the Prize.[5] The issue of the recipients' "political stance" was also raised in response to the awards of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Orhan Pamuk and Doris Lessing in 2006 and 2007, respectively.[20] Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran,[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ...


List of Laureates

In the table below, the language is the language of the Laureate's works. (Source: The Nobel Foundation.) The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ...

Year Name Nationality Language(s) Citation
1901 Sully Prudhomme France French "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect."
1902 Theodor Mommsen Germany German "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome."
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Norway Norwegian "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit."
1904* Frédéric Mistral France Occitan "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist."
1904* José Echegaray Spain Spanish "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama."
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz Poland Polish "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer."
1906 Giosuè Carducci Italy Italian "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces."
1907 Rudyard Kipling United Kingdom English "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author."
1908 Rudolf Christoph Eucken Germany German "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life."
1909 Selma Lagerlöf Sweden Swedish "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings."
1910 Paul Heyse Germany German "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories."
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck Belgium French "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations."
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann Germany German "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art."
1913 Rabindranath Tagore India Bengali "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West."
1914 [no award]
1915 Romain Rolland France French "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings."
1916 Verner von Heidenstam Sweden Swedish "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature."
1917* Karl Adolph Gjellerup Denmark Danish "for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals."
1917* Henrik Pontoppidan Denmark Danish "for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark."
1918 [no award]
1919 Carl Spitteler Switzerland German "in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring."
1920 Knut Hamsun Norway Norwegian "for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil."
1921 Anatole France France French "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament."
1922 Jacinto Benavente Spain Spanish "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama."
1923 William Butler Yeats Ireland English "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation."
1924 Władysław Reymont Poland Polish "for his great national epic, The Peasants."
1925 George Bernard Shaw Ireland English "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty."
1926 Grazia Deledda Italy Italian "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general."
1927 Henri Bergson France French "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented."
1928 Sigrid Undset Norway Norwegian "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages."
1929 Thomas Mann Germany German "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature."
1930 Sinclair Lewis United States English "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters."
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt Sweden Swedish "The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"
1932 John Galsworthy United Kingdom English "for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga."
1933 Ivan Bunin Russia (in exile) Russian "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing."
1934 Luigi Pirandello Italy Italian "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art."
1935 [no award]
1936 Eugene O'Neill United States English "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy."
1937 Roger Martin du Gard France French "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault."
1938 Pearl S. Buck United States English "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces."
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää Finland Finnish "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature."
1940 [no award]
1941 [no award]
1942 [no award]
1943 [no award]
1944 Johannes Vilhelm Jensen Denmark Danish "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style."
1945 Gabriela Mistral Chile Spanish "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world."
1946 Hermann Hesse Germany,[21] 1923: Switzerland[21] German "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
1947 André Gide France French "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight."
1948 T. S. Eliot United States,[22] 1927: United Kingdom[22] English "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry."
1949 William Faulkner United States English "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel."
1950 Bertrand Russell United Kingdom English "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."
1951 Pär Lagerkvist Sweden Swedish "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind."
1952 François Mauriac France French "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life."
1953 Winston Churchill United Kingdom English "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values."
1954 Ernest Hemingway United States English "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style."
1955 Halldór Laxness Iceland Icelandic "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland."
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez Spain Spanish "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity."
1957 Albert Camus France French "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times."
1958 Boris Pasternak (declined the prize)[1] Soviet Union Russian "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition."
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo Italy Italian "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times."
1960 Saint-John Perse France French "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time."
1961 Ivo Andrić Yugoslavia Serbo-Croat "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country."
1962 John Steinbeck United States English "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception."
1963 Giorgos Seferis Greece Greek "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture."
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre (declined the prize)[2] France French "for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age."
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov Soviet Union Russian "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people."
1966* Shmuel Yosef Agnon Israel Hebrew "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people."
1966* Nelly Sachs Germany,[23][24] 1952: Sweden[23] German "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength."
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias Guatemala Spanish "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America."
1968 Yasunari Kawabata Japan Japanese "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind."
1969 Samuel Beckett Ireland English/French "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation."
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Soviet Union Russian "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature."
1971 Pablo Neruda Chile Spanish "for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams."
1972 Heinrich Böll West Germany German "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature."
1973 Patrick White Australia English "for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature."
1974* Eyvind Johnson Sweden Swedish "for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom."
1974* Harry Martinson Sweden Swedish "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos."
1975 Eugenio Montale Italy Italian "for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions."
1976 Saul Bellow Canada,[25] 1941: United States.[26] English "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work."
1977 Vicente Aleixandre Spain Spanish "for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars."
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer Poland,[27] 1943: United States[27] Yiddish "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life."
1979 Odysseas Elytis Greece Greek "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness."
1980 Czesław Miłosz Poland, 1970: United States,[28] 1992: Lithuania (honorary)[29] Polish "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts."
1981 Elias Canetti Bulgaria,[30] 1952: United Kingdom[30] German "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power."
1982 Gabriel García Márquez Colombia Spanish "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts."
1983 William Golding United Kingdom English "for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today."
1984 Jaroslav Seifert Czechoslovakia Czech "for his poetry which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man."
1985 Claude Simon France French "who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition."
1986 Wole Soyinka Nigeria English "in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence."
1987 Joseph Brodsky Soviet Union,[31] 1977: United States[31] Russian/English "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity."
1988 Naguib Mahfouz Egypt Arabic "who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind."
1989 Camilo José Cela Spain Spanish "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability."
1990 Octavio Paz Mexico Spanish "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity."
1991 Nadine Gordimer South Africa English "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity."
1992 Derek Walcott Saint Lucia English "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment."
1993 Toni Morrison United States English "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality."
1994 Kenzaburo Oe Japan Japanese "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today."
1995 Seamus Heaney Ireland[32] [33] English "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past."
1996 Wisława Szymborska Poland Polish "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality."
1997 Dario Fo Italy Italian "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden."
1998 José Saramago Portugal Portuguese "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality."
1999 Günter Grass Germany German "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history."
2000 Gao Xingjian China,[34][35]

1998: France[35] Ren -Fran ois-Armand Prudhomme (March 16, 1839 - September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in literature, 1901. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a Danish/German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist[1] and writer[2], generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... History of Rome (Ger. ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (April 19, 1832 Madrid, Spain – September 4, 1916) was a Spanish civil engineer, mathematician, statesman, and the leading Spanish dramatist of the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... Giosuè Carducci. ... This article is about the British author. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Rudolf Eucken Rudolf Christoph Eucken (January 5, 1846 - September 15, 1926) was a frisian philosopher, and the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Selma Lagerlöf, painted by Carl Larsson, 1908 Selma Lagerlöf receives the Nobel Prize in Literature The Swedish 20-krona bill, with Selma Lagerlöf   (November 20, 1858 – March 16, 1940) was a Swedish author and the first woman writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (March 15, 1830 - April 2, 1914) was a German author. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... Gerhart Hauptmann Gerhart Hauptmann (November 15, 1862 - June 6, 1946), German dramatist, was born on at Obersalzbrunn, Prussia (now Szczawno Drój, Poland) in Silesia, the son of a hotel-keeper. ... 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Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... For other members of the family, see Steinbeck (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Cover of Complete Poems of Seferis Giorgos Seferis (Γιώργος Σεφέρης) (February 19, 1900 – September 20, 1971) was one of the most important Greek poets of the 20th century, and a Nobel laureate. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Mikhail Sholokhov (left) and Vasily Shukshin (right) Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Russian: Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов) (May 24, 1905 (Old Style May 11) - February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist. ... Shmuel Yosef Agnon (Hebrew: שמואל יוסף עגנון; known as shay agnon, born Shmuel Yosef Czaczkes) (July 17, 1888 – February 17, 1970) was the first Hebrew writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature (1966). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Nelly Sachs, (10 December 1891, Berlin – 12 May 1970, Stockholm) was a German poet and dramatist who was transformed by the Nazi experience from a dilettante into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. ... 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Elias Canetti, Nobel Laureate in Literature Canettis tomb-stone in Zürich, Switzerland Elias Canetti (Rousse, Bulgaria, 25 July 1905 – 14 August 1994, Zurich) was a Bulgaria-born novelist of Sephardi Jewish ancestry who wrote in German and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Jaroslav Seifert Jaroslav Seifert   (IPA: ) (September 23, 1901 – January 10, 1986) was a Nobel prize winning Czech writer, poet and journalist. ... 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Spanish writer Camilo José Cela Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, Marquis of Iria Flavia (es: Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, marqués de Iria Flavia) (May 11, 1916 – January 17, 2002) was an influential Spanish writer and member of the Generation of 50. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Nadine Gordimer (born 20 November 1923) is a South African novelist and writer, winner of the 1991 Nobel Prize in literature and 1974 Booker Prize. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Derek Alton Walcott (born January 23, 1930) is a West-Indian poet, playwright, writer and visual artist who writes mainly in English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Kenzaburo Oe Kenzaburo Oe , born January 31, 1935) is a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... WisÅ‚awa Szymborska WisÅ‚awa Szymborska (IPA: [], born July 2, 1923, Bnin - now a district of Kórnik), Poland) is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. ... Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, playwright, theater director, actor, and composer. ... Italian is a Romance language spoken by about 70 million people, most of whom live in Italy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... Gao Xingjian (pron. ...

Chinese "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama."
2001 Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul Trinidad and Tobago,[36] United Kingdom English "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories."
2002 Imre Kertész Hungary Hungarian "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history."
2003 J. M. Coetzee South Africa, 2006: Australia[37] English "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider."
2004 Elfriede Jelinek Austria German "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power."
2005 Harold Pinter United Kingdom English "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms."
2006 Orhan Pamuk Turkey Turkish "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures."
2007 Doris Lessing United Kingdom English "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny."

* Years with multiple motivations for a Nobel Prize. Sir V.S. Naipaul Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (born August 17, 1932), better known as V. S. Naipaul, is a British novelist of Hindu heritage and East Indian ethnicity from Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean, which was then a British colony. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Imre Kertész (born November 9, 1929) is a Jewish-Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002 for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history. Kertész best-known work, Fatelessness (Sorstalanság... John Maxwell Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced kut-SAY-uh) (born 9 February 1940) is a South African/Australian author, having emigrated from South Africa in 2002, and having been granted Australian citizenship on 6 March 2006. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian feminist playwright and novelist. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran,[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


See also

It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... The Nobel Library (Swedish: Nobelbiblioteket or, officially, Svenska Akademiens Nobelbibliotek, e. ... Laureates of the Nobel Prize listed by country. ... The Praemium Imperiale (Japanese 高松宮殿下記念世界文化賞) is a prize for artists that has been awarded since 1989 at the suggestion of the Emperor of Japan. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  2. ^ a b c John Sutherland. "Ink and Spit", Guardian Unlimited Books, The Guardian, October 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. 
  3. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature. Swedish Academy. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  4. ^ a b c Kjell Espmark. "The Nobel Prize in Literature", Nobelprize.org, 1999-12-03. Retrieved on 2006-08-14. 
  5. ^ a b c Neil Smith. "'Political element' to Pinter Prize", BBC News, 2005-10-13. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. "Few people would deny Harold Pinter is a worthy recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize for Literature. As a poet, screenwriter and author of more than 30 plays, he has dominated the English literary scene for half a century. However, his outspoken criticism of US foreign policy and opposition to the war in Iraq undoubtedly make him one of the more controversial figures to be awarded this prestigious honour. Indeed, the Nobel academy's decision could be read in some quarters as a selection with an inescapably political element. 'There is the view that the Nobel literature prize often goes to someone whose political stance is found to be sympathetic at a given moment,' said Alan Jenkins, deputy editor of the Times Literary Supplement. 'For the last 10 years he has been more angry and vituperative, and that cannot have failed to be noticed.' However, Mr Jenkins insists that, though Pinter's political views may have been a factor, the award is more than justified on artistic criteria alone. 'His dramatic and literary achievement is head and shoulders above any other British writer. He is far and away the most interesting, the best, the most powerful and most original of English playwrights.'" 
  6. ^ Nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  7. ^ Nomination and Selection of the Nobel Laureates in Literature. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  8. ^ The Nobel Prize Amount. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  9. ^ The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  10. ^ Harold Orlans, "Self-Centered Translating: Why W. H. Auden Misinterpreted 'Markings' When Translating It from Swedish to English", Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning (published by Heldref Publications for The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching), May 1, 2000, Highbeam Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com, accessed April 26, 2008: "Swedish dismay at the mangled translation may have cost Auden the Nobel prize in literature."
  11. ^ Alex Hunnicutt, "Dag Hammarskjöld", glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture (Heldref Publications, 2004), glbtq.com, accessed August 11, 2006: "Unless some hidden manuscript surfaces or an aging lover suddenly feels moved to revelation, it seems unlikely the world will ever know for sure the details of Hammarskjöld's sexual experience. W. H. Auden, who translated Markings, was convinced of his [Hammarsköld's] homosexuality; it is thought that saying so publicly during a lecture tour of Scandinavia may have cost Auden the Nobel Prize for Literature that he was widely expected to receive in the 1960s."
  12. ^ Stig Fredrikson, "How I Helped Alexandr Solzhenitsyn Smuggle His Nobel Lecture from the USSR", nobelprize.org, February 22, 2006, accessed October 12, 2006.
  13. ^ Alex Duval Smith. "A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy", The Independent, news.independent.co.uk, 2005-10-14. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. "Not many women, a weakness for Anglo-Saxon literature and an ostrich-like ability to resist popular or political pressure. Alex Duval Smith reports from Stockholm on the strange and secret world of the Swedish Academy." 
  14. ^ Colm Tóibín. "Don’t Abandon Me", The London Review of Books, 2006-05-11. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. 
  15. ^ "Pippi Longstocking Wreaks Havoc at the Ballet", The Local, 2005-05-13. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. 
  16. ^ Julie Carroll, " 'Pope and Witch' Draws Catholic Protests", The Catholic Spirit, February 27, 2007, accessed October 13, 2007.
  17. ^ "Nobel Stuns Italy's Left-wing Jester", The Times, October 10, 1997, rpt. in Archives of a list at hartford-hwp.com, accessed October 17, 2007.
  18. ^ a b "Nobel Judge Steps Down in Protest", BBC News Online, BBC, 2005-10-11. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. 
  19. ^ a b Associated Press, "Who Deserves Nobel Prize? Judges Don't Agree", MSNBC, October 11, 2005, accessed October 13, 2007.
  20. ^ Dan Kellum, "Lessing's Legacy of Political Literature: The Nation: Skeptics Call It A Nonliterary Nobel Win, But Academy Saw Her Visionary Power", CBS News, rpt. from The Nation (column), October 14, 2007, accessed October 17, 2007.
  21. ^ a b Herman Hesse (1946). Hermann Hesse: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “In 1923, I resigned German and acquired Swiss citizenship.”
  22. ^ a b T.S. Eliot: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948: Biography. nobelprize.org (1948). Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) was born in St. Louis, Missouri ... In 1927, Eliot became a British citizen and about the same time entered the Anglican Church.”
  23. ^ a b Nelly Sachs Biography. Art Directory GmbH. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “The German writer and poet Nelly Sachs, whose original name was Leonie Sachs, was born to Jewish parents on December 10, 1891 in Berlin-Schöneberg. ... Due to the threat of Nazism Nelly Sachs and her mother decided to emigrate to Sweden in 1940. ... In 1950 Nelly's mother died and she wrote poems dealing with the loss. Two years later Sachs received Swedish citizenship.”
  24. ^ Nelly Sachs. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-11-25. “In 1940, after learning that she was destined for a forced-labour camp, she escaped to Sweden with the help of the Swedish novelist Selma Lagerlöf, with whom she had corresponded and who interceded with the Swedish royal family on her behalf.”
  25. ^ Michael J. Bandler (April 7, 2005). Author Saul Bellow Dead At 89: Nobel laureate Was One of America's Great 20th Century Novelists. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Canadian by birth — the son of a Russian émigré businessman and a social worker — and Chicagoan by residence and perspective and affection for most of his life, Bellow, a naturalized U.S. citizen, was part of the generation of writers...”
  26. ^ Elinor Slater and Robert Slater, "Saul Bellow: Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature", Great Jewish Men (Jonathan David Company, 1996) 41, ISBN 0824603818: "Bellow became a naturalized American citizen in 1941."
  27. ^ a b Isaac Bashevis Singer: Biographical Sketch. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Isaac Bashevis Singer was born Icek-Hersz Zynger on July 14, 1904, in Leoncin, Poland. ... In 1943, Singer became a United States citizen.”
  28. ^ Czeslaw Milosz. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. “Milosz became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1970.”
  29. ^ Czeslaw Milosz. University of California. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. “He was made an honorary citizen of Lithuania in 1992...”
  30. ^ a b Elias Canetti: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981: Curriculum Vitae. nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. “1905 Born on 25 July in Ruse, Bulgaria. 1952 Receives British citizenship.”
  31. ^ a b Joseph Brodsky 1940–1996. eNotes. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Often called the best Russian poet of his generation, Brodsky was born and raised in the former Soviet Union and became an American citizen in 1977.”
  32. ^ Seamus Heaney: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995: Biography. nobelprize.org (1995). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  33. ^ Seamus Heaney: He's seen it all. Retrieved on 2007-10-26. “Heaney was born in Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom), but lives full time in Dublin in the Republic of Ireland and has taken Irish citizenship. He is an avowed Irish nationalist and is referenced as Irish by the Nobel committee in their citation.”
  34. ^ Gao Xingjian: The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000: Biography. nobelprize.org (2000). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  35. ^ a b Gao Xingjian 1940-. eNotes. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Gao Xingjian (pronounced gow shing-jen) was born on January 4, 1940, in Ganzhou, China. ... His next plays received negative reactions from the Chinese government, causing Gao to emigrate to France in 1987 during a trip to Germany on an artistic fellowship. ... He became a naturalized French citizen in 1998...”
  36. ^ V. S. Naipaul 1932-. eNotes. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. “Naipaul was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, in 1932, the second generation descendant of an East Indian grandfather who came to the West Indies in the early 1900s as an indentured laborer in the British colonial administration.”
  37. ^ "JM Coetzee Becomes an Australian Citizen", Mail & Guardian, March 6, 2006, accessed August 14, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Svenska Akademien. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ... The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is an international centre for research in education based in the United States of America. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colm Tóibín Colm Tóibín (pronounced ) (born 1955 in Enniscorthy, County Wexford, Ireland) is an Irish novelist and critic. ... The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a fortnightly British literary magazine. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Hermann Hesse Hermann Hesse (July 2, 1877 – August 9, 1962) was a German author, and the winner of the 1946 Nobel Prize in literature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[1] (Swedish: Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, or more acurately the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual... Winners of the Nobel Prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... Ren -Fran ois-Armand Prudhomme (March 16, 1839 - September 6, 1907) was a French poet and essayist, winner of the first Nobel Prize in literature, 1901. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a Danish/German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist[1] and writer[2], generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson (December 8, 1832–April 26, 1910). ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (April 19, 1832 Madrid, Spain – September 4, 1916) was a Spanish civil engineer, mathematician, statesman, and the leading Spanish dramatist of the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... Giosuè Carducci. ... This article is about the British author. ... Rudolf Eucken Rudolf Christoph Eucken (January 5, 1846 - September 15, 1926) was a frisian philosopher, and the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Selma Lagerlöf, painted by Carl Larsson, 1908 Selma Lagerlöf receives the Nobel Prize in Literature The Swedish 20-krona bill, with Selma Lagerlöf   (November 20, 1858 – March 16, 1940) was a Swedish author and the first woman writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Portrait of Paul Heyse, by Adolph von Menzel Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (March 15, 1830 - April 2, 1914) was a distinguished German author. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... Gerhart Hauptmann Gerhart Hauptmann (November 15, 1862 - June 6, 1946), German dramatist, was born on at Obersalzbrunn, Prussia (now Szczawno Drój, Poland) in Silesia, the son of a hotel-keeper. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Romain Rolland. ... Portrait of Verner von Heidenstam Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (July 6, 1859 – May 20, 1940) was a Swedish poet and novellist, a laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1916. ... Karl Gjellerup (June 2, 1857 – October 13, 1919) was a Danish poet and novelist who together with his compatriot Henrik Pontoppidan won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1917. ... Henrik Pontoppidan (July 24, 1857 – August 21, 1943) was a realist writer who shared with Karl Gjellerup the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1917 for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark. ... Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler (April 24, 1845 – December 29, 1924) was a Swiss poet of visionary imagination and the author of pessimistic yet heroic verse. ... Knut Hamsun (31 years old) in 1890 Knut Hamsun (August 4, 1859 – February 19, 1952) was a leading Norwegian author and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature for 1920. ... Jacinto Benavente Jacinto Benavente y Martínez (August 12, 1866 – July 14, 1954), awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1922, was one of the foremost Spanish dramatists of the 20th century. ... Yeats redirects here. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont (May 7, 1867 – December 5, 1925) (the actual name was Rejment) was a Polish writer who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1924. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Grazia Deledda (September 27, 1871 – August 15, 1936), born in Nuoro, Sardinia, was an Italian writer whose works won her a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Sigrid Undset as photographed by Carl Van Vechten in 1927. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Sinclair Lewis Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 — January 10, 1951) was an American novelist and playwright. ... Categories: Stub | 1864 births | 1931 deaths | Members of the Swedish Academy | Nobel Prize in Literature winners | Swedish language poets ... John Galsworthy OM (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. ... The Russian writer Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (October 10, 1870 - November 8, 1953), born in Voronezh, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Roger Martin du Gard (March 23, 1881 – August 22, 1958) was a French author and winner of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, most familiarly known as Pearl S. Buck (birth name Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973), was a prolific American writer and Nobel Prize winner. ... Frans Eemil Sillanpää (September 16, 1888 – June 3, 1964) was one of the most famous Finnish writers. ... Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (in Denmark always called Johannes V. Jensen) (January 20, 1873 – November 25, 1950) was a Danish author, often considered the first great Danish writer of the 20th century. ... Gabriela Mistral (April 7, 1889 – January 10, 1957) was the pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga, a Chilean poet, educator, diplomat and feminist who was the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1945. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... Gide redirects here. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (born William Falkner), (September 25, 1897–July 6, 1962) was an American author. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Pär Lagerkvist. ... François Mauriac (October 11, 1885 – September 1, 1970) was a French author, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Halldór Laxness Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson) (April 23, 1902 – February 8, 1998) was a 20th century Icelandic author of such novels as Independent People, The Atom Station, Paradise Reclaimed, Icelands Bell, The Fish Can Sing and World Light. ... Juan Ramón Jiménez (Moguer, Spain, 24 December 1881 – Santurce, Puerto Rico, 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1890 – May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer, in the West best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago. ... Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author. ... Saint-John Perse (pseudonym of Alexis Leger) (May 31, 1887 – September 20, 1975) was a French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry. ... Ivo Andrić (Cyrillic: Иво Андрић; October 9, 1892 – March 13, 1975) was a Serb from Bosnia, novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature from Yugoslavia. ... For other members of the family, see Steinbeck (disambiguation). ... Cover of Complete Poems of Seferis Giorgos Seferis (Γιώργος Σεφέρης) (February 19, 1900 – September 20, 1971) was one of the most important Greek poets of the 20th century, and a Nobel laureate. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Mikhail Sholokhov (left) and Vasily Shukshin (right) Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Russian: Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов) (May 24, 1905 (Old Style May 11) - February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist. ... Shmuel Yosef Agnon (Hebrew: שמואל יוסף עגנון; known as shay agnon, born Shmuel Yosef Czaczkes) (July 17, 1888 – February 17, 1970) was the first Hebrew writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature (1966). ... Nelly Sachs, (10 December 1891, Berlin – 12 May 1970, Stockholm) was a German poet and dramatist who was transformed by the Nazi experience from a dilettante into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. ... Miguel Ángel Asturias (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Guatemalan writer and diplomat. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Kawabata Yasunari Kawabata , 14 June 1899 - 16 April 1972) was a Japanese short story writer and novelist whose spare, lyrical, subtly-shaded prose won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968, the first Japanese author to receive the award. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... A monument of Heinrich Böll in Berlin Heinrich Theodor Böll (December 21, 1917 – July 16, 1985) was one of Germanys foremost post-World War II writers. ... For the football player, see Patrick White (football player). ... Eyvind Johnson, (July 29, 1900- August 25, 1976) was a Swedish author. ... Harry Martinson (May 6, 1904 – February 11, 1978) was an author and poet. ... Eugenio Montale Eugenio Montale (October 12, 1896, Genoa – September 12, 1981, Milan) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and traslator, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Vicente Aleixandre Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (April 26, 1898 – December 14, 1984) Spanish poet, born in Sevilla. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Odysseas Elytis (Greek: Οδυσσέας Ελύτης) (November 2, 1911 – March 18, 1996) was a Greek poet, considered as one of the most important representatives of romantic modernism in Greece and the world. ... CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz  ; (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004), was a Polish poet, writer, academic, and translator. ... Elias Canetti, Nobel Laureate in Literature Canettis tomb-stone in Zürich, Switzerland Elias Canetti (Rousse, Bulgaria, 25 July 1905 – 14 August 1994, Zurich) was a Bulgaria-born novelist of Sephardi Jewish ancestry who wrote in German and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... Jaroslav Seifert Jaroslav Seifert   (IPA: ) (September 23, 1901 – January 10, 1986) was a Nobel prize winning Czech writer, poet and journalist. ... Claude Simon (10 October 1913 – 6 July 2005) was the 1985 Nobel Laureate in Literature who in his novels combined the poets and the painters creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition. ... Akinwande Oluwole Wole Soyinka (born 13 July 1934) is a Nigerian writer, poet and playwright. ... Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: ) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). ... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Spanish writer Camilo José Cela Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, Marquis of Iria Flavia (es: Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, marqués de Iria Flavia) (May 11, 1916 – January 17, 2002) was an influential Spanish writer and member of the Generation of 50. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Nadine Gordimer (born 20 November 1923) is a South African novelist and writer, winner of the 1991 Nobel Prize in literature and 1974 Booker Prize. ... Derek Alton Walcott (born January 23, 1930) is a West-Indian poet, playwright, writer and visual artist who writes mainly in English. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Kenzaburo Oe Kenzaburo Oe , born January 31, 1935) is a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... WisÅ‚awa Szymborska WisÅ‚awa Szymborska (IPA: [], born July 2, 1923, Bnin - now a district of Kórnik), Poland) is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. ... Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, playwright, theater director, actor, and composer. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... Gao Xingjian (pron. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, KB, TC (b. ... Imre Kertész (born November 9, 1929) is a Jewish-Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002 for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history. Kertész best-known work, Fatelessness (Sorstalanság... John Maxwell Coetzee (IPA pronunciation: ; born 9 February 1940), often called J.M. Coetzee, is a South African author (now living in Australia) and academic. ... Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian feminist playwright and novelist. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Iran,[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nobel Prize in Literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (677 words)
In earlier years the Nobel Committee stuck closely to the intent of the will, and left out certain world-renowned writers such as Leo Tolstoy and Henrik Ibsen for the Prize probably because their works were not "idealistic" enough.
Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate.
Mommsen was also the first Nobel laureate born (November 30, 1817), a combination of his advanced age and the early year in which he received the Prize.
Nobel Prizes, Past and Present (1650 words)
The Nobel Prizes were established from a fund bequeathed for that purpose by the Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel.
The Nobel Foundation is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.
Nobel's ambiguous stipulation that the literature prize be awarded to the authors of works of an "idealistic tendency" was interpreted strictly in the beginning but has gradually been interpreted more flexibly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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