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Encyclopedia > Nobel Prize controversies

The Nobel Prize controversies are contentious disputes regarding the Nobel Prize. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ...

Contents

The Prize

Nobel Prize Medals (front and back). Original design ®© The Nobel Foundation.

The Nobel Prizes are a series of awards which were posthumously instituted by bequest of Alfred Nobel (1895). They are currently awarded to persons and organizations that have served humanity in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. Some important primary fields of human intellectual endeavor—such as mathematics, philosophy, social studies and theology—have been excluded from the Nobel Prizes. The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is related to the Nobel Prize. A new Nobel-equivalent Award created especially for mathematics, the Abel Prize, came into effect in 2003. Download high resolution version (1076x538, 183 KB)Photos of Nobel Prize Medal. ... Download high resolution version (1076x538, 183 KB)Photos of Nobel Prize Medal. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Social studies is a term used to describe the broad study of the various fields which involve past and current human behavior and interactions. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... The Abel Prize is awarded annually by the King of Norway to outstanding mathematicians. ...


Since the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901, the proceedings, nominations, awardees and exclusions have generated criticism and engendered much controversy.[1] The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The development of a Nobel-equivalent Prize for economics, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, in 1969 has aroused more arguments over the validity, effectiveness, and applicability of the award than any other Nobel Prize category.[2][3][4] The Nobel Prize in Literature is another Award that has also met[5] with its collections of criticism, controversies, and delimiting issues [6][7] over the years, as the original words of Nobel himself in relation to the Nobel Prize Award in Literature have themselves undergone a series of revised interpretations. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[1] (Swedish: Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, or more acurately the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


Controversial exclusions

Physics

Tesla greatly influenced life in the 20th and 21st century.
Tesla greatly influenced life in the 20th and 21st century.
Edison applied "mass production" to the invention process.
Edison applied "mass production" to the invention process.

Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla were mentioned as potential laureates in 1915, but it is believed that due to their animosity toward each other neither was ever given the award, despite their enormous scientific contributions. There is some indication that each sought to minimize the other one's achievements and right to win the award; that both refused to ever accept the award if the other received it first; and that both rejected any possibility of sharing it—as was rumored in the press at the time.[8][9][10][11] Tesla had a greater financial need for the award than Edison: in 1916, he filed for bankruptcy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (390x640, 45 KB)Nikola Tesla bio pic Original : Image:Tesla3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (390x640, 45 KB)Nikola Tesla bio pic Original : Image:Tesla3. ... thomas alva edison File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Edison Categories: U.S. history images ... thomas alva edison File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Edison Categories: U.S. history images ... “Edison” redirects here. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


Chung-Yao Chao, while a graduate student at Caltech in 1930, was the first to capture positrons through electron-positron annihilation, but did not realize what they were. Carl D. Anderson, who won the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize for his discovery of positron, used the same radioactive source thorium carbide (ThC) as Chao. Late in his life, Anderson admitted that Chao had in fact inspired his discovery: Chao's research formed the foundational base from which much of Anderson's own work developed. Chao died in 1998, without the honor of sharing a Nobel Prize acknowledgment.[12] Chung-Yao Chao (赵忠尧; 1902–1998), physical scientist. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Electron-positron annihilation is the process that occurs when an electron (which is matter) and a positron (which is antimatter) collide. ... Carl David Anderson (3 September 1905 – 11 January 1991) was a U.S. experimental physicist. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Lise Meitner contributed directly to the discovery of nuclear fission in 1939 but received no Nobel recognition [1]. In fact, it was she, not Otto Hahn, who first figured out fission, after having analysed the accumulated experimental data and successfully incorporating Bohr's liquid drop model (suggested first by George Gamow)[13] at its theoretical base, with Otto Robert Frisch's participation: Niels Bohr did in fact nominate both for the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, besides his recommendation of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Hahn. The case served up as an interesting contrast case to that of Louis, 7th duc de Broglie's Nobel deliberations, circa 1929 (Prince de Broglie was regarded then as something of a dilettante in physics): in particular, of the ways the Nobel Committee gave weight and judged between male and female contributors and their work. Hahn and Meitner had also managed to independently discover a new chemical element (protactinium) in an earlier collaboration. There was a third known junior contributor Fritz Strassmann who was not in the Prize.[14] In his defense, Hahn was under strong pressure from the Nazis to minimize Meitner's role since she was Jewish. But he maintained this position even after the war. Lise Meitner ca. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... The liquid drop model is a model in nuclear physics which treats the nucleus as a drop of incompressible nuclear fluid, first proposed by George Gamow. ... George Gamow (pronounced GAM-off) (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968) , born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов) was a Ukrainian born physicist and cosmologist. ... Otto Robert Frisch (1 October 1904–22 September 1979), Austrian-British physicist. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, generally known as Louis de Broglie (August 15, 1892 – March 19, 1987), was a French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... Fritz Strassman (February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German physical chemist who, along with Otto Hahn, discovered the nuclear fission of uranium in 1938. ...


Although the Brazilian physicist César Lattes was the main researcher and the first author of the historical Nature journal article describing the subatomic particle meson pi (pion), his lab boss, Cecil Powell, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for "his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"; though it was actually Lattes himself who was solely responsible for the improvement on the nuclear emulsion used by Powell (by asking Kodak Co. to add more boron to it—and in 1947, he made with them his great experimental discovery). The reason for this apparent neglect is that the Nobel Committee policy until 1960 was to give the award to the research group head only. Lattes was also responsible for calculating the pion's mass, and with USA physicist Eugene Gardner, demonstrated the existence of this particle after atomic collisions in a synchrotron. Again, Gardner was denied the Nobel because he died soon thereafter, and posthumous nominations for the Nobel Prize are not permitted. César Lattes in 1987 Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes (b. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: Ï€0, Ï€+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... Cecil Frank Powell (December 5, 1903 _ August 9, 1969) was a British physicist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a heavy subatomic particle. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Synchrotrons are now mostly used for producing monochromatic high intensity X-ray beams; here, the synchrotron is the circular track, off which the beamlines branch. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ...


The 1956 Prize was awarded to Bardeen, Shockley, and Brattain for the discovery of the transistor, because the Nobel committee did not recognize numerous preceding patent applications. As early as 1928, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented several modern transistor types.[15] In 1934, Oskar Heil patented the field-effect transistor. It is unclear whether either had really built such devices, but they did cause later workers significant patent problems. Further, Herbert F. Mataré and Heinrich Walker, at Westinghouse Paris, applied for a patent in 1948 on an amplifier based on the minority carrier injection process. Mataré had first observed transconductance effects during the manufacture of germanium duodiodes for German radar equipment during World War 2. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (18 April 1881 – 28 August 1963) was born in Lemberg in Austria-Hungary (now called Lviv in Ukraine). ... Oskar Heil is sometimes mentioned as an inventor of an early transistor-like device. ...


In 1957, George Sudarshan and Robert Marshak came up first with the successful V-A (vector minus axial vector or left-handed) theory for weak interactions. Essentially, it is the same theory as that somewhat-worked- upon later, formally drawn up physics paper on the structure of the weak interaction by Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann; both briefed on the former group's results before, via informal sharings earlier on[16] amongst themselves, without giving the theory originators any credits mention in their subsequent joint paper. Now it is popularly known in the west as the Feynman-Gell-Mann theory only. The V-A theory for weak interactons was in actuality a new Law of Nature discovered, conceived in the face of a discouraging string of apparently contradictory experimental results (including several of Chien-Shiung Wu's who herself had a reputation as a fastidious experimenter): though helped along by a sprinkling of other evidences too, e.g. the muon (discovered in 1936, which itself had a colorful history[17][18]—and would lead on again to a new revolution[19] in the 21st Century).[20] It was all the more surprising, therefore, that no Nobel Prize acknowledgement had been given out for this breakthrough feat of an accomplishment. George Sudarshan himself regarded the V-A theory as his finest work to date. It was later subsumed under the electroweak interaction unification theory of Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg, which would go on to win, for the trio, the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. The V-A (or Sudarshan-Marshak) theory was to meet with another coda of 'fate' and 'dubious honour' later on again of being assessed, preferably and favourably, after the strangely tortuous, and, at times, 'funny' pedantic imbroglios—and it goes on and on—as "beautiful" by J. Robert Oppenheimer;[16] and, suffering a complete reversal, like a last apparent 'twist', again, as it were, was given an exactly opposite assessment as "less complete", "inelegant" by John Gribbin.[21] George Sudarshan currently holds the record of the most nominated Nobel Prize candidate who has yet to receive any Nobel Prize [citation needed]. Enchakkal Chandy George Sudarshan (September 16, 1931, Pallam, in Kottayam district of Kerala, India) is a prominent Indian-American physicist, author, and professor at the University of Texas at Austin. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... This article is about the physicist. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... The muon (from the letter mu (μ)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Professor Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is an American physicist. ... For other uses, see Abdus Salam (disambiguation). ... Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American physicist. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ...


Chien-Shiung Wu (nicknamed the "First Lady of Physics") disproved the law of the conservation of parity (1956) and was the first Wolf Prize winner in physics. She died in 1997 without receiving the Nobel [2]. Wu assisted Tsung-Dao Lee personally in his parity laws development—with Chen Ning Yang—by providing him with a possible test method for beta decay in 1956 that worked successfully. She did not share their Nobel Prize—a fact widely blamed on sexism on the part of the selection committee. Her book Beta Decay (1965) is still a sine qua non reference for nuclear physicists. Chien-Shiung Wu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wú Jiànxíong; May 13, 1912–February 16, 1997) was a Chinese American physicist with an expertise in radioactivity. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... The Wolf Prize has been awarded annually since 1978 to living scientists and artists for achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among peoples . ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee, 李政道 Pinyin: Lǐ Zhèngdào) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese American physicist, well known for parity violation, Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. ... Zhen-Ning Franklin Yang (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born 22 September[1], 1922) is a Chinese American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics and symmetry principles. ... Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non was originally a Latin legal term for without which it could not be (but for). It refers to an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. ...


In 1964, George Zweig, then a PhD student at Caltech, espoused the physical existence of aces possessing several unorthodox attributes (essentially Gell-Mann's quarks, though regarded expressly by the latter as only mere theoretical shorthand construct) at a time which was very 'anti-quark'. Zweig consequently suffered academic ostracism and career path blocks from the scientific community of 'mainstream orthodoxy'.[22] Despite the 1969 Nobel Prize awarded for contributions in the classification of elementary particles and the 1990 Nobel Prize for the development and proof of the quark model, Zweig's true dimension and side of his original contributions to the quark model story have largely gone unrecognized.[23] George Zweig was originally trained as a particle physicist under Richard Feynman and later turned his attention to neurobiology. ...


The 1974 prize was awarded to Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish's pioneering research in radio astrophysics; Hewish was recognized for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars though he did not come up first with the correct explanation of pulsars: having described them as communications from "Little Green Men" (LGM-1) in outer space. An answer was given by David Staelin and Edward Reifenstein, of the National RadioAstronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, who found a pulsar at the center of the Crab Nebula: that pulsars are neutron stars, leftovers from a supernova explosion had been proposed in 1933. Soon after the discovery of pulsars in 1968, Fred Hoyle and astronomer Thomas Gold came up with the correct explanation of a pulsar as a rapidly spinning a neutron star with a strong magnetic field, emitting radio waves much as a lighthouse did with its lamp. Jocelyn Bell Burnell, Hewish's graduate student, was not recognized, although she was the first to notice the stellar radio source that was later recognised as a pulsar.[24] Pulsars are a group of astronomical objects that provide scientists with the first signs of the possible existence of gravity waves.[25] In addition, rotating binary pulsars are also found to be reliable sources for putting Einstein's relativity theories to the most stringent of tests.[26] While the astronomer Fred Hoyle argued that Bell should have been included in the Prize, Bell herself countered, perhaps in wry typical British humour, that "(graduate) students don't win Nobel prizes"—Louis-Victor de Broglie, Rudolf Mössbauer, Douglas Osheroff, Gerard 't Hooft, John Forbes Nash, Jr. and H. David Politzer are all exceptions to this seeming maxim though (albeit 'males-only'!): another interesting case, acting like a perfect foil, transpired in 1978. In that year, the Nobel Physics Prize winners Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson of 1978—awarded for the chanced "detection of Cosmic microwave background radiation"—themselves initially did not comprehend the "implications and the working out of the meanings behind" their findings, and, similarly, had to have their discovery fully elucidated to them. Many scientists felt that Ralph Alpher, who predicted the cosmic microwave background radiation and had worked out the underpinnings of the Big Bang theory in 1948, should have shared in the prize, or independently received one. There are many theories, none proven, as to why his work was initially ignored, and a Nobel withheld. In 2005, he was awarded the National Medal of Science for his pioneering contributions to our understanding of nucleosynthesis, the prediction of the relic radiation from the Big Bang, and for a model for the Big Bang theory. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Martin Ryle (September 27, 1918 – October 14, 1984) was a British radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems (see e. ... Antony Hewish (born Fowey, Cornwall, May 11, 1924) is a British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with fellow radio-astronomer Martin Ryle) for his work on the development of radio aperture synthesis and its role in the discovery of pulsars. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... It has been suggested that Radio pulsar be merged into this article or section. ... Little green men 1 (LGM-1) was the explanation given to a famous astronomical observation. ... For the Hugo Award-winning story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell, DBE, FRS FRAS, Ph. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, generally known as Louis de Broglie (August 15, 1892–March 19, 1987), was a French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (born January 31, 1929) is a German physicist who studied gamma rays from nuclear transitions. ... Douglas Dean Osheroff (born August 1, 1945) is a American physicist. ... Gerard t Hooft at Harvard University Gerardus (Gerard) t Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a professor in theoretical physics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands. ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. ... Prof. ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, 1933) is an American physicist and winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... “CMB” redirects here. ... Ralph Asher Alpher (born 1921) is a U.S. cosmologist. ...


Fred Hoyle did not receive a share of the Nobel Prize In Physics in 1983, although the winner William Alfred Fowler acknowledged Hoyle as the pioneer of the concept of stellar nucleosynthesis (1946). Hoyle's obituary in Physics Today [3] notes that " Many of us felt that Hoyle should have shared Fowler's 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics, but the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences later made partial amends by awarding Hoyle, with Edwin Salpeter, its 1997 Crafoord Prize ". Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... For the British astronomer, see Alfred Fowler. ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ...


Other arguably controversial exclusions include Kan-Chang Wang[27][28] (anti-sigma minus hyperon (1959)[29] and the first proposed Paper on the Detection-of-Neutrino Experiment),[12], Arnold Sommerfeld, Satyendra Nath Bose (Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC)), George Gamow, Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman ( (CBR) Cosmic microwave background radiation theorists) and Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov, with A. G. Doroshkevich (who wrote the first proposed Paper on the Possible Detection of CBR), Bruno Pontecorvo[28] (neutrino oscillations hypothesis)[30] and Robert Oppenheimer (first antimatter existence (the positron) prediction (1930),[31] neutron stars, black hole breakthrough studies, first precursor Paper on the 'quantum tunnelling' phenomenon (1927-28), mentor and "father of the atomic bomb" )[32]. Kan-Chang Wang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Kan-chang) (May 28, 1907 - December 10, 1998) is a experimental high energy physicist from China. ... In particle physics, a hyperon is any subatomic particle which is a baryon (and hence a hadron and a fermion) with non-zero strangeness, but with zero charm and zero bottomness. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... Satyendra Nath Bose Bengali: ) (January 1, 1894 – February 4, 1974) was an Indian physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter formed by a system of bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvin or −273. ... George Gamow (pronounced GAM-off) (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968) , born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов) was a Ukrainian born physicist and cosmologist. ... Ralph Asher Alpher (born 1921) is a U.S. cosmologist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. ... “CMB” redirects here. ... Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov (Russian: ) (born November 10, 1935 in Moscow) is a Russian (and former Soviet) theoretical astrophysicist and cosmologist. ... Bruno Pontecorvo Bruno Pontecorvo (Pisa, Italy 1913 - Dubna, Russia 1993) was an Italian atomic physicist, early assistant of Enrico Fermi then author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos. ... Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon predicted by Bruno Pontecorvo whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... For the Hugo Award-winning story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... In quantum mechanics, quantum tunnelling is a micro and nanoscopic phenomenon in which a particle violates principles of classical mechanics by penetrating or passing through a potential barrier or impedance higher than the kinetic energy of the particle. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Chemistry

Dmitri Mendeleyev, who originated the periodic table of the elements, never received a prize. His first periodic table was completed in 1869. Actually, a year earlier, another chemist, Julius Lothar Meyer, had also come up with a somewhat similar table. Another scientist, John Alexander Reina Newlands, had also presented a paper in 1866 that essentially credited him as the first to propose a periodic Law: in fact, none of the tables were correct—all the 19th century tables arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weight (or atomic mass). It was left to Henry Moseley to correct the periodic table, basing it on the atomic number (the number of protons). Mendeleev died in 1907, six years after the first Nobel Prizes were awarded. He came within one vote of winning the prize in 1906, but died the next year. [4] Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (Russian: â–¶(?)) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Julius Lothar Meyer Julius Lothar Meyer (August 19, 1830 - April 11, 1895) was born in Varel, at that time belonging to the duchy of Oldenburg, now part of Germany. ... John Alexander Reina Newlands (November 26, 1838 - July 29, 1898) was an English analytical chemist who prepared in 1863 the first periodic table of the elements arranged in order of relative atomic masses, and pointed out in 1865 the law of octaves whereby every eighth element has similar properties. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... Henry Moseley at work. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Physiology or medicine

In 1923 Frederick Banting and John Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine. At the time this was considered surprising, since Macleod had only been Banting's supervisor, while Banting and Charles Best had done all the work. Later, it became known that Nicolae Paulescu, a Romanian professor, had been working on diabetes since 1916, and may have isolated insulin (which he called pancreatine) about a year before the Canadians. Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, MD, FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the co-discovers of insulin. ... John Matthew MacLeod (born October 3, 1937 in New Albany, Indiana) is a former basketball coach in the National Basketball Association. ... Charles Herbert Best, CC, (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a medical scientist. ... Nicolae Paulescu (October 30, 1869, Bucharest - July 17, 1931, Bucharest) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine and the discoverer of insulin. ...


Oswald Theodore Avery, best known for his 1944 discovery that DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are composed, never received a Nobel Prize, although two Nobel Laureates Joshua Lederberg and Arne Tiselius praised him and his work as a veritable pioneering platform for further genetic research and advance. The scientist and eminent biochemist, Erwin Chargaff, who developed Chargaff's rules, and whose important research would later aid Watson and Crick in deducing the double helical structure of DNA successfully, was another scientist well known to have been passed up by the Nobel Committee. Oswald Avery in 1937 Oswald Theodore Avery ( 1877- 1955) was a physician, medical researcher and early molecular biologist. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Joshua Lederberg speaking at a conference in 1997 Joshua Lederberg (born May 23, 1925) is an American molecular biologist who is known for his work in genetics, artificial intelligence, and space exploration. ... Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Stockholm 10 August 1902 – Uppsala 29 October 1971), Swedish biochemist. ... Erwin Chargaff (August 11, 1905 – June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... Chargaffs rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. ...


The 1952 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded solely to Selman Waksman for his discovery of streptomycin had omitted recognition[33] due his co-discoverer Albert Schatz.[34] There was a litigation brought by Schatz against Waksman over the details and credit of streptomycin discovery. The litigation result was such that Schatz was awarded a substantial settlement, and, together with Waksman, Schatz would be officially recognized as a co-discoverer of streptomycin. Selman Abraham Waksman (22 July 1888 – 16 August 1973) was an Ukrainian-American biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition lead to the discovery of Streptomycin, and several other antibiotics. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Albert Schatz (2 February 1920 – 17 January 2005) was a scientist who was eventually named the co-discoverer of streptomycin, an antibiotic remedy used to treat tuberculosis and a number of other diseases. ...


Heinrich J. Matthaei broke the genetic code in 1961 with Marshall Warren Nirenberg in their poly-U experiment at NIH in Bethesda, Maryland, paving the way for modern genetics; but though Nirenberg became in 1968 a much lauded Nobel Laureate: Matthaei, who was responsible for experimentally obtaining the first codon (genetic code) extract, and whose initial accurate results were tampered with by Nirenberg himself due to the latter's belief in 'less precise', 'more believable' data presentation,[35]did not get to win a Prize. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Marshall Nirenberg Marshall Warren Nirenberg (born April 10, 1927) is a U.S. biochemist and geneticist. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


The 1962 Prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins—for their work on DNA structure and properties—did not recognize somewhat coordinate contributions from others, such as: Alec Stokes, Herbert Wilson, and Erwin Chargaff. In addition, Erwin Chargaff, Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin contributed directly to the ability of Watson and Crick to solve the structure of the DNA molecule, but Avery died in 1955 and Franklin in 1958, and posthumous nominations for the Nobel Prize are not permitted. James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Alec Stokes (Alexander Rawson Stokes, June 27, 1919–February 5, 2003) was one of the key contributors in the original DNA research team at Kings College London. ... Professor Herbert Wilson (1929 —) is a physicist, who was one of the original team who worked on the structure of DNA at Kings College London. ... Erwin Chargaff (August 11, 1905 – June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... Erwin Chargaff (August 11, 1905 – June 20, 2002) was an Austrian biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – -16 April 1958) was an English biophysicist and crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ...


The first complete successful synthesis of bovine insulin (carried out between 1958 and 1965), a Nobel Prize-like breakthrough which won world-wide recognition[citation needed], was the work of several Chinese scientists from Beijing University.[36] It is now common knowledge (a 1978 protein-production biotechnology) that the human insulin gene can be retrieved from bovine insulin, as bovine and human insulin are remarkably close to identical: it can then be inserted into a bacteria, allowed to undergo division and generate buckets of human insulin for diabetics's use and injection with no fears of allergic reaction.[37] The 1966 visit and subsequent encomium offered by Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius, President of the Nobel Foundation and Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry—for their work—did raise hope of a possible Nobel Prize win in the offing. However, the two scientists nominated for the Nobel Prize (recommended several times by no less than the Nobel Laureate Chen Ning Yang himself, and others), viz., Niu Jingyi[38] and Wang Yinglai[39]—due to the series of the confused flurries of 'bad political timings' and the contumelious 'dilly-dallying tactics' encountered, brought about mainly by the suspicious 'West-wary' Communist government of China of the time[12], did not receive any Nobel prize award in the end. Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Stockholm 10 August 1902 – Uppsala 29 October 1971), Swedish biochemist. ... Zhen-Ning Franklin Yang (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born 22 September[1], 1922) is a Chinese American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics and symmetry principles. ...


The 1975 Prize was awarded to David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin "for describing how tumor viruses act on the genetic material of the cell". It has been argued that Dulbecco was distantly, if at all, involved in this groundbreaking work of discovery.[35] The award failed to recognize the contributions of Satoshi Mizutani, Temin's Japanese postdoctoral fellow.[40] Mizutani and Temin jointly discovered that the Rous sarcoma virus particle contained the enzyme reverse transcriptase. However, Mizutani was solely responsible for the original conception and design of the experiment confirming Temin's provirus hypothesis.[35] David Baltimore (b. ... Renato Dulbecco (born February 22, 1914) is an Italian-born virologist. ... Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 – February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. ... Rous sarcoma virus is a retrovirus; a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. ...


The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS is arguably a significant discovery worthy of a Nobel Prize. However, the notorious professional rivalry between Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier—which resulted in litigation—apparently dissuaded the Nobel Committee from awarding a prize to either or both of them. (The rivalry between Edison and Tesla is instructive: neither received a Nobel.) Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ... Luc Montagnier (born 1932 in Chabris, France) is a French virologist. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943) was a physicist, inventor, and electrical engineer of unusual intellectual brilliance and practical achievement. ...


Peace

Gandhi was nominated five times but never won.

Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, though he was nominated for it five times[41] between 1937 and 1948. Decades later, though, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission. The Nobel Committee may have tacitly acknowledged its error, however, when in 1948 (the year of Gandhi's death), it made no award, stating "there was no suitable living candidate" though they awarded it posthoumously to fellow Scandinavian Dag Hammarskjold in 1961. Similarly, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi". The official Nobel e-museum has an article discussing the issue. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x710, 53 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x710, 53 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Order: 2nd Secretary-General Term of Office: April 10, 1953–September 18, 1961 Predecessor: Trygve Lie Successor: U Thant Born: July 29, 1905 Place of birth: Jönköping, Sweden Died: September 18, 1961 Place of death: Ndola, Northern Rhodesia Dag Hammarskjöld (July 29, 1905 – September 18... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...


Modern alleged exclusions

The 1993 Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene splicingPhilip Allen Sharp and Richard J. Roberts were the only two winners. Several other scientists argued that Louise T. Chow, a China-born Taiwanese researcher and accomplished female scientist,[42]/ who collaborated with Roberts, should also have had part of the prize.[citation needed] In 1976, as Staff Investigator, she carried out the studies of the genomic origins and structures of adenovirus transcripts leading directly to the EM discovery of RNA splicing and alternative RNA processing at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island in 1977, the year the discovery was made. Norman Davidson, the Norman Chandler Professor of Chemical Biology, Emeritus, at Caltech (a well-known expert in electron microscopy, under whom Chow apprenticed as a graduate student), affirmed that Chow operated the electron microscope through which the splicing process was observed, and was the crucial experiment's sole designer, using techniques she herself developed in the previous two years at the lab.[43] Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Phillip Allen Sharp (born 1944), U.S. geneticist and molecular biologist; co-discovered gene splicing; shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard J. Roberts for the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to... Richard J. Roberts (b. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a research and educational institution, consisting of science laboratories located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York on Long Island, USA. The Laboratory has research programs focusing on cancer, neurobiology, plant genetics, genomics and bioinformatics, and has a broad educational mission, including the recently... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


The 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry credited winner Kary Mullis with the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a central technique in molecular biology which allows the amplification of specified DNA sequences. However, others disputed that he 'invented' the technique:[citation needed] claiming that Norwegian scientist Kjell Kleppe, together with 1968 Nobel Prize laureate H. Gobind Khorana, had an earlier and better claim to it in 1969. His co-workers at that time also refuted the suggestion that Mullis was solely responsible for the idea of using Taq polymerase in the PCR process.[citation needed] In addition, a book on the history of the PCR method which Paul Rabinow (an anthropologist) wrote in 1996 raised the issue of whether or not Mullis "invented" PCR or "merely" came up with the concept of it. However, other scientists have said that "the full potential [of PCR] was not realized" until Mullis' work in 1983,[44] and at least one book has reported that Mullis' colleagues failed to see the potential of the technique when he presented it to them.[45] Kary Banks Mullis, Ph. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Har Gobind Khorana (born January 9, 1922) is a molecular biologist. ... Taq polymerase (Taq Pol, or simply Taq) is a thermostable polymerase used in polymerase chain reaction to check for the presence or absence of a gene by amplifying a DNA fragment. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The 1997 Nobel Prize In Physics stirred up controversy soon as it was announced as Russian scientists disputed[46] the awardees' priority in the acquired approach and techniques to cool and trap atoms with laser light, whose work the Russians had reputedly carried out more than a decade before.[47]


The 1997 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded singly to Dr. Stanley B. Prusiner for his discovery of prions, had caused a ceaseless stream of academic polemics ever since: as regard the actual validity extent of his work—which had also been criticized by other researchers as not yet proven.[48] Stanley Ben Prusiner (born May 28, 1942[1]) is an American neurologist and biochemist. ... For the bird called a prion, see Prion (bird) Prions - short for proteinaceous infectious particle - are infectious self-reproducing protein structures. ...


The 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to three pioneering neuroscientists, Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric R. Kandel, "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system" had caused many neuroscientists to protest that Oleh Hornykiewicz, who helped pioneer the dopamine replacement treatment for Parkinson's disease, was left out of the prize, and claimed that Hornykiewicz's research provided a foundation for some of the scientific progress credited to the three scientists. Arvid Carlsson (b. ... Paul Greengard (b. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a psychiatrist, a neuroscientist and professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Columbia University. ...


The 2000 Nobel Prize In Chemistry–"For the Discovery and Development of Conductive polymers" [5] recognized passive high-conductivity in oxidized iodine-doped polyacetylene black and related materials (reported in 1977), as well as determining conduction mechanisms and developing devices, especially batteries. The citation alleges this work led to present-day "active" devices, where a voltage or current controls electron flow. Polyacetylene (PA) is conducting polymer of the rigid-rod polymer host family. ...


Subsequently, a letter to New Scientist[49] pointed out that such an organic polymer electronic device was reported in a major journal (Science) [6] three years before the Nobel prize winner's discovery. Further, the "ON" state of this device showed almost metallic conductivity. Moreover, 14 years before the Noble-prize-winning discovery, Weiss and coworkers in Australia had reported [7] equivalent high electrical conductivity in an almost identical compound—oxidized, iodine-doped polypyrrole black. Eventually, the Australian group achieved resistances as low as .03 ohm/cm [8][9]. This is roughly equivalent to present-day efforts. Likewise, this award ignored the even earlier (1955) discovery of highly-conductive organic Charge transfer complexes. Some of these are even superconductive. A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A charge transfer complex (CT complex) is defined as an electron donor–electron acceptor complex, characterized by electronic transition(s) to an excited state. ...


The 2003 Nobel Prize In Medicine and Physiology was awarded to Paul Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield for developing magnetic resonance imaging. Two independent controversial exclusions have been alleged: Paul Christian Lauterbur, (born May 6, 1929) is an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible. ... Sir Peter Mansfield, FRS, (born 9 October 1933), is a British physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ... “MRI” redirects here. ...

Raymond Damadian first reported that NMR could distinguish in vitro between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues on the basis of different proton relaxation times. He later translated this into the first human MRI scan, but used a dead-end methodology. Meanwhile, Damadian's original report prompted Lauterbur to develop NMR into the presently-used method of generating MRI images. Damadian took out large advertisements in a number of international newspapers protesting his exclusion from the award. Many researchers felt that Damadian's work deserved at least equal credit.[citation needed]
Herman Y. Carr both pioneered the present NMR gradient technique and demonstrated rudimentary MRI imaging in the 1950s, based on it. The Nobel prize winners had almost certainly seen Carr's work, but did not cite it. Consequently, the prize committee very likely did not become cognizant of Carr's discoveries,[citation needed] a situation likely abetted further by the high-profile distractions due to the unprecedented, drawn-out, persistent remonstrances[50] of Damadian in defense of his work regarding MRI.[51][52]

Sidney R. Coleman, an eminent theoretical physicist, was not awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize In Physics Award. Instead, H. David Politzer alone, a graduate student of Sidney R. Coleman, was crowned one of the winners. Many felt the miss to be a shame.[citation needed] Politzer was recognized for his work in quantum chromodynamics, a field in which Coleman was deeply involved and long acknowledged by all. Professor Raymond Vahan Damadian (born March 16, 1936), is an American pioneer of magnetic resonance imaging. ... Herman Y. Carr (born 1924) is an American physicist and pioneer of magnetic resonance imaging. ... Sidney Coleman at Harvard University Sidney Richard Coleman is an eminent theoretical physicist. ... Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ... Prof. ... Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion). ...


The 2005 Nobel Prize In Physics controversy involved George Sudarshan's relevant work in quantum optics (1960), which was considered by many to have been given the slight in this award.[citation needed] Roy J. Glauber—who initially derided the former theory representations and later produced the same P-representation under a different name, viz., Sudarshan-Glauber representation or Sudarshan diagonal representation—was the winner instead.[53] According to still others, there were two other seminal contributors, Leonard Mandel and Daniel Frank Walls, who were passed over for the Prize because there was no posthumous Nobel Prize to be awarded. Enchakkal Chandy George Sudarshan (September 16, 1931, Pallam, in Kottayam district of Kerala, India) is a prominent Indian-American physicist, author, and professor at the University of Texas at Austin. ... Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter. ... Roy Jay Glauber (born 1 September 1925) is the Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics at Harvard University and Adjunct Professor of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. ... The Glauber-Sudarshan P-Representation is a way of writing down the state of any type of light using the coherent states as a basis. ... Leonard Mandel Mandel was the Lee DuBridge Professor Emeritus of Physics and Optics at the University of Rochester, having become emeritus only a few months before he died, at the age of 73, at his home in Pittsford, New York. ... Daniel (Dan) Frank Walls (b. ...


The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello for their discovery of RNA interference. Many of the discoveries credited by the Nobel committee to Fire and Mello, who studied RNA interference in C. elegans, had been previously studied by plant biologists, and it has been suggested that at least one plant biologist who was a pioneer in this field, such as David Baulcombe, should have also been awarded a share of the prize.[54] Andrew Z. Fire Andrew Zachary Fire (born on April 27th 1959) is an American professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. ... Craig C. Mello Craig Cameron Mello (born October 19, 1960 in Worcester, Massachusetts), is one of the laureates of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. Fire, for the discovery of RNA interference. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Wild-type C. elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Caenorhabditis elegans () is a free-living nematode (a roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in a temperate soil environment. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Mediating RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. ...


The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics was won by John C. Mather and George F. Smoot (leaders of the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite experiment) "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).". The Prize was thought by some to have precluded proper recognition due an earlier original discoverer of anistropy of the CMBR. In July 1983 an experiment Relikt,[55] launched aboard the Prognoz-9[56] satellite, studied cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) via one frequency alone. In January of 1992, Andrei A. Brukhanov was known to have presented a seminar at Sternberg Astronomical Institute in Moscow, where he first reported on the discovery of anistropy of CMBR. However, the Relikt team claimed only an upper limit, not a detection, in their 1987 results paper.[57] John Cromwell Mather (b. ... George Smoot celebrating his Nobel Prize on October 3, 2006 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ... The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. ...


Controversial recipients

Physics

Henri Becquerel was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics, with Pierre and Marie Curie, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity". However, there existed a credible controversy at the time since some scientists claimed [58] that Becquerel had merely rediscovered a phenomenon first noticed and scientifically investigated by the forgotten French scientist Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor decades earlier. Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... Pierre Curie (Paris, France, May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Physicist Philipp Lenard would later become an adviser to Hitler.
Physicist Philipp Lenard would later become an adviser to Hitler.

Philipp Lenard was awarded the Nobel Prize In Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties. An advisor to Adolf Hitler, Lenard became "Chief of Aryan Physics" under the Nazis. He propounded the idea that there is a race element in science (i.e.,'English Science', 'German Science', 'Jewish Science'), and referred to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity as a "Jewish fraud". Johannes Stark, who won the Physics Nobel in 1919, also participated in the racially-motivated rejection of the "Jewish ideas" of Einstein and the non-Jewish Werner Heisenberg. Image File history File links Philipp_Lenard. ... Image File history File links Philipp_Lenard. ... Philipp Eduard Anton von Lénárd, (June 7, 1862 in Preßburg, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, Slovakia)–May 20, 1947 in Messelhausen, Germany) was a Hungarian-German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of... Hitler redirects here. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874 – June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ...

Albert Einstein, though awarded a 1921 Prize, may have deserved a total of 4 Nobels.
Albert Einstein, though awarded a 1921 Prize, may have deserved a total of 4 Nobels.

Albert Einstein's 1921 Nobel Prize award mainly recognized him for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905 and "for his services to Theoretical Physics" — due to the often counter-intuitive concepts and advanced constructs of his relativity theory, some of which were far in advance of possible experimental verifications until only recently, e.g., bending of light, gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, black holes). It would be 1993 before the first evidence for the existence of gravitational radiation came via the Nobel Prize-winning measurements of the Hulse-Taylor binary system.[59] His other significant contributions in the Annus Mirabilis Papers, on Brownian motion and special relativity, were not explicitly recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee, even though Einstein was nominated several times, beginning in 1910, for special relativity. Often these nominations for special relativity recommended awarding the prize jointly to Lorentz and Einstein. Henri Poincaré was also nominated at least once for his services to theoretical physics, including his work on Lorentz's relativity theory. However, Kaufmann's experimental results cast doubt on the correctness of special relativity, doubts which were not resolved until 1915, by which time Einstein had progressed to the general theory, including his theory of gravitation. Again the empirical support (in this case the predicted spectral shift of sunlight) was in question for many years, so the only original evidence was the consistency with the known perihelion precession of the planet Mercury. Some additional support was gained at the end of 1919 when the predicted deflection of starlight near the sun was apparently confirmed by Arthur Stanley Eddington's Solar Eclipse Expedition, although the actual results were somewhat ambiguous. Conclusive proof of the gravitational light deflection prediction was not achieved until the 1970s. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... In physics, a gravitational wave is a fluctuation in the curvature of spacetime which propagates as a wave, traveling outward from a moving object or system of objects. ... A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant, bright source (such as a quasar) is bent around a massive object (such as a massive galaxy) between the source object and the observer. ... This article is about the astronomical body. ... PSR B1913+16 (also known as J1915+1606) is a pulsar in a binary star system, in orbit with another star around a common center of mass. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ...


Robert Millikan is widely believed to have been denied the 1920 prize for physics owing to Felix Ehrenhaft's claims to have measured charges smaller than Millikan's elementary charge. Ehrenhaft's claims were ultimately dismissed and Millikan was awarded the prize in 1923. However, some controversy still seem to linger over Millikan's oil-drop procedure and experimental interpretation — regarding the validity and ethics of his false claim and data manipulation and selectivity, biased in his favour, in the 1913 scientific paper measuring the electron charge: in particular, that he had reported all his observations when in fact he had omitted a total of 82 drops of experimental data from his final report. Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist who won the 1923 Nobel Prize for his measurement of the charge on the electron and for his work on the photoelectric effect. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Felix Ehrenhaft (April 24, 1879 - March 4, 1952) was an Austrian-Hungarian physicist known for his maverick style and controversy. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


William Bradford Shockley was one of the winners of the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics award for the transistor. There was a well-documented controversy hanging over his win — backed up by corroborating accounts from his colleagues (the other two Nobelists in the Prize), and historical facts as well — which critics characterized as due mainly to Shockley's then-directorship position and self-promotion efforts (Shockley's original, self-designed 'transistor' did not work at all). A notable change was seen to have come over Shockley's character soon after the Nobel award.[60] Later, he strongly and seriously espoused eugenics,[61] regarding his published works on this topic as the most important work of his career. His ideas are largely based on the research of Cyril Burt, whose research itself was later generally accepted to be fraudulent. He is the only Nobel Laureate who publicly admitted to donating sperm to the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank founded (1980) by eugenicist Robert Klark Graham in the hopes of passing down humanity's best genes. The Repository was shut down in 1999. William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt (March 3, 1883 – October 10, 1971) was a prominent British educational psychologist. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... The Repository for Germinal Choice (originally known as the Hermann J. Muller Repository for Germinal Choice) was a sperm bank that existed in Escondido, California from 1980 to 1999. ... A sperm bank is a facility that collects and stores human sperm from donors, primarily for the purposes of artificial insemination. ... Robert Klark Graham (June 9, 1906 – February 13, 1997) was born in Harbor Springs, Michigan, USA. He was a eugenicist and businessman who made millions by developing shatter-proof plastic eyeglass lenses, and who later founded the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank for geniuses in the hope of...


Chemistry

Linus Pauling is the only person ever to receive two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954, and Peace in 1962. His later claims about large-dose vitamin C treatments, especially as cancer therapy, were treated with extreme skepticism by the medical community, and his work was regarded as outright quackery by his critics.[62] Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ...


Physiology or medicine

Alexander Fleming, though he accidentally stumbled upon the then-unidentified fungi mold that was to bring penicillin to the attention of the world as medicine, was often credited as the discoverer of penicillin and shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Florey. However, some critics pointed out that Fleming did not 'discover' penicillin, that in fact it was technically a 'rediscovery', and that decades before Fleming, there had been significant others (notably Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson, William Roberts (physician), John Tyndall and Ernest Duchesne) who had already done studies[16] and research[63] on its useful properties and medicinal characteristics.[64] Moreover, according to Fleming himself, the first known reference to penicillin he could recall to mind was from Psalm 51: "Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean": he had learnt meanwhile from the famous American mycologist Charles Thom's book (the same who helped Fleming establish the identity of the mysterious fungi mold)[65] that penicillium notatum was first recognised by Westling, a Swedish chemist, from a specimen of decayed hyssop. It was pointed out too, that, in this award, several deserving contemporaneous coordinate research contributors had been left out of the Prize altogether(see also discovery of penicillin). Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson (21 December 1828 - 23 November 1905) was an English physiologist born near Newcastle upon Tyne. ... Sir William Roberts (1830 - 1899) was a physician in Manchester, England. ... John Tyndall. ... Ernest Duchesne Ernest Duchesne (May 30, 1874 – April 12, 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain moulds kill bacteria. ... Mycology is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for medicinals (see penicillin) and food (beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms), as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium notatum is a synonym of Penicillium chrysogenum, which has taxonomic priority. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Penicillin Alexander Fleming was the first to suggest that the Penicillium mould must have an antibacterial substance, and the first to isolate the active substance which he named penicillin, but he was not the first to use its properties. ...


Egas Moniz received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1949 for his development of prefrontal leucotomy. In the United States, a modified version of this procedure, often referred to as the "ice pick lobotomy", was instituted in a highly unethical manner, and was performed somewhat indiscriminately. The procedure has fallen into disrepute and was later prohibited in many countries. It is rarely performed now. António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (November 29, 1874 - December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese physician and neurologist. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Psychosurgery is the practice of performing surgery on the brain to treat or alleviate severe mental disease. ... A human brain that has undergone lobotomy. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...


Karl von Frisch shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 involving the explanation of the "dance language" of bees. However, much controversy was engendered over the years due to the lack of direct scientific proofs of the waggle dance of the bees as exactly worded, postulated by Karl von Frisch. Though the controversy was finally put to rest by a team of researchers from Rothamsted Research in 2005—who tracked the bees by radar as they flew to a food source—the experimental results turn out not to exactly support Karl von Frisch's original formulation,[66] but, in fact, support part of his opponent Adrian Wenner's theory[67] that states that bees are basically guided to the food source by odor; after the general direction and distance (specific and relative to the transmitting bees) had been communicated (a still unknown mysterious mechanism) via the waggle dance—as originally postulated by the 1973 Nobelist. Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honeybee. ... Buildings near the manor house The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. ...


David Baltimore, who shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, was implicated in "The Baltimore affair" or "Imanishi-Kari affair", a landmark science-fraud scandal case[68] (with Howard Temin and James Dewey Watson pinning the error and fault on him): involving a scandal over fabricated data in a 1986 scientific paper on immunology with Thereza Imanishi-Kari and others[69] that till today is still debated:[70][71] it brought about too—for the first time—a sense of disquiet among the many eminent and knowing scientists; as to how scientific adjudication, at a high level, by an admixture of self-interests delimited university officials and several disparate contentious prosecuting groups from the government to match[35] (lacking, in the assessment of many reputable scientists[72]—experience, the most suitable scientific credentials proper, and clear purpose[73]), somehow allowed into a position of such overriding institutional power and influence, has devolved and acquiesced into a seemingly endless labyrinth of roundabout contretemps, etiolated muddles and a high toll of runaway civic costs: from what it clearly and simply is.[74]. David Baltimore (b. ... Howard Martin Temin (1934 - 1994) was a U.S. geneticist. ... James Watson James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is one of the discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Thereza Imanishi-Kari Thereza Imanishi-Kari (born 1943 in Brazil) is an Associate Professor of Pathology at Tufts University. ...


Another earlier, equally famous (or infamous, and comparable) dispute, handled by the same NIH appeals panel as handled the Baltimore Affair, is the Robert Gallo[75] vs Luc Montagnier:[76] HTLV-III/LAV Priority Controversy Case.[35][70][77] The name HIV was a compromise by US and French negotiators to allow a co-discovery of the AIDS virus to be claimed. Incidentally, the claim that Francoise Barré-Sinoussi was generally credited as the discoverer of HIV while working in Montagnier's lab has also been disputed—in an article that disputes the generally-accepted conclusion that HIV causes AIDS.[78] NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ... Luc Montagnier (born 1932 in Chabris, France) is a French virologist. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Peace

President Theodore Roosevelt—the 26th President of the United States—received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905 for ending the Russo-Japanese War. However, he played a role in the suppression of a revolt in the Philippines[citation needed]. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of...


Cordell Hull was awarded the Nobel Prize in Peace in 1945 in recognition of his efforts for peace and understanding in the Western Hemisphere, his trade agreements, and his work to establish the United Nations. Hull was Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Secretary of State during the SS St. Louis Crisis. The St. Louis sailed out of Hamburg into the Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1939 carrying over 950 Jewish refugees, mostly wealthy, seeking asylum from Nazi persecution just before World War II. The ship's voyage caused great controversy in the United States: Initially President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt showed modest willingness to take in some of those on board, but vehement opposition by Hull and from Southern Democrats—some of whom went so far as to threaten to withhold their support of Roosevelt in the 1940 Presidential election if this occurred. On 4 June 1939 Roosevelt issued an order to deny entry to the ship, which was waiting in the Caribbean Sea between Florida and Cuba. The passengers began negotiations with the Cuban government, but those broke down at the last minute. Forced to return to Europe, many of its passengers died in Nazi concentration camps. Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... SS was a German ocean liner which sailed out of Hamburg into the Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1939 carrying 963 Jewish refugees, mostly wealthy, seeking asylum from the Holocaust during World War II. The passengers were refused entry to Cuba, despite prior agreement to accept the passengers. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United States Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973 for his work on the Vietnam Peace Accords, despite having instituted the secret 19691975 campaign of bombing against infiltraiting NVA in Cambodia, the alleged U.S. involvement in Operation Condor—a mid-1970s campaign of kidnapping and murder coordinated among the intelligence and security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay—as well as the death of French nationals under the Chilean junta. He also supported the invasion of Cyprus resulting in appr. 1/3 of the island being occupied by foreign troops for 33 years. Some peace activists go so far as to suggest that the Nobel Peace Prize has become irrelevant due to Kissinger being a laureate. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South...


Both Anwar Sadat, president of Egypt during a war against Israel in 1973, the Yom Kippur War, and, Menachem Begin—who was later to reclaim a nationalist agenda which escalated into a full-fledged war with southern Lebanon in 1982—were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 for their contributions to the successful closure to the Camp David Accords in the same year. However, for both of them, their reputed 'legacies' would prove to be—and remain—highly controversial, divisive and elusive: as were also borne out by later history. Begin had also previously been a member of militant Zionist group Irgun, which is often regarded as a terrorist organisation and had been responsible for the King David Hotel bombing in 1946. Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... Irgun emblem. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rigoberta Menchú won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992. There has been some evidence pointing to her as a fraud in her purported autobiography of her life in Guatemala in the late 1950s, portrayed in her 1987 book I, Rigoberta Menchu—where some facts regarding her family history and circumstances were specifically altered by her to supposedly better propagandize her leftist-leanings (brought to light through exposé by anthropologist David Stoll's researches).[79] Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. ... David Stoll is an American anthropologist currently teaching at Middlebury College in Vermont. ...


Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin were winners of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize. Arafat was regarded by critics as a terrorist leader for many years. His critics often described him as an unrepentant terrorist with a long legacy of promoting violence.[citation needed] Kåre Kristiansen, a Norwegian member of the Nobel Committee, resigned in 1994 in protest at the awarding of a Nobel Peace Prize to Yasser Arafat, whom he labeled a "terrorist". Rabin, while in the Israeli military, had ordered the expulsion of Arabs, from areas captured by Israel during the 1948 War. He had also been responsible for the aggressive Israeli crackdown of the First Intifada while Defense Minister. Rabin also continued to authorise the construction of settlements in the occupied territories despite the peace agreement. Peres was responsible for developing Israel's nuclear weapons arsenal, and was later blamed for the Qana Massacre. Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... This article is becoming very long. ... KÃ¥re Gulbrand Kristiansen (March 11, 1920 – December 3, 2005) was a Norwegian politician active in the Christian Peoples Party. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Defense Ministers of Israel, 1948-present David Ben-Gurion 1948-1954 Pinhas Lavon 1954-1955 David Ben-Gurion 1955-1963 Levi Eshkol 1963-1967 Moshe Dayan 1967-1974 Shimon Peres 1974-1977 Ezer Weizman 1977-1980 Menachem Begin 1980-1981 Ariel Sharon 1981-1983 Moshe Arens 1983-1984 Yitzhak Rabin... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The Qana Massacre took place on April 18, 1996 in the headquarters of the Fijian battalion of UNIFIL, located in the small town of Qana, in southern Lebanon. ...


Jimmy Carter's 2002 Nobel Peace Prize—awarded for the "decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"—had from the start wrought controversy that was exacerbated further by politically-tinted statements offered by the chairman of the Nobel Peace Prize committee (seconded and affirmed by Gunnar Staalsett, another member of the 5-member, secretive Nobel Committee).[80][81] Incidentally, Carter did not win the Nobel Prize for the successful Camp David 1978 Agreements (which he helped broker) due to "being not nominated in time", according to the Nobel Committee. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Wangari Maathai, 2004 winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, created controversy by appearing to lend credibility to the theory that HIV was invented by white scientists to destroy black people but later apologized for giving the illusion of being a conspiracy theorist. Dr. Wangari Muta Maathai born April 1, 1940 in Ihithe village, Tetu division, Nyeri District of Kenya is an environmental and political activist. ...

Al Gore won the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for his work on raising public awareness of Global Warming. There was contention between whether the work was related or not to the stated purpose of the prize. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...

Laureates who declined the prize

Involuntary

  • Boris Pasternak at first accepted the Literature prize in 1958, but was later forced by the authorities in the USSR to decline it.[82]
  • Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk were banned from accepting the Prize by Adolf Hitler; the three later received their diplomas and medals, but not the prize money.[82]
  • According to one source[83], Otto Heinrich Warburg, the recipient of the 1931 Medicine Nobel, was selected for a second Nobel Prize in 1944, but forbidden to accept it. This has not been confirmed by the Nobel Foundation.

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1890 – May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer, in the West best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago. ... Richard Kuhn (December 3, 1900 – August 1, 1967) was a German biochemist, born in Vienna, Austria. ... Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (March 24, 1903 - January 18, 1995) was a German biochemist. ... Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (October 30, 1895 - April 24, 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist and Nobel laureate. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Otto Heinrich Warburg (October 8, 1883, Freiburg im Breisgau – August 1, 1970, Berlin), son of Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist and medical doctor. ...

Voluntary

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Le Duc Tho (Lê Ðức Thọ  ) (October 14, 1911 – October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

External links

References

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Nobel Prize controversies - Art History Online Reference and Guide (613 words)
The Nobel Prizes are a series of awards, posthumously instituted by bequest of Alfred Nobel, to be awarded to individuals who had served humanity in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace.
The prize was officially awarded for Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish's pioneering research in radioastrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture-synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
Fred Hoyle was denied a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983, although the winner William Fowler acknowledged Hoyle as the pioneer of the concept of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Nobel Prize - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2848 words)
The peace prize ceremony was held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute from 1905 until 1946, later at the Aula of the University of Oslo, and since 1990 at the Oslo City Hall.
For example, in 2002, a Prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, failing to recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.
Similar criticism was levied towards the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics, specifically the recognition of Roy Glauber and not George Sudarshan for the award.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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