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Encyclopedia > Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."[1] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... A bequest is the disposition of property by will. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


The Peace Prize is awarded annually in Oslo, the capital of Norway (Alfred Nobel's will stated that the Nobel Peace Prize should be awarded by the Norwegian Parliament). The actual prize always is presented on the 10th of December, the anniversary of the death of Nobel. The Norwegian king is in attendance. "In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount." The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is held at the Oslo City Hall, followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to more than 450 million households in over 150 countries around the world. The concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers. The selection of Nobel Peace Prize winners sometimes causes controversy, as the list of winners includes people who formerly used violent methods of problem-solving, but then later made exceptional concessions to non-violence in the attempt to achieve peace. This is the only Nobel Prize not given out in Stockholm, Sweden. This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The Oslo City Hall, seen from the harbour side. ... Each year in December, the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony takes place in Oslo, Norway. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Appointment process

Nobel died in 1896 and did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. The categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices as he was a trained chemical engineer. The reason behind the peace prize is less clear. Some[who?] have said it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive forces (Nobel's inventions included dynamite and ballistite). However, none of his explosives, except for ballistite, were used in any war during his lifetime,[2] although the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organisation, did carry out dynamite attacks in the 1880s.[3] Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... Ballistite is a smokeless propellant explosive made from two high explosives nitrocellulose mixed with nitroglycerin. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ...

The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Laureate for the Peace Prize. The Committee chairman, currently Dr. Ole Danbolt Mjøs, awards the Prize itself. At the time of Alfred Nobel's death Sweden and Norway were in a personal union in which the Swedish government was solely responsible for foreign policy, and the Norwegian Parliament was responsible only for Norwegian domestic policy. Alfred Nobel never explained[4] why he wanted a Norwegian rather than Swedish body to award the Peace Prize. As a consequence, many people have speculated about Nobel's intentions. For instance, Nobel may have wanted to prevent the manipulation of the selection process by foreign powers, and as Norway did not have any foreign policy, the Norwegian government could not be influenced. Image File history File links Norske_nobelinstiutt_1. ... Image File history File links Norske_nobelinstiutt_1. ... The Institutes building in central Oslo, Norway. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... Professor dr. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ...


Nominations

Nominations for the Prize may be made by a broad array of qualified individuals, including former recipients, members of national assemblies and congresses, university professors (in certain disciplines), international judges, and special advisors to the Prize Committee. In some years as many as 199 nominations have been received. The Committee keeps the nominations secret and asks that nominators do the same. Over time many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing[5]. Nominations from 1901 to 1955, however, have been released in a database.[6] When the past nominations were released it was discovered that Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939 by Erik Brandt, a member of the Swedish Parliament. Brandt retracted the nomination after a few days.[7] Other infamous nominees included Joseph Stalin and Benito Mussolini. However, since nomination requires only support from one qualified person (e.g., a history professor), these unusual nominations do not represent the opinions of the Nobel committee itself. Hitler redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Unlike the other Nobel Prizes, which recognize completed scientific or literary accomplishment, the Nobel Peace Prize may be awarded to persons or organizations that are in the process of resolving a conflict or creating peace. As some such processes have failed to create lasting peace, some Peace Prizes appear questionable in hindsight. For example, the awards given to Theodore Roosevelt, Jimmy Carter, Woodrow Wilson, Martin Luther King Jr., Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat, Lê Ðức Thọ and Henry Kissinger were particularly controversial and criticized; the Kissinger-Thọ award prompted two dissenting Committee members to resign.[8] For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Lê Ðức Thọ (October 14, 1911 – October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


In 2005, the Nobel Peace Center opened. It serves to present the Laureates, their work for peace, and the ongoing problems of war and conflict around the world. The Nobel Peace Center, situated right next to the Oslo City Hall. ...


Controversy

For more details on this topic, see Nobel Prize controversies.

The Nobel Peace Prize has sparked controversy throughout its history. The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Peace Prize Committee, but pacifist critics argue that the same Parliament has pursued partisan military aims by ratifying membership in NATO in 1949, by hosting NATO troops, and by leasing ports and territorial waters to US ballistic missile submarines in 1983. However, the Parliament has no say in the award issue. A member of the Committee cannot at the same time be a member of the Parliament, and the Committee includes former members from all major parties, including those parties that oppose NATO membership The Nobel Prize controversies are contentious disputes regarding the Nobel Prize. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


A particular claimed weakness of the Nobel Peace Prize awarding process is the swiftness of recognition. The scientific and literary Nobel Prizes are usually issued in retrospect, often two or three decades after the awarded achievement, thus representing a time-proven confirmation and balance of approval by the established academic community, seldom contradicted by newer developments. In contrast, the Nobel Peace Prize at times takes the form of summary judgment, being issued in the same year as or the year immediately following the political act. Some commentators have suggested that to award a peace prize on the basis of unquantifiable contemporary opinion is unjust or possibly erroneous, especially as many of the judges cannot themselves be said to be impartial observers. In pro-democracy struggles, it may be said that the 'real' peace-makers may not be recognized for their long-term or subtle approaches. However, others have pointed to the uniqueness of the Peace Prize in that its high profile can often focus world attention on particular problems and possibly aid in the peace-efforts themselves. Retrospective (from Latin retrospectare, look back) generally means to take a look back at events that already have taken place. ... Summary judgment is a legal term which means that a court has made a determination (a judgment) without a full trial. ... In predicate logic and technical fields that depend on it, uniqueness quantification, or unique existential quantification, is an attempt to formalise the notion of something being true for exactly one thing, or exactly one thing of a certain type. ...

The 14th Dalai Lama and Bishop Desmond Tutu, 2004
The 14th Dalai Lama and Bishop Desmond Tutu, 2004

On closer inspection, the peace-laureates often have a lifetime's history of working at and promoting humanitarian issues, as in the examples of German medic Albert Schweitzer (1952 laureate), Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., an African-American civil rights activist (1964 laureate); Mother Teresa, a Roman Catholic missionary nun (1979 laureate); and Aung San Suu Kyi, a Buddhist nonviolent pro-democracy activist (1991 laureate). Still others are selected for tireless efforts, as in the examples of Jimmy Carter and Mohamed ElBaradei. Others, even today, are quite controversial, due to the recipient's political activity, as in the case of Henry Kissinger (1973 laureate), Tenzin Gyatso (1989), Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat (1978 laureates), or Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat (1994 laureates). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1035x749, 87 KB) [edit] Summary This picture was taken by my good friend Carey Linde in Vancouver in April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1035x749, 87 KB) [edit] Summary This picture was taken by my good friend Carey Linde in Vancouver in April 2004. ... (Redirected from 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Llhamo Döndrub (Tibetan: ; Wylie: Lha-mo Don-grub) 6 July 1935 in Qinghai [1]), is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ...


A widely discussed criticism of the peace-prize are the notable omissions, namely the failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. The list includes Mahatma Gandhi, Corazon Aquino, Pope John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, Steve Biko, Raphael Lemkin, Herbert Hoover, Abdul Sattar Edhi, César Chávez, Jose Figueres Ferrer, and Oscar Romero. In particular, the omission of the Indian leader Gandhi has been widely discussed, including public statements by the various members of Nobel Committee.[9][10] It has been acknowledged by the committee that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee.[9] In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."[11] In most cases, the omissions resulted in part from the provision in Alfred Nobel's will that only living people could receive the prize. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Rafael Lemkin (June 24, 1900—August 28, 1959) was a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Dr. Abdul Sattar Edhi Dr. Abdul Sattar Edhi, (Urdu: عبد الستار ایدھی), or Edhi, as he is often known, is one of the most active philanthropists in Pakistan and in the whole world. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993), born in Yuma, Arizona, was an American farm worker of Mexican descent, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... José María Hipólito Figueres Ferrer (b. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ...


Research by anthropologist David Stoll into Rigoberta Menchú, the 1992 recipient, revealed some fabrications in her biography, "Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia" (My Name is Rigoberta Menchú and this is how my Conscience was Born), translated into English as "I, Rigoberta Menchú". Menchú later admitted changing some details about her background. After the initial controversy, the Nobel Committee dismissed calls to revoke her Nobel prize because of the reported falsifications. Professor Geir Lundestad, the secretary of the Committee, said her prize "was not based exclusively or primarily on the autobiography".[12]. According to the Nobel Committee, "Stoll approves of her Nobel prize and has no question about the picture of army atrocities which she presents. He says that her purpose in telling her story the way she did 'enabled her to focus international condemnation on an institution that deserved it, the Guatemalan army." Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. ... Rigoberta Menchú Rigoberta Menchú Tum (born in Chimel, January 9, 1959) is an indigenous Guatemalan, of the Quiché-Maya ethnic group. ...


List of Laureates

Year Laureate(s) Country Work for which cited (Citations)
1901* Frédéric Passy Flag of France France Founder and President, Société d'arbitrage entre les Nations.
1901* Henry Dunant Flag of Switzerland Switzerland Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva.
1902 Élie Ducommun
Charles Albert Gobat
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland Honorary secretaries, Permanent International Peace Bureau in Berne.
1903 William Randal Cremer  United Kingdom Secretary, International Arbitration League.
1904 Institut de Droit International  Belgium
1905 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Baronin von Suttner Flag of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Honorary President, Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1906 Theodore Roosevelt Flag of the United States United States President of the United States; peace treaty collaborations (brokering the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese War)
1907* Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Flag of Italy Italy President, Lombard League of Peace
1907* Louis Renault Flag of France France Professor of International Law
1908* Klas Pontus Arnoldson Flag of Sweden Sweden Founder, Swedish Peace and Arbitration Association
1908* Fredrik Bajer Flag of Denmark Denmark Honorary President, Permanent International Peace Bureau
1909* Auguste Marie François Beernaert  Belgium Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage.
1909* Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant Flag of France France founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale
1910 International Peace Bureau Flag of Switzerland Switzerland Berne
1911* Tobias Michael Carel Asser Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law in The Hague.
1911* Alfred Hermann Fried Flag of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary founder of Die Waffen Nieder.
1912 Elihu Root Flag of the United States United States for initiating various arbitration agreements.
1913 Henri La Fontaine  Belgium President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1914 Reserved.
1915 Reserved.
1916 Reserved.
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
1918 Reserved.
1919 Woodrow Wilson Flag of the United States United States President of the United States, as foremost promoter of the League of Nations.
1920 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois Flag of France France president of the Council of the League of Nations.
1921* Hjalmar Branting Flag of Sweden Sweden prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations.
1921* Christian Lous Lange Flag of Norway Norway secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
1922 Fridtjof Nansen Flag of Norway Norway Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees.
1923 Reserved.
1924 Reserved.
1925* Austen Chamberlain  United Kingdom for the Locarno Treaties.
1925* Charles Gates Dawes Flag of the United States United States chairman of the Allied Reparations Commission and originator of the Dawes Plan.
1926* Aristide Briand Flag of France France for the Locarno Treaties.
1926* Gustav Stresemann  Germany for the Locarno Treaties.
1927* Ferdinand Buisson Flag of France France founder and president of the League for Human Rights.
1927* Ludwig Quidde  Germany delegate to numerous peace conferences.
1928 Reserved.
1929 Frank B. Kellogg Flag of the United States United States for the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
1930 Nathan Söderblom Flag of Sweden Sweden leader of the ecumenical movement.
1931* Jane Addams Flag of the United States United States international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
1931* Nicholas Murray Butler Flag of the United States United States for promoting the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
1932 Reserved.
1933 Sir Norman Angell  United Kingdom writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council.
1934 Arthur Henderson  United Kingdom chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference
1935 Carl von Ossietzky Flag of Germany Germany pacifist journalist.
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas Flag of Argentina Argentina president of the League of Nations and mediator in the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia.
1937 Robert Cecil  United Kingdom founder and president of the International Peace Campaign
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
1939 Reserved.
1940 Reserved.
1941 Reserved.
1942 Reserved.
1943 Reserved.
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross Flag of Switzerland Switzerland awarded retroactively in 1945
1945 Cordell Hull Flag of the United States United States for co-initiating the United Nations.
1946* Emily Greene Balch Flag of the United States United States honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
1946* John R. Mott Flag of the United States United States chairman of the International Missionary Council and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations
1947 Friends Service Council
American Friends Service Committee
 United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers.
1948 Reserved. May have been awarded to Mohandas Gandhi had he not been assassinated.[13]
1949 Lord Boyd-Orr  United Kingdom director general Food and Agricultural Organization, president National Peace Council, president World Union of Peace Organizations.
1950 Ralph Bunche Flag of the United States United States for mediating in Palestine (1948)
1951 Léon Jouhaux Flag of France France president of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN.
1952 Albert Schweitzer Flag of France France for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life", expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding the Lambaréné Hospital in Gabon
1953 George Catlett Marshall Flag of the United States United States for the Marshall Plan
1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  United Nations
1955 Reserved.
1956 Reserved.
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson Flag of Canada Canada President of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly for introducing peacekeeping forces to resolve the Suez Crisis.
1958 Georges Pire  Belgium leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde, a relief organization for refugees.
1959 Philip Noel-Baker  United Kingdom "for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation."
1960 Albert Lutuli Flag of South Africa South Africa President, African National Congress
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld Flag of Sweden Sweden Secretary-General, United Nations (posthumous)
1962 Linus Carl Pauling  United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing."
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross
League of Red Cross societies
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
1964 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.  United States Leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner for civil rights.
1965 United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)  United Nations
1966 Reserved.
1967 Reserved.
1968 René Cassin Flag of France France President, European Court of Human Rights.
1969 International Labour Organization  United Nations
1970 Norman Borlaug  United States "for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center."
1971 Willy Brandt Flag of West Germany West Germany "for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany."
1972 Reserved.
1973 Henry A. Kissinger
Lê Ðức Thọ (declined the honors)
 United States
Flag of North Vietnam North Vietnam
The Vietnam peace accord
1974 Seán MacBride
Eisaku Sato
 Ireland
Flag of Japan Japan
president of the International Peace Bureau the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations.
1975 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Campaigns for human rights
1976 Betty Williams
Mairead Corrigan
 United Kingdom Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1977 Amnesty International  United Kingdom Campaign against torture
1978 Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات)
Menachem Begin (מנחם בגין)
Flag of Egypt Egypt
Flag of Israel Israel
for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel
1979 Mother Teresa Flag of India India Poverty awareness campaigner and her service to humanity
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Flag of Argentina Argentina Human rights advocate
1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  United Nations
1982 Alva Myrdal
Alfonso García Robles
Flag of Sweden Sweden
Flag of Mexico Mexico
Treaty of Tlatelolco
1983 Lech Wałęsa Flag of Poland Poland Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights
1984 Desmond Mpilo Tutu Flag of South Africa South Africa Anti-apartheid
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War  United States "for spreading authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare."
1986 Elie Wiesel  United States author, Holocaust survivor "for his message of peace.[14]
1987 Óscar Arias Sánchez Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica "for initiating peace negotiations in Central America."
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces  United Nations For participation in numerous conflicts since 1956. At the time of the award, 736 people from a variety of nations had lost their lives in peacekeeping efforts.
1989 Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama Flag of Tibet Tibet "for his consistent resistance to the use of violence in his people's struggle to regain their freedom."[15]
1990 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
(Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв)
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi (အောင္‌ဆန္‌းစုက္ရည or ) Flag of Burma Myanmar "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights."
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Flag of Guatemala Guatemala "in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples."
1993 Nelson Mandela
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Flag of South Africa South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."
1994 Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات)
Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס)
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין)
Palestinian flag Palestine
Flag of Israel Israel
Flag of Israel Israel
"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East."
1995 Joseph Rotblat
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Flag of Poland Poland
 United Kingdom
Flag of Canada Canada
"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms."
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
José Ramos-Horta
Flag of East Timor Timor-Leste "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines
Jody Williams
 United States "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines."
1998 John Hume
David Trimble
 Ireland
 United Kingdom
"Awarded for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland."
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières  Belgium "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents."
2000 Kim Dae Jung 김대중 (金大中)  South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular."
2001 United Nations
Kofi Annan
 United Nations
 Ghana
"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world."
2002 James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, Jr.  United States former President of the United States, "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development."
2003 Shirin Ebadi (شيرين عبادي)  Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
2004 Wangari Maathai  Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace."
2005 International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohamed ElBaradei (محمد البرادعي)
 United Nations
 Egypt
"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way."
2006 Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনুস)
Grameen Bank
 Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work."
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Al Gore
 United Nations
 United States
"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."

* Years with multiple nominations for a Nobel Prize. Frédéric Passy (May 20, 1822 - June 12, 1912) was a French economist and a joint winner (together with Henry Dunant) of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Société darbitrage entre les Nations (Company of arbitration between the Nations) was founded in 1889 by Frederic Passy. ... Dunant as an elderly man. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Élie Ducommun (February 19, 1833 – December 7, 1906) was a Swiss journalist and peace activist. ... Charles Albert Cobat Charles Albert Gobat (May 21, 1843 – March 16, 1914) was a Swiss lawyer, educational administrator, and politician who jointly received the 1902 Nobel Peace Prize with Élie Ducommun for their leadership of the Permanent International Peace Bureau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Permanent International Peace Bureau, (Bureau international permanent de la Paix), the world´s oldest and most comprehensive international peace federation, founded in 1891, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1910. ... Sir William Randal Cremer, (March 18, 1828 – July 22, 1908) usually known by his middle name Randal, was an English Member of Parliament and pacifist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The International Arbitration League was founded by the Nobel Peace Prize winner Sir William Randall Cremer and was later incorporated into the Commonwealth of World Citizens. ... The Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law) is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner), (9 June 1843 in Prague, [then in Austrian Empire] - 21 June 1914 in Vienna, [then in Austria-Hungary]), born as Gräfin (Countess) Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, was an Austrian novelist, radical pacifist, and was the first woman to... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Permanent International Peace Bureau, (Bureau international permanent de la Paix), the world´s oldest and most comprehensive international peace federation, founded in 1891, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1910. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_45_stars. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Russian and Japanese delegates around the negotiating table at the Portsmouth Navy Yard St The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. ... -1... Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (September 20, 1833 - February 10, 1918) had a personality as paradoxical as the term «militant pacifist» which was so often applied to him. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Louis Renault (May 21, 1843 - February 8, 1918) was a French jurist and educator, the cowinner in 1907 (with Ernesto Teodoro Moneta) of the Nobel Prize for Peace. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Categories: Stub | 1844 births | 1916 deaths | Nobel Peace Prize winners | Swedish politicians ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society (SPAS), or Svenska freds- och skiljedomsföreningen, is a non-governmental organization in Sweden, dedicated to peace, disarmament and democratization. ... Fredrik Bajer Fredrik Bajer (April 21, 1837 – January 22, 1922) was a Danish writer, teacher, and pacifist politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1908. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Permanent International Peace Bureau, (Bureau international permanent de la Paix), the world´s oldest and most comprehensive international peace federation, founded in 1891, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1910. ... Auguste Beernaert in 1909. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... Paul-Henri-Benjamin dEstournelles de Constant Paul-Henri-Benjamin Baluet dEstournelles, baron de Constant de Rébecque (22 November 1852 – 15 May 1924), was a French diplomat and politician, advocate of international arbitration and winner of the 1909 Nobel Prize for Peace. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... International Peace Bureau is an international organization whose goal is to coordinate the peace activities of various organizations in many countries. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Tobias Michael Carel Asser (April 28, 1838 – July 29, 1913) was a Dutch jurist, cowinner (with Alfred Fried) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1911 for his role in the formation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the first Hague peace conference (1899). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Alfred Hermann Fried (November 11, 1864 in Vienna, Austria- May 5, 1921 in Vienna), was an Austrian Jewish pacifist, publicist, journalist, co-founder of the German peace movement, and winner (with Tobias Asser) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1911. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Henri La Fontaine, (22 April 1854 – 14 May 1943) was a Belgian international lawyer and president of the International Peace Bureau from 1907 to 1943 who received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Permanent International Peace Bureau, (Bureau international permanent de la Paix), the world´s oldest and most comprehensive international peace federation, founded in 1891, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1910. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... French politician Léon Bourgeois Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois (May 21, 1851 – September 29, 1925) was a French statesman. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Hjalmar Branting (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the countrys chief Social Democratic leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Christian Lous Lange (September 17, 1869 – December 11, 1938) was born in Stavanger, Norway, and received the Master of Arts degree from the University of Oslo in 1893. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Nansen passports are internationally recognized identity cards first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees. ... Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (October 16, 1863 – March 17, 1937) was a British statesman, politician, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October—16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the... At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October—16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial...   (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October—16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial... Ferdinand Édouard Buisson (December 20, 1841-February 16, 1932) was a French academic, educational bureaucrat, Protestant pastor, pacifist and Socialist politician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Ligue des droits de lhomme (LDH, Human Rights League) is a French NGO founded on June 4, 1898, by the republican Ludovic Trarieux to defend captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew wrongly accused of treason - this would be known as the Dreyfus Affair. ... Ludwig Quidde Ludwig Quidde (March 23, 1858 – March 4, 1941) was a German pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic criticism of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Quiddes long career spanned four different eras of German history: that of Bismarck (up to 1890); the Hohenzollern Empire under Wilhelm... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American politician and statesman. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... Lars Olof Jonathan Söderblom, better known as Nathan Söderblom (January 15, 1866 - July 12, 1931), was a Swedish clergyman, and later Archbishop of the Church of Sweden and laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Laura Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement, and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Founded in 1915, the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is the oldest womens peace organization in the world. ... Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... Sir Ralph Norman Angell (December 26, 1872 – October 7, 1967) was an English lecturer, writer, and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The National Peace Council, founded in 1908, has acted as the co-ordinating body for almost 200 groups across Britain, with a membership ranging from small village peace groups to national trade unions and local authorities. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Disarmament Conference of 1932-34 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S. and the Soviet Union, to actualise the ideology of disarmament. ... Carl von Ossietzky Memorial, Berlin Carl von Ossietzky (Hamburg, October 3, 1889 – May 4, 1938 in Berlin) was a radical German pacifist and the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Carlos Saavedra Lamas (November 1, 1878 – May 5, 1959) was an Argentinian academic and politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1936. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Combatants Republic of Bolivia Republic of Paraguay Commanders Hans Kundt Mcal. ... Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, previously known as Lord Robert Cecil (September 14, 1864 – November 24, 1958) was a lawyer, politician and diplomat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Nansen passports are internationally recognized identity cards first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... UN redirects here. ... Emily Greene Balch (January 8, 1867 – January 9, 1961) was an American academic, writer, and pacifist who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 (the prize that year was shared with John Mott), notably for her work with the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Founded in 1915, the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is the oldest womens peace organization in the world. ... John Raleigh Mott (May 25, 1865 – January 31, 1955) was a long-serving leader of the YMCA. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 for his work in establishing and strengthening international Christian student organizations that worked to promote peace. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... YMCAs in the United States and Canada use this logo. ... Quaker Peace & Social Witness (QPSW), previously known as the British Friends Service Council, are an organisation of Quakers based in Britain that work to promote and put into practice the Quaker testimonies of equality, justice, peace, simplicity and truth. ... American Friends Service Committee logo The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) affiliated organization which works for social justice, peace and reconciliation, abolition of the death penalty, and human rights, and provides humanitarian relief. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Sir John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr (September 23, 1880 – June 25, 1971) was a Scottish doctor, biologist and politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standard of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to... The National Peace Council, founded in 1908, has acted as the co-ordinating body for almost 200 groups across Britain, with a membership ranging from small village peace groups to national trade unions and local authorities. ... Dr. Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1903 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist, diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Palestine. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Léon Jouhaux (1 July 1879 – 28 April 1954) was a French trade union leader who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... UN redirects here. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Dominique Pire (Georges Charles Clement Ghislain Pire) (February 10, 1910 – January 30, 1969) was a Belgian Dominican monk whose work helping refugees in post-World War II Europe saw him receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1958. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker (November 1, 1889 – October 8, 1982) was a politician, diplomat, academic and outstanding amateur athlete who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1959. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... UN redirects here. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) is an international humanitarian organisation, often better known as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Memorial for Cassin in Forbach/France René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist and judge. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25, 1914) is an American agronomist, humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the Green Revolution. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish-language acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a Mexico-based research institute dedicated to the development of improved varieties of wheat and maize. ... For the Oz character, see Willy Brandt (Oz). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Le Duc Tho (Lê Ðức Thọ  ) (October 14, 1911 – October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Vietnam. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 – 15 January 1988) was a prominent international politician. ... Satō negotiated with U.S. president Richard M. Nixon for the repatriation of Okinawa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... International Peace Bureau is an international organization whose goal is to coordinate the peace activities of various organizations in many countries. ... UN redirects here. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Betty Williams Betty Williams (born 22 May 1943) was a co-recipient with Mairead Corrigan of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 (the prize for 1976) for as a cofounder of Community of Peace People, an organisation dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Mairead Corrigan (born 27 January 1944) was the co-founder, with Betty Williams, of the Community of Peace People, an organization which attempts to encourage a peaceful resolution of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1972. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (born November 26, 1931 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was the recipient of the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Alva Reimer Myrdal (January 31, 1902 – February 1, 1986) received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. ... Alfonso García Robles (20 March 1911 – 2 September 1991) was a Mexican diplomat and politician who, in conjunction with Swedens Alva Myrdal, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean Opened for signature 14 February 1967 in Mexico City Entered into force 25 April 1969 Conditions for entry into force Deposit of ratifications (Art. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) is a worldwide grouping of national medical organizations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928)[1] is a writer, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Night is a work by Elie Wiesel based on his experience, as a young Orthodox Jew, of being sent with his family to the German death camp at Auschwitz, and later to the concentration camp at Buchenwald. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe only to go on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... Óscar Arias Sánchez (born 13 September 1940, in Heredia, Costa Rica) is the current President of Costa Rica, a position he also held from 1986-1990. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... Image File history File links AungSanSuuKyi1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Sir Joseph Rotblat, KCMG, CBE, FRS, (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish-born British-naturalised physicist. ... Pugwash encounter and tour held at the National Accelerator Laboratory, now Fermilab, September 12, 1970. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bishop Carlos Belo (left) Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo SDB (born February 3, 1948) is a Roman Catholic bishop who received, together with José Ramos Horta, the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize, for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor. The fifth child of Domingos... José Manuel Ramos Horta (born December 26, 1949) has been Foreign Minister of East Timor since independence in 2002, having previously been a spokesman for the East Timorese resistance in exile during the years of Indonesian occupation between 1975 and 1999. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... Motto: Unidade, Acção, Progresso (Portuguese: Unity, Action, Progress) Anthem: Pátria Capital (and largest city) Dili Official languages Tetum and Portuguese1 Demonym East Timorese Government Parliamentary republic  -  President José Ramos-Horta  -  Acting President Fernando de Araújo  -  Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão Independence from Portugal²   -  Declared November 28, 1975...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Jody Williams (born October 9, 1950 in Putney, Vermont) is an American teacher and aid worker who received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the campaign she led, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... John Hume. ... William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), is a politician from Northern Ireland who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Médecins Sans Frontières logo Médecins Sans Frontières ( ) (English: Doctors Without Borders, its official name in the United States) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Kim Dae-jung (born January 6, 1926) is a former South Korean president and the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, the first winner of a Nobel to hail from Korea [1]. A Roman Catholic since 1957, he has been called the Nelson Mandela of Asia [2] and was a symbol... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... UN redirects here. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Dr. Wangari Muta Maathai born April 1, 1940 in Ihithe village, Tetu division, Nyeri District of Kenya is an environmental and political activist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For the Indian diplomat, see Mohammad Yunus (diplomat). ... The Grameen Bank (Bangla: গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক) is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh that makes small loans (known as microcredit) to the impoverished without requiring collateral. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  2. ^ Altman, L. (2006). Alfred Nobel and the prize that almost didn't happen. New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2006.
  3. ^ BBC History - 1916 Easter Rising - Profiles - The Irish Republican Brotherhood BBC.
  4. ^ The Norwegian Nobel Institute- Why a Norwegian Nobel Committee?
  5. ^ The Norwegian Nobel Institute- From Nomination to Ceremony
  6. ^ Nomination Database - The Nobel Peace Prize, 1901-1955
  7. ^ Richardson, Gunnar, Förtroligt and hemligt : kunglig utrikespolitik och svensk neutralitet under andra världskriget. Stockholm : Carlsson, 2007
  8. ^ Controversies and Criticisms
  9. ^ a b Tønnesson, Øyvind (1999-12-01). Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  10. ^ Your Questions about the Nobel Peace Prize!
  11. ^ Presentation Speech by Egil Aarvik, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee
  12. ^ Rigoberta Menchú Tum - Biography
  13. ^ Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate, Nobelprize.org
  14. ^ Press Release - Peace 1986
  15. ^ The Nobel Prize. Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso).

The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Atoms for Peace Award was established in 1955 through a grant of $1,000,000 by the Ford Motor Company Fund. ... The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded anually by the government of India for outstanding work and contribution to social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. ... The International Stalin Prize or the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (renamed Russian: , the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples as a result of destalinization) was the Soviet Unions equivalent to the Nobel Peace Prize. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... The Kingdom of Sweden-Norway is a term sometimes, but erroneously, used to refer to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of...

External links


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