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Encyclopedia > Noam Chomsky
Western Philosophy
20th / 21st-century philosophy
Name
Noam Chomsky
Birth December 7, 1928 (1928-12-07) (age 79)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
School/tradition Linguistics, Analytic
Main interests Linguistics · Psychology
Philosophy of language
Politics · Ethics
Notable ideas Generative grammar, universal grammar, transformational grammar, government and binding, X-bar theory, Chomsky hierarchy, context-free grammar, principles and parameters, linguistic minimalism, language acquisition device, poverty of the stimulus, Chomsky Normal Form, propaganda model[1]
Influenced by Pāṇini, Bertrand Russell, John Dewey, Mikhail Bakunin, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Adam Smith, Rudolf Rocker, Zellig Harris, Immanuel Kant, René Descartes, George Orwell, Karl Marx, C. West Churchman, W.V.O. Quine, Alan Turing.
Influenced Colin McGinn, Edward Said, Steven Pinker, Tanya Reinhart, Daniel Everett, Morris Halle, Gilbert Harman, Jerry Fodor, Howard Lasnik, Robert Fisk, Neil Smith, Ray Jackendoff, Norbert Hornstein, Jean Bricmont, Marc Hauser, Norman Finkelstein, Robert Lees, Mark Baker, Julian Boyd, Bill Hicks, Ray C. Dougherty, Derek Bickerton, Thom Yorke, Michael Albert.

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. He is an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Living philosophers and academics of philosophy (and others important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically: (For philosophers who have recently passed away, see the companion list: List of philosophers born in the twentieth century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Noam_chomsky_cropped. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... X-bar theory is a component of linguistic theory which attempts to identify syntactic features common to all languages. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ... Principles and parameters refers to a popular framework in generative linguistics. ... The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated organ of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (ie. ... The poverty of the stimulus (POTS) argument is an argument in favour of linguistic nativism, which is the claim that humans are born with a specific adaptation for language that both funds and limits their competence to acquire specific types of natural languages over the course of their cognitive development... In computer science, a formal grammar is in Chomsky normal form iff all production rules are of the form: A → BC or A → α or S → ε where A, B and C are nonterminal symbols, α is a terminal symbol (a symbol that represents a constant value), S is the start symbol, and... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Rudolf Rocker (1873-1958) Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 - September 19, 1958) was an anarcho-syndicalist writer, historian and prominent activist. ... Zellig Sabbetai Harris (October 23, 1909 - May 22, 1992) was an American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science. ... Kant redirects here. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Colin McGinn (born 1950) is a British philosopher currently working at the University of Miami. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Tanya Reinhart is an Israeli linguist who writes frequently on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... Daniel Everett is a linguistics professor at the University of Manchester. ... Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz, is an American linguist. ... Gilbert Harman (born 1938) is a contemporary philosopher teaching at Princeton University who has published widely in Ethics, Epistemology, Metaphysics, and the philosophies of Language and Mind. ... Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is a philosopher at Rutgers University, New Jersey. ... Howard Lasnik is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Maryland. ... Robert Fisk during a lecture at Carleton University, Canada, 2004 Robert Fisk (born July 12, 1946 in Maidstone, Kent) is a British journalist and is currently a Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent. ... Neilson Voyne Smith FBA, better known as Neil Smith (born 1939) is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at University College London. ... Ray Jackendoff (born 1945) is an influential contemporary linguist who has always straddled the boundary between generative linguistics and cognitive linguistics, committed as he is both to the existence of an innate Universal Grammar (an all-important thesis of generative linguistics) and to giving an account of language that meshes... Norbert Hornstein is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Maryland. ... Jean Bricmont is a Belgian theoretical physicist and a professor at the Catholic University of Louvain. ... Marc Hauser is an ethologist who teaches at the Psychology Department at Harvard University. ... For other uses, see Norman Finkelstein (disambiguation). ... Robert B. Lees (1922-1996) was an American linguist. ... Mark C. Baker is an American linguist. ... Julian Charles Boyd (December 25, 1931 – April 5, 2005) was an American linguist, reputed for his expertise on modality in English, as well as for his pedagogical excellence at the University of California, Berkeley, where he spent most of his academic career. ... William Melvin Bill Hicks (December 16, 1961 – February 26, 1994) was an American stand-up comedian. ... Ray C. Dougherty is an American linguist and a member of the Arts and Science faculty at New York University. ... Derek Bickerton (born March 25, 1926) is a linguist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. ... Thomas Edward Yorke (born 7 October 1968 in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England) is a Grammy-nominated English musician, best known as the lead singer of the band Radiohead. ... Michael Albert (born April 8, 1947) is a longtime activist, speaker, and writer, is co-editor of ZNet, and co-editor and co-founder of Z Magazine. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Lecturer is a term of academic rank. ... At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the title of Institute Professor is given to a small number of members of the faculty with extraordinary records of achievement. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... “MIT” redirects here. ...


Chomsky is credited with the creation of the theory of generative grammar, considered to be one of the most significant contributions to the field of linguistics made in the 20th century. He also helped spark the cognitive revolution in psychology through his review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, in which he challenged the behaviorist approach to the study of behavior and language dominant in the 1950s. His naturalistic approach to the study of language has affected the philosophy of language and mind. He is also credited with the establishment of the Chomsky hierarchy, a classification of formal languages in terms of their generative power. Beginning with his critique of the Vietnam War in the 1960s, Chomsky has become more widely known for his media criticism and political activism, and for his criticism of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... The cognitive revolution is a name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the nascent fields of computer science and neuroscience. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... Verbal Behavior (1957), written by psychologist B.F. Skinner, develops a functional analysis [1][2] of human behavior encompassing what is traditionally called language, linguistics, or speech. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... ...


According to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index in 1992, Chomsky was cited as a source more often than any other living scholar during the 1980–1992 time period, and was the eighth most-cited scholar in any time period.[2][3][4] The Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) is the registered trademark for a citation index of over 1,000 of the worlds leading arts and humanities journals. ...

Contents

Biography

Chomsky as a child

Chomsky was born to Jewish parents in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Hebrew scholar and IWW member William Chomsky (1896–1977), who was from a town in Ukraine. His mother, Elsie Chomsky (born Simonofsky), came from what is now Belarus, but unlike her husband she grew up in the United States and spoke "ordinary New York English". Their first language was Yiddish, but Chomsky says it was "taboo" in his family to speak it. He describes his family as living in a sort of "Jewish ghetto", split into a "Yiddish side" and "Hebrew side", with his family aligning with the latter and bringing him up "immersed in Hebrew culture and literature". Chomsky also describes tensions he personally experienced with Irish Catholics and anti-semitism in the mid-1930s, stating, "I don't like to say it but I grew up with a kind of visceral fear of Catholics. I knew it was irrational and got over it but it was just the street experience."[5] This is a screenshot from Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. ... This is a screenshot from Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... East Oak Lane is a neighborhood in the Northern section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The IWW Label A Wobbly membership card The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having much in common with anarcho-syndicalist unions, but also many differences. ... New York Dialect is the variety of the English language spoken by most European Americans in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including Northern New Jersey, Westchester and Rockland counties, and all of Long Island. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... Irish Catholics is a term used to describe Irish people or people of Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Chomsky remembers the first article he wrote was at the age of ten while a student at Oak Lane Country Day School about the threat of the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona in the Spanish Civil War. From the age of twelve or thirteen, he identified more fully with anarchist politics.[6] Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


A graduate of Central High School of Philadelphia, in 1945 Chomsky began studying philosophy and linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, learning from philosophers C. West Churchman and Nelson Goodman and linguist Zellig Harris. Harris's teaching included his discovery of transformations as a mathematical analysis of language structure (mappings from one subset to another in the set of sentences). Chomsky subsequently reinterpreted these as operations on the productions of a context-free grammar (derived from Post production systems). Harris's political views were instrumental in shaping those of Chomsky. Chomsky received a BA in 1949 and an MA in 1951 from the University of Pennsylvania. Central High School is the second oldest public high school in the United States. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906, Somerville, Maryland – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, and aesthetics. ... Zellig Sabbetai Harris (October 23, 1909 - May 22, 1992) was an American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science. ... In mathematics, a linear transformation (also called linear map or linear operator) is a function between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication. ... In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ... // Definition A tag system is a triplet (m, A, P), where m is a positive integer; A is a finite alphabet of symbols, one of which is a special halting symbol; P is a set of production rules, assigning some word P(x) to each non-halting symbol x in... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


In 1949, Chomsky married linguist Carol Schatz. They have two daughters, Aviva (b. 1957) and Diane (b. 1960), and a son, Harry (b. 1967). Aviva Chomsky is a professor at Salem State College and former professor at Harvard University, specializing in history of Latin America and the Caribbean. ...


Chomsky received his PhD in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955. He conducted part of his doctoral research during four years at Harvard University as a Harvard Junior Fellow. In his doctoral thesis, he began to develop some of his linguistic ideas, elaborating on them in his 1957 book Syntactic Structures, his best-known work in linguistics. Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The Harvard Society of Fellows is a collection of luminaries selected by Harvard University to be held close to its bosom, given special honors, thrown elegant dinners, and upon whom various privileges are bestowed. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Syntactic Structures is the name of an influential book by Noam Chomsky first published in 1957. ...

Young Chomsky with parents

Chomsky joined the staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1955 and in 1961 was appointed full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics (now the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy). From 1966 to 1976 he held the Ferrari P. Ward Professorship of Modern Languages and Linguistics, and in 1976 he was appointed Institute Professor. As of 2008, Chomsky has taught at MIT continuously for 53 years. This is a screenshot from Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. ... This is a screenshot from Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. ...


In February 1967, Chomsky became one of the leading opponents of the Vietnam War with the publication of his essay, "The Responsibility of Intellectuals",[7] in The New York Review of Books. This was followed by his 1969 book, American Power and the New Mandarins, a collection of essays which established him at the forefront of American dissent. His far-reaching criticisms of US foreign policy and the legitimacy of US power have made him a controversial figure: largely shunned by the mainstream media in the United States,[8][9][10][11] he is frequently sought out for his views by publications and news outlets worldwide. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... American Power and the New Mandarins is a book by the US academic Noam Chomsky. ... Criticism of Noam Chomsky - the linguist and social critic - typically centers on his political writings on American political and military power. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Chomsky has in the past received death threats because of his criticisms of U.S foreign policy.[12] In addition, he was on a list of planned targets created by Theodore Kaczynski, better known as the Unabomber; during the period that Kaczynski was at large, Chomsky had all of his mail checked for explosives.[13] Chomsky states that he frequently receives undercover police protection, in particular while on the MIT campus, although he does not agree with the police protection.[14] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Unabomber is a nickname applied to three people: Theodore Kaczynski, an American terrorist. ...


Chomsky resides in Lexington, Massachusetts and travels frequently, giving lectures on politics. Lexington is a town located in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Contributions to linguistics

Chomskyan linguistics, beginning with his Syntactic Structures, a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955, 75), challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar. This theory takes utterances (sequences of words) to have a syntax which can be characterized by a formal grammar; in particular, a context-free grammar extended with transformational rules. Syntactic Structures is the name of an influential book by Noam Chomsky first published in 1957. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ...


Children are hypothesized to have an innate knowledge of the basic grammatical structure common to all human languages (i.e. they assume that any language which they encounter is of a certain restricted kind). This innate knowledge is often referred to as universal grammar. It is argued that modeling knowledge of language using a formal grammar accounts for the "productivity" of language: with a limited set of grammar rules and a finite set of terms, humans are able to produce an infinite number of sentences, including sentences no one has previously said. He has always acknowledged his debt to Pāṇini for his modern notion of an explicit generative grammar. This is related to Rationalist ideas of a priori knowledge, in that it is not due to experience. Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... A priori is originally a Latin phrase meaning from the former or from what comes before. However, several different uses of the term have developed in English: A priori (law) - adj. ...


The Principles and Parameters approach (P&P)—developed in his Pisa 1979 Lectures, later published as Lectures on Government and Binding (LGB)—make strong claims regarding universal grammar: that the grammatical principles underlying languages are innate and fixed, and the differences among the world's languages can be characterized in terms of parameter settings in the brain (such as the pro-drop parameter, which indicates whether an explicit subject is always required, as in English, or can be optionally dropped, as in Spanish), which are often likened to switches. (Hence the term principles and parameters, often given to this approach.) In this view, a child learning a language need only acquire the necessary lexical items (words, grammatical morphemes, and idioms), and determine the appropriate parameter settings, which can be done based on a few key examples. A lexicon is a list of words together with additional word-specific information, i. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


Proponents of this view argue that the pace at which children learn languages is inexplicably rapid, unless children have an innate ability to learn languages. The similar steps followed by children all across the world when learning languages, and the fact that children make certain characteristic errors as they learn their first language, whereas other seemingly logical kinds of errors never occur (and, according to Chomsky, should be attested if a purely general, rather than language-specific, learning mechanism were being employed), are also pointed to as motivation for innateness.


More recently, in his Minimalist Program (1995), while retaining the core concept of "principles and parameters", Chomsky attempts a major overhaul of the linguistic machinery involved in the LGB model, stripping from it all but the barest necessary elements, while advocating a general approach to the architecture of the human language faculty that emphasizes principles of economy and optimal design, reverting to a derivational approach to generation, in contrast with the largely representational approach of classic P&P. Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskyan tradition. ...


Chomsky's ideas have had a strong influence on researchers investigating the acquisition of language in children, though some[specify] researchers who work in this area today do not support Chomsky's theories, instead advocating emergentist or connectionist theories reducing language to an instance of general processing mechanisms in the brain. For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Connectionism today generally refers to an approach in the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science and philosophy of mind which models mental or behavioral phenomena with neural networks, and is associated with a certain set of arguments for why this is a good idea. ...


He also theorizes that unlimited extension of a language such as English is possible only by the recursive device of embedding sentences in sentences.[citation needed] This article is about the concept of recursion. ...


His best-known work in phonology is The Sound Pattern of English (1968), written with Morris Halle (and often known as simply SPE). This work has had a great significance for the development in the field. While phonological theory has since moved beyond "SPE phonology" in many important respects, the SPE system is considered the precursor of some of the most influential phonological theories today, including autosegmental phonology, lexical phonology and optimality theory. Chomsky does not publish on phonology anymore. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. ... Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz, is an American linguist. ... Autosegmental phonology is the name of a framework of phonological analysis proposed by John Goldsmith in his PhD thesis in 1976 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... Optimality theory or OT is a linguistic model originally proposed by the linguists Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky in 1993. ...


Generative grammar

The Chomskyan approach towards syntax, often termed generative grammar, studies grammar as a body of knowledge possessed by language users. Since the 1960s, Chomsky has maintained that much of this knowledge is innate, implying that children need only learn certain parochial features of their native languages.[15] The innate body of linguistic knowledge is often termed Universal Grammar. From Chomsky's perspective, the strongest evidence for the existence of Universal Grammar is simply the fact that children successfully acquire their native languages in so little time. He argues that the linguistic data to which children have access radically underdetermine the rich linguistic knowledge which they attain by adulthood (the "poverty of the stimulus" argument). For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... The poverty of the stimulus (POTS) argument is an argument in favour of linguistic nativism, which is the claim that humans are born with a specific adaptation for language that both funds and limits their competence to acquire specific types of natural languages over the course of their cognitive development...


Chomsky's theories are popular, particularly in the United States, but they have never been free from controversy. Criticism has come from a number of different directions. Chomskyan linguists rely heavily on the intuitions of native speakers regarding which sentences of their languages are well-formed. This practice has been criticized both on general methodological grounds, and because it has (some argue) led to an overemphasis on the study of English. As of now, hundreds of different languages have received at least some attention in the generative grammar literature,[16][17][18][19][20] but some critics nonetheless perceive this overemphasis, and a tendency to base claims about Universal Grammar on an overly small sample of languages. Some psychologists and psycholinguists, though sympathetic to Chomsky's overall program, have argued that Chomskyan linguists pay insufficient attention to experimental data from language processing, with the consequence that their theories are not psychologically plausible. More radical critics have questioned whether it is necessary to posit Universal Grammar in order to explain child language acquisition, arguing that domain-general learning mechanisms are sufficient. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ...


Today there are many different branches of generative grammar; one can view grammatical frameworks such as head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar and combinatory categorial grammar as broadly Chomskian and generative in orientation, but with significant differences in execution. The Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a non-derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). ... Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a reaction to the direction research in the area of transformational grammar began to take in the 1970s. ...


Cultural anthropologist and linguist Daniel Everett of Illinois State University has proposed that the language of the Pirahã people of the northwestern rainforest of Brazil resists Chomsky's theories of generative grammar. Everett asserts that the Pirahã language does not have any evidence of recursion, one of the key properties of generative grammar. Additionally, it is claimed that the Pirahan have no fixed words for colors or numbers, speak in single phonemes, and often speak in prosody.[21] However, Everett's claims have themselves been criticized. David Pesetsky of MIT, Andrew Nevins of Harvard, and Cilene Rodrigues of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in Brazil have argued in a joint paper that all of Everett's major claims contain serious deficiencies.[22] The dispute continues, pending further field research and analysis.[23] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Daniel Everett is a linguistics professor at the University of Manchester. ... Illinois State University is a public university in Normal, Illinois and is the oldest public institution of higher education in the state. ... The Pirahã people are an indigenous hunter-gatherer tribe of Amazon natives, who mainly live on the banks of the Maici River in Brazil. ... Pirahã (also Pirahá, Pirahán) is a language spoken by the Pirahã — an indigenous people of Amazonas, Brazil, who live along the Maici river, a tributary of the Amazon. ... This article is about the concept of recursion. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ...


Chomsky hierarchy

Main article: Chomsky hierarchy

Chomsky is famous for investigating various kinds of formal languages and whether or not they might be capable of capturing key properties of human language. His Chomsky hierarchy partitions formal grammars into classes, or groups, with increasing expressive power, i.e., each successive class can generate a broader set of formal languages than the one before. Interestingly, Chomsky argues that modeling some aspects of human language requires a more complex formal grammar (as measured by the Chomsky hierarchy) than modeling others. For example, while a regular language is powerful enough to model English morphology, it is not powerful enough to model English syntax. In addition to being relevant in linguistics, the Chomsky hierarchy has also become important in computer science (especially in compiler construction and automata theory). The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... In theoretical computer science, a regular language is a formal language (i. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... “Automata” redirects here. ...

Automata theory: formal languages and formal grammars
Chomsky
hierarchy
Grammars Languages Minimal
automaton
Type-0 Unrestricted Recursively enumerable Turing machine
n/a (no common name) Recursive Decider
Type-1 Context-sensitive Context-sensitive Linear-bounded
n/a Indexed Indexed Nested stack
n/a Tree-adjoining etc. (Mildly context-sensitive) Embedded pushdown
Type-2 Context-free Context-free Nondeterministic pushdown
n/a Deterministic context-free Deterministic context-free Deterministic pushdown
Type-3 Regular Regular Finite
n/a Star-free Counter-Free
Each category of languages or grammars is a proper subset of the category directly above it,
and any automaton in each category has an equivalent automaton in the category directly above it.

“Automata” redirects here. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... Fig. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A recursively enumerable language in mathematics, logic and computer science, is a type of formal language which is also called partially decidable or Turing-recognizable. ... For the test of artificial intelligence, see Turing test. ... A recursive language in mathematics, logic and computer science, is a type of formal language which is also called recursive, decidable or Turing-decidable. ... In computability theory, a machine that always halts — also called a decider (Sipser, 1996) — is any abstract machine or model of computation that, contrary to the most general Turing machines, is guaranteed to halt for any particular description and input (see halting problem). ... A context-sensitive grammar is a formal grammar in which the left-hand sides and right-hand sides of any production rules may be surrounded by a context of terminal and nonterminal symbols. ... A context-sensitive language is a formal language that can be defined by a context-sensitive grammar. ... A linear bounded automaton (plural linear bounded automata, abbreviated LBA) is a restricted form of a Turing machine. ... An indexed language is a formal language discovered by Alfred Aho, which are a proper subset of context-sensitive languages and a proper superset of context-free languages. ... An indexed language is a formal language discovered by Alfred Aho, which are a proper subset of context-sensitive languages and a proper superset of context-free languages. ... In automata theory, a nested stack automaton or is a finite automaton that can make use of a stack containing data which can be additional stacks. ... Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) is a grammar formalism defined by Aravind Joshi which is often used in computational linguistics and natural language processing. ... In formal grammar theory, mildly context-sensitive languages are a class of formal languages which can be efficiently parsed, but still possess enough context sensitivity to allow the parsing of natural languages. ... An embedded pushdown automaton or EPDA is a computational model that parse languages in the tree-adjoining grammar (TAG). ... In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In automata theory, a pushdown automaton (PDA) is a finite automaton that can make use of a stack containing data. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In automata theory, a deterministic pushdown automaton is a deterministic finite state machine that can make use of a stack containing data. ... In computer science a right regular grammar is a formal grammar (N, Σ, P, S) such that all the production rules in P are of one of the following forms: A → a - where A is a non-terminal in N and a is a terminal in Σ A → aB - where A and... In theoretical computer science, a regular language is a formal language (i. ... In the theory of computation, a finite state machine (FSM) or finite state automaton (FSA) is an abstract machine that has only a finite, constant amount of memory. ... A regular language is said to be star-free if it can be described by a regular expression constructed from the letters of the alphabet, the empty set symbol, boolean operators and concatenation but no Kleene star. ... Superset redirects here. ...

Contributions to psychology

Chomsky's work in linguistics has had major implications for modern psychology.[24] For Chomsky, linguistics is a branch of cognitive psychology; genuine insights in linguistics imply concomitant understandings of aspects of mental processing and human nature. His theory of a universal grammar was seen by many as a direct challenge to the established behaviorist theories of the time and had major consequences for understanding how language is learned by children and what, exactly, the ability to use language is. Many of the more basic principles of this theory (though not necessarily the stronger claims made by the principles and parameters approach described above) are now generally accepted in some circles.[dubious ] {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Principles and parameters refers to a popular framework in generative linguistics. ...


In 1959, Chomsky published an influential critique of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, a book in which Skinner offered a speculative explanation of language in behavioral terms. "Verbal behavior" he defined as learned behavior which has its characteristic consequences being delivered through the learned behavior of others; this makes for a view of communicative behaviors much larger than that usually addressed by linguists. Skinner's approach focused on the circumstances in which language was used; for example, asking for water was functionally a different response than labeling something as water, responding to someone asking for water, etc. These functionally different kinds of responses, which required in turn separate explanations, sharply contrasted both with traditional notions of language and Chomsky's psycholinguistic approach. Chomsky thought that a functionalist explanation restricting itself to questions of communicative performance ignored important questions. (Chomsky-Language and Mind, 1968). He focused on questions concerning the operation and development of innate structures for syntax capable of creatively organizing, cohering, adapting and combining words and phrases into intelligible utterances. Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ...


In the review Chomsky emphasized that the scientific application of behavioral principles from animal research is severely lacking in explanatory adequacy and is furthermore particularly superficial as an account of human verbal behavior because a theory restricting itself to external conditions, to "what is learned", cannot adequately account for generative grammar. Chomsky raised the examples of rapid language acquisition of children, including their quickly developing ability to form grammatical sentences, and the universally creative language use of competent native speakers to highlight the ways in which Skinner's view exemplified under-determination of theory by evidence. He argued that to understand human verbal behavior such as the creative aspects of language use and language development, one must first postulate a genetic linguistic endowment. The assumption that important aspects of language are the product of universal innate ability runs counter to Skinner's radical behaviorism.


Chomsky's 1959 review has drawn fire from a number of critics, the most famous criticism being that of Kenneth MacCorquodale's 1970 paper On Chomsky’s Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, volume 13, pages 83–99). This and similar critiques have raised certain points not generally acknowledged outside of behavioral psychology, such as the claim that Chomsky did not possess an adequate understanding of either behavioral psychology in general, or the differences between Skinner's behaviorism and other varieties; consequently, it is argued that he made several serious errors. On account of these perceived problems, the critics maintain that the review failed to demonstrate what it has often been cited as doing. As such, it is averred that those most influenced by Chomsky's paper probably either already substantially agreed with Chomsky or never actually read it. Chomsky has maintained that the review was directed at the way Skinner's variant of behavioral psychology "was being used in Quinean empiricism and naturalization of philosophy".[25]


It has been claimed that Chomsky's critique of Skinner's methodology and basic assumptions paved the way for the "cognitive revolution", the shift in American psychology between the 1950s through the 1970s from being primarily behavioral to being primarily cognitive. In his 1966 Cartesian Linguistics and subsequent works, Chomsky laid out an explanation of human language faculties that has become the model for investigation in some areas of psychology. Much of the present conception of how the mind works draws directly from ideas that found their first persuasive author of modern times in Chomsky. The cognitive revolution is a name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the nascent fields of computer science and neuroscience. ...


There are three key ideas. First is that the mind is "cognitive", or that the mind actually contains mental states, beliefs, doubts, and so on. Second, he argued that most of the important properties of language and mind are innate. The acquisition and development of a language is a result of the unfolding of innate propensities triggered by the experiential input of the external environment. The link between human innate aptitude to language and heredity has been at the core of the debate opposing Noam Chomsky to Jean Piaget at the Abbaye de Royaumont in 1975 (Language and Learning. The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, Harvard University Press, 1980). Although links between the genetic setup of humans and aptitude to language have been suggested at that time and in later discussions, we are still far from understanding the genetic bases of human language. Work derived from the model of selective stabilization of synapses set up by Jean-Pierre Changeux, Philippe Courrège and Antoine Danchin,[26] and more recently developed experimentally and theoretically by Jacques Mehler and Stanislas Dehaene in particular in the domain of numerical cognition lend support to the Chomskyan "nativism". It does not, however, provide clues about the type of rules that would organize neuronal connections to permit language competence. Subsequent psychologists have extended this general "nativist" thesis beyond language. Lastly, Chomsky made the concept of "modularity" a critical feature of the mind's cognitive architecture. The mind is composed of an array of interacting, specialized subsystems with limited flows of inter-communication. This model contrasts sharply with the old idea that any piece of information in the mind could be accessed by any other cognitive process (optical illusions, for example, cannot be "turned off" even when they are known to be illusions). Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... Jean-Pierre Changeux (born in Domont, France, April 7, 1936) is a French neuroscientist, who researched many different areas of biology in his life, from the structure and function of proteins, to the early development of the nervous system. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Born in Barcelona (Spain) in 1936, Jacques Mehler is an influential cognitive psychologist. ... Stanislas Dehaene is a Professor at the Collège de France and has been director of INSERM Unit 562 (the French equivalent of the U.S. National Institutes of Health or the British Medical Research Council) since 1989. ... Numerical cognition is a subdisipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics. ... Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind, at least in part, may be composed of separate innate structures which have established evolutionarily-developed functional purposes (ie. ...


He is also not fond of psychoanalysis. In an interview with the New York Times he stated, "I do not think psychoanalysis has a scientific basis. If we can't explain why a cockroach decides to turn left, how can we explain why a human being decides to do something?"[27]


Opinion on cultural criticism of science

Chomsky strongly disagrees with post-structuralist and postmodern criticisms of science: Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists that wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

I have spent a lot of my life working on questions such as these, using the only methods I know of; those condemned here as "science", "rationality", "logic" and so on. I therefore read the papers with some hope that they would help me "transcend" these limitations, or perhaps suggest an entirely different course. I'm afraid I was disappointed. Admittedly, that may be my own limitation. Quite regularly, "my eyes glaze over" when I read polysyllabic discourse on the themes of poststructuralism and postmodernism; what I understand is largely truism or error, but that is only a fraction of the total word count. True, there are lots of other things I don't understand: the articles in the current issues of math and physics journals, for example. But there is a difference. In the latter case, I know how to get to understand them, and have done so, in cases of particular interest to me; and I also know that people in these fields can explain the contents to me at my level, so that I can gain what (partial) understanding I may want. In contrast, no one seems to be able to explain to me why the latest post-this-and-that is (for the most part) other than truism, error, or gibberish, and I do not know how to proceed.[28] Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device. ...

Chomsky believes that science is a good way to start understanding history and human affairs:

I think studying science is a good way to get into fields like history. The reason is, you learn what an argument means, you learn what evidence is, you learn what makes sense to postulate and when, what's going to be convincing. You internalize the modes of rational inquiry, which happen to be much more advanced in the sciences than anywhere else. On the other hand, applying relativity theory to history isn't going to get you anywhere. So it's a mode of thinking.[29]

Chomsky has also commented on critiques of "white male science", stating that they are much like the antisemitic and politically motivated attacks against "Jewish physics" used by the Nazis to denigrate research done by Jewish scientists during the Deutsche Physik movement: Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics (German: ). The term was taken from the title of a 4-volume physics textbook by Philipp...

In fact, the entire idea of "white male science" reminds me, I'm afraid, of "Jewish physics". Perhaps it is another inadequacy of mine, but when I read a scientific paper, I can't tell whether the author is white or is male. The same is true of discussion of work in class, the office, or somewhere else. I rather doubt that the non-white, non-male students, friends, and colleagues with whom I work would be much impressed with the doctrine that their thinking and understanding differ from "white male science" because of their "culture or gender and race." I suspect that "surprise" would not be quite the proper word for their reaction.[30] Cultural bias is the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to ones own culture. ...

Political views

Chomsky at the World Social Forum (Porto Alegre) in 2003.
Chomsky at the World Social Forum (Porto Alegre) in 2003.
Part of the Philosophy series on

Anarchism Noam Chomsky is a widely known intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments. ... Noam Chomsky at World Social Forum - 2003. ... Noam Chomsky at World Social Forum - 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Anarchist redirects here. ...

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Chomsky has stated that his "personal visions are fairly traditional anarchist ones, with origins in The Enlightenment and classical liberalism"[31] and he has praised libertarian socialism.[32] He is a sympathizer of anarcho-syndicalism[33] and a member of the IWW union.[34] He has published a book on anarchism titled, "Chomsky on Anarchism", which was published by the anarchist book collective, AK Press, in 2006. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... AK Press is a collectively owned and operated independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical and anarchist literature. ...


Noam Chomsky has been engaged in political activism all of his adult life and expressed opinions on politics and world events which are widely cited, publicized and discussed. Chomsky has in turn argued that his views are those which the powerful do not want to hear, and for this reason he is considered an American political dissident. Some highlights of his political views: For the Pearl Jam song, see Dissident (song). ...

  • Power, unless justified, is inherently illegitimate. The burden of proof is on those in authority to demonstrate why their elevated position is justified. If this burden can't be met, the authority in question should be dismantled. Authority for its own sake is inherently unjustified. An example of a legitimate authority is that exerted by an adult to prevent a young child from wandering into traffic.[35]
  • That there isn't much difference between slavery, and renting one's self to an owner, or "wage slavery." He feels that it is an attack on personal integrity that destroys and undermines our freedoms. He holds that those that work in the mills should run them, a view held (as he notes) by the Lowell Mill Girls.[36]
  • Very strong criticisms of the foreign policy of the United States. Specifically, he claims double standards (which he labels "single standard") in a foreign policy preaching democracy and freedom for all, while promoting, supporting and allying itself with non-democratic and repressive organizations and states such as Chile under Augusto Pinochet, and argues that this results in massive human rights violations. He often argues that America's intervention in foreign nations, including the secret aid given to the Contras in Nicaragua, an event of which he has been very critical, fits any standard description of terrorism.[37]
  • He has argued that the mass media in the United States largely serve as a propaganda arm and "bought priesthood" of the U.S. government and U.S. corporations, with the three parties all largely intertwined through common interests. In a famous reference to Walter Lippmann, Chomsky along with his coauthor, Edward S. Herman has written that the American media manufactures consent among the public.
  • He has opposed the U.S. global "war on drugs", claiming its language to be misleading, and referring to it as "the war on certain drugs." He favors education and prevention rather than military or police action as a means of reducing drug use.[38] In an interview in 1999, Chomsky argued that, whereas crops such as tobacco receive no mention in governmental exposition, other non-profitable crops, such as marijuana, are specifically targeted due to the effect achieved by persecuting the poor.[39]
"US domestic drug policy does not carry out its stated goals, and policymakers are well aware of that. If it isn't about reducing substance abuse, what is it about? It is reasonably clear, both from current actions and the historical record, that substances tend to be criminalized when they are associated with the so-called dangerous classes, that the criminalization of certain substances is a technique of social control."[40]
  • Critical of the American capitalist system and big business, he describes himself as a libertarian socialist who sympathizes with anarcho-syndicalism and is also critical of Leninist branches of socialism. He also believes that libertarian socialist values exemplify the rational and morally consistent extension of original unreconstructed classical liberal and radical humanist ideas to an industrial context. Specifically he believes that society should be highly organized and based on democratic control of communities and work places. He believes that the radical humanist ideas of his two major influences, Bertrand Russell and John Dewey, were "rooted in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism, and retain their revolutionary character."[41]
  • Chomsky has stated that he believes the United States remains the "greatest country in the world"[42], a comment that he later clarified by saying, "Evaluating countries is senseless and I would never put things in those terms, but that some of America's advances, particularly in the area of free speech, that have been achieved by centuries of popular struggle, are to be admired."[43] He has also said "In many respects, the United States is the freest country in the world. I don't just mean in terms of limits on state coercion, though that's true too, but also in terms of individual relations. The United States comes closer to classlessness in terms of interpersonal relations than virtually any society."[44]
  • According to Chomsky: "I'm a boring speaker and I like it that way…. I doubt that people are attracted to whatever the persona is…. People are interested in the issues, and they're interested in the issues because they are important."[45] "We don't want to be swayed by superficial eloquence, by emotion and so on."[46]
  • He holds views that can be summarized as anti-war but not strictly pacifist. He prominently opposed the Vietnam War and most other wars in his lifetime. However, he maintains that U.S. involvement in World War II was probably justified, with the caveat that a preferable outcome would have been to end or prevent the war through earlier diplomacy. In particular, he believes that the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were "among the most unspeakable crimes in history".[47]
  • He has a broad view of free-speech rights, especially in the mass media; he opposes censorship and refuses to take legal action against those who may have libeled him.[48]
  • He has made major criticisms of Israel including a recent statement saying that Israel is heading for destruction because of their warmongering policies.[49]

Chomsky has frequently stated that there is no connection between his work in linguistics and his political views, and is generally critical of the idea that competent discussion of political topics requires expert knowledge in academic fields. In a 1969 interview, he said regarding the connection between his politics and his work in linguistics: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Wage slavery is a term first coined by the Lowell Mill Girls in 1836[4], though articulated in concept as early as 1763 [5] and elaborated on by various subsequent thinkers. ... Tintype of two young women in Lowell, Massachusetts Lowell Mill Girls is the colloquial name used collectively to refer to female textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts in the 19th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Contra. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Originating with the American labour press [1] in the early to mid 20th century and popularized again more recently by dissident intellectuals like Noam Chomsky, bought priesthood refers to the constellation of technocrats, columnists, pundits, university professors, public intellectuals, business lobbyists and so on who are said to benefit from... ... Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Manufacturing Consent may refer to: Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism, a 1979 book by Michael Burawoy Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, a 1988 book by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, a 1992 documentary... For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Libertarian socialism is a political philosophy dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the state. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... “Libel” redirects here. ...

I still feel myself that there is a kind of tenuous connection. I would not want to overstate it but I think it means something to me at least. I think that anyone's political ideas or their ideas of social organization must be rooted ultimately in some concept of human nature and human needs. (New Left Review, 57, Sept. – Oct. 1969, p. 21)

Chomsky's influence in other fields

Chomskyan models have been used as a theoretical basis in several other fields. The Chomsky hierarchy is often taught in fundamental computer science courses as it confers insight into the various types of formal languages. This hierarchy can also be discussed in mathematical terms[50] and has generated interest among mathematicians, particularly combinatorialists. Some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results.[51] The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... Combinatorics is a branch of pure mathematics concerning the study of discrete (and usually finite) objects. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ...


The 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine and Physiology, Niels K. Jerne, used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, equating "components of a generative grammar … with various features of protein structures". The title of Jerne's Stockholm Nobel lecture was "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System". Niels Kaj Jerne (December 23, 1911 - October 7, 1994) was a British-Danish-Swedish (English-born) immunologist. ...


Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University, was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability. Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... In linguistics, animal language acquisition (ALA) refers to controversial claims and experiments which assert, or are otherwised based in a view that non-human animals hold abilities for generating and communicating the symbols of abstract language, though they have not manifest such abilities in nature. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ...


Famous computer scientist Donald Knuth admits to reading Syntactic Structures during his honeymoon and being greatly influenced by it. "…I must admit to taking a copy of Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures along with me on my honeymoon in 1961 … Here was a marvelous thing: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition!". Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ...


Another focus of Chomsky's political work has been an analysis of mainstream mass media (especially in the United States), its structures and constraints, and its perceived role in supporting big business and government interests.


Edward S. Herman and Chomsky's book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988) explores this topic in depth, presenting their "propaganda model" of the news media with numerous detailed case studies demonstrating it. According to this propaganda model, more democratic societies like the U.S. use subtle, non-violent means of control, unlike totalitarian systems, where physical force can readily be used to coerce the general population. In an often-quoted remark, Chomsky states that "propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state." (Media Control) Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ...


The model attempts to explain this perceived systemic bias of the mass media in terms of structural economic causes rather than a conspiracy of people. It argues the bias derives from five "filters" that all published news must "pass through" which combine to systematically distort news coverage.


The first filter, ownership, notes that most major media outlets are owned by large corporations. The second, funding, notes that the outlets derive the majority of their funding from advertising, not readers. Thus, since they are profit-oriented businesses selling a product—readers and audiences—to other businesses (advertisers), the model would expect them to publish news which would reflect the desires and values of those businesses. In addition, the news media are dependent on government institutions and major businesses with strong biases as sources (the third filter) for much of their information. Flak, the fourth filter, refers to the various pressure groups which attack the media for supposed bias. Norms, the fifth filter, refer to the common conceptions shared by those in the profession of journalism. (Note: in the original text, published in 1988, the fifth filter was "anticommunism". However, with the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been broadened to allow for shifts in public opinion.) The model describes how the media form a decentralized and non-conspiratorial but nonetheless very powerful propaganda system, that is able to mobilize an élite consensus, frame public debate within élite perspectives and at the same time give the appearance of democratic consent.


Chomsky and Herman test their model empirically by picking "paired examples"—pairs of events that were objectively similar except for the alignment of domestic elite interests. They use a number of such examples to attempt to show that in cases where an "official enemy" does something (like murder of a religious official), the press investigates thoroughly and devotes a great amount of coverage to the matter, thus victims of "enemy" states are considered "worthy". But when the domestic government or an ally does the same thing (or worse), the press downplays the story, thus victims of US or US client states are considered "unworthy."


They also test their model against the case that is often held up as the best example of a free and aggressively independent press, the media coverage of the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War. Even in this case, they argue that the press was behaving subserviently to élite interests. Belligerents Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength ~120,000[1] ~323 - 595,000[2] Casualties and losses Phase I: 2,788 killed, 8... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Academic achievements, awards and honors

In the spring of 1969 he delivered the John Locke Lectures at Oxford University; in January 1970 he delivered the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture at University of Cambridge; in 1972, the Nehru Memorial Lecture in New Delhi; in 1977, the Huizinga Lecture in Leiden; in 1988 the Massey Lectures at the University of Toronto titled "Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies". In 1997, The Davie Memorial Lecture on Academic Freedom in Cape Town,[52] among many others.[53] For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... The Massey Lectures are a prestigious annual event in Canada, in which a noted Canadian or international scholar gives a week-long series of lectures on a political, cultural or philosophical topic. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ...


Chomsky has received many honorary degrees from universities around the world, including the following:

He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. In addition, he is a member of other professional and learned societies in the United States and abroad, and is a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association, the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences, the Helmholtz Medal, the Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award, the Ben Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science, and others.[54] He is twice winner of The Orwell Award, granted by The National Council of Teachers of English for "Distinguished Contributions to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language"[55] Website http://www. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Swarthmore College is a private, independent, liberal arts college in the United States with an enrollment of about 1,450 students. ... University of Delhi,New Delhi The University of Delhi is a university in India. ... For other meanings of the word Bard, see Bard (disambiguation). ... University of Massachusetts may refer to: UMass Amherst; Middlesex University The University of Massachusetts (officially nicknamed UMass) is the five-campus public university system of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... The Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) is the largest university in Argentina, founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires. ... McGill University is a public co-educational research university located in Montréal, Québec, Canada. ... The Universitat Rovira i Virgili is located in the city of Tarragona, Catalonia. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Villanova University is a private university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. ... The University of Connecticut is the State of Connecticuts land-grant university. ... UMO redirects here, but this abbreviation is also used informally to mean the Mozilla Add-ons website, formerly Mozilla Update Should not be confused with Université du Maine, in Le Mans, France The University of Maine, established in 1865, is the flagship university of the University of Maine System. ... The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, also known in Italian language as Scuola Normale (English: Normal High School College of Pisa or Normal School), is with no doubt the most elitary college in the whole Italian universities world. ... The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a research university located in London, Ontario. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Universidad de Chile may refer to: Universidad de Chile (university) Universidad de Chile (football club) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... Universidad de La Frontera is a university in Chile. ... Formally established on the 24 January 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) (Bengali: কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, is the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia) is the main university of Colombia. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... Instituto Tecnológico Santo Domingo (INTEC) is a private university founded in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic during June of 1972 by a group of young professionals and is considered the second best countrys institute of higher education, after the PUCMM. [1] // INTEC began with the intention to contribute to... The Neo-Renaissance main University building in the University Park, Uppsala (designed by Herman Teodor Holmgren and completed in 1887). ... The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, is the oldest university in the region of the eastern Mediterranean and has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. ... The University of Cyprus (UCY)(in Greek: Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου)is a young university established in 1989. ... The House of the Academy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... The Kyoto Prize (京都賞) has been awarded annually since 1984 by the Inamori Foundation, founded by Kazuo Inamori (fortune from ceramics). ... The NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language (the Orwell Award for short), established in 1975 and given by the NCTE Committee on Public Doublespeak, recognizes writers who have made outstanding contributions to the critical analysis of public discourse. ...


He is a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Department of Social Sciences.[56] The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ...


In 2005, Chomsky received an honorary fellowship from the Literary and Historical Society.   The Literary and Historical Society (L&H) is University College Dublins oldest debating society and the official College Debating Union. ...


In 2007, Chomsky received The Uppsala University (Sweden) Honorary Doctor's degree in commemoration of Carolus Linnaeus.[57] The Neo-Renaissance main University building in the University Park, Uppsala (designed by Herman Teodor Holmgren and completed in 1887). ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


In February 2008, he received the President's Medal from the Literary and Debating Society of the National University of Ireland, Galway. The Literary & Debating Society (often referred to as the Lit & Deb) is a debating society of the National University of Ireland, Galway. ... The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ...


Chomsky was voted the leading living public intellectual in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll conducted by the British magazine Prospect. He reacted, saying "I don't pay a lot of attention to polls".[58] In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006, he was voted seventh in the list of "Heroes of our time".[59] An intellectual is a person who uses their intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Some of the public intellectuals who won The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll. ... This article is about the current affairs magazine. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ...


Criticism

Due to the nature of his writings and beliefs, Chomsky has acquired many critics. Criticism of Noam Chomsky - the linguist and social critic - typically centers on his political writings on American political and military power. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Authors on Chomsky

Biographies

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other works

  • Rai, Milan (1995). [Broken Chomsky's Politics]. Verso. ISBN 1859840116. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. 
  • Goldsmith, John (1998). "Review of Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent, by Robert Barsky". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 34 (2): 173–180. 
  • Dershowitz, Alan (May 10, 2002). "Chomsky’s Immoral Divestiture Petition". The Tech 122 (25). 
  • Roy, Arundhati (2003-08-24). "The Loneliness of Noam Chomsky". The Hindu. 
  • (2004) in Collier, Peter; Horowitz, David: The Anti-Chomsky Reader. Encounter Books. ISBN 189355497X. 
  • Pateman, Trevor (2004). Wittgensteinians and Chomskyans: In Defence of Mentalism, Language in Mind and Language in Society.
  • Blackburn, Robin; Kamm, Oliver (November 2005). "For and Against Chomsky" (PDF). Prospect (116). 
  • (2005) in McGilvray, James: The Cambridge Companion to Chomsky. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI:10.2277/0521780136. ISBN 0521780136. 
  • Paradis, Michel (2005). Review of Government in the Future, by Noam Chomsky. Oxonian Review of Books 2005 4.3: 4–5
  • Schoneberger, T. (2000). A Departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 57–73.
  • Sperlich, Wolfgang B. (2006). Noam Chomsky. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 1861892691. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Linguistics

See a full bibliography on Chomsky's MIT homepage [7].

  • Chomsky (1951). Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew. Master's thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Chomsky (1955). Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory.
  • Chomsky (1955). Transformational Analysis. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Chomsky, Noam, Morris Halle, and Fred Lukoff (1956). "On accent and juncture in English." In For Roman Jakobson. The Hague: Mouton
  • Chomsky (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. Reprint. Berlin and New York (1985).
  • Chomsky (1964). Current Issues in Linguistic Theory.
  • Chomsky (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Chomsky (1965). Cartesian Linguistics. New York: Harper and Row. Reprint. Cartesian Linguistics. A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1986.
  • Chomsky (1966). Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar.
  • Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Chomsky (1968). Language and Mind.
  • Chomsky (1972). Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar.
  • Chomsky (1975). The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory.
  • Chomsky (1975). Reflections on Language.
  • Chomsky (1977). Essays on Form and Interpretation.
  • Chomsky (1979). Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew.
  • Chomsky (1980). Rules and Representations.
  • Chomsky (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures. Holland: Foris Publications. Reprint. 7th Edition. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.
  • Chomsky (1982). Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding.
  • Chomsky (1982). Language and the Study of Mind.
  • Chomsky (1982). Noam Chomsky on The Generative Enterprise, A discussion with Riny Hyybregts and Henk van Riemsdijk.
  • Chomsky (1984). Modular Approaches to the Study of the Mind.
  • Chomsky (1986). Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use.
  • Chomsky (1986). Barriers. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph Thirteen. Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press.
  • Chomsky (1993). Language and Thought.
  • Chomsky (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Chomsky (1998). On Language.
  • Chomsky (2000). New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind.
  • Chomsky (2000). The Architecture of Language (Mukherji, et al, eds.).
  • Chomsky (2001). On Nature and Language (Adriana Belletti and Luigi Rizzi, ed.).
  • Chomsky, N. & Place, U.T. (2000). "The Chomsky-Place correspondence 1993–1994". Edited, with an introduction and suggested readings, by T. Schoneberger. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 7–38.

Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz, is an American linguist. ... Fred Lukoff (1920 - August 13, 2000) was an American linguist, who specialized in the study of the Korean language. ... Syntactic Structures is the name of an influential book by Noam Chomsky first published in 1957. ... Noam Chomskys Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought, published in 1966, has the purpose of deepening our understanding of the nature of language and the mental processes and structures that underlies its use and acquisition (ix). ... The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. ...

Computer science

  • Chomsky (1956). Three models for the description of language. I.R.E. Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-2, no. 3: 113–124.

Politics

  • (1967). The Responsibility of Intellectuals
  • (1969). American Power and the New Mandarins
  • (1970). "Notes on Anarchism", New York Review of Books
  • (1970). At war with Asia
  • (1970). Two Essays on Cambodia
  • (1971). Chomsky: selected readings
  • (1971). Problems of Knowledge and Freedom
  • (1973). For Reasons of State
  • (1973). Counter-Revolutionary Violence - Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda (with Edward S. Herman)
  • (1974). Peace in the Middle East? Reflections on Justice and Nationhood
  • (1976). Intellectuals and the State
  • (1978). Human Rights and American Foreign Policy
  • (1979). Language and Responsibility
  • (1979). The Political Economy of Human Rights, Volume I: The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism (with Edward Herman)
  • (1979). The Political Economy of Human Rights, Volume II: After the Cataclysm: Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology (with Edward Herman)
  • (1981). Radical Priorities
  • (1982). Superpowers in collision: the cold war now
  • (1982). Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There
  • (1983). The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians
  • (1985). Turning the Tide : U.S. intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace
  • (1986). Pirates and Emperors: International Terrorism in the Real World
  • (1986). The Race to Destruction: Its Rational Basis
  • (1987). The Chomsky Reader
  • (1987). On Power and Ideology
  • (1987). Turning the Tide: the U.S. and Latin America
  • (1988). The Culture of Terrorism
  • (1988). Language and Politics
  • (1988). Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (with Edward Herman)
  • (1989). Necessary Illusions
  • (1991). Terrorizing the Neighborhood
  • (1992). What Uncle Sam Really Wants
  • (1992). Chronicles of Dissent
  • (1992). Deterring Democracy
  • (1993). Letters from Lexington: Reflections on Propaganda
  • (1993). The Prosperous Few and the Restless Many
  • (1993). Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture
  • (1993). World Order and Its Rules: Variations on Some Themes
  • (1993). Year 501: The Conquest Continues
  • (1994). Keeping the rabble in Line
  • (1994). Secrets, Lies, and Democracy
  • (1994). World Orders, Old and New
  • (1996). Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order
  • (1996). Class Warfare
  • (1997). One Chapter, The Cold War and the University
  • (1997). Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda
  • (1998). The Common Good
  • (1999). The Umbrella of US Power
  • (1999). Latin America: From Colonization to Globalization
  • (1999). Acts of Aggression: Policing "Rogue" States (with Edward W. Said)
  • (1999). The New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo
  • (1999). Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order
  • (1999). The Fateful Triangle (updated edition)
  • (2000). Chomsky on Mis-Education (edited by Donaldo Macedo)
  • (2000). A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West
  • (2000). Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs
  • (2001). Propaganda and the Public Mind
  • (2001). 9-11
  • (2002). Understanding Power: The Indispensable Chomsky
  • (2002). Chomsky on Democracy and Education (edited by C.P. Otero)
  • (2002). Media Control (Second Edition)
  • (2002). Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World
  • (2003). Power and Terror: Post-9/11 Talks and Interviews
  • (2003). Middle East Illusions: Including Peace in the Middle East? Reflections on Justice and Nationhood
  • (2003). Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance
  • (2003). Znet article, Deep Concerns http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=3293
  • (2004). Getting Haiti Right This Time: The U.S. and the Coup (with Paul Farmer and Amy Goodman)
  • (2005). Chomsky on Anarchism (edited by Barry Pateman)
  • (2005) Government in the future. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1583226850.  Text of the lecture given at the Poetry Center, New York, February 16, 1970.
  • (2005). Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World
  • (2005). The Impetious Imperialist
  • (2006). Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy
  • (2006). Perilous Power. The Middle East and U.S. Foreign Policy. Dialogues on Terror, Democracy, War, and Justice (with Gilbert Achcar)
  • (2007). Interventions
  • (2007). What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World

The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... American Power and the New Mandarins is a book by the US academic Noam Chomsky. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Fateful Triangle is a 1983 book by Noam Chomsky about the relationship between America, Israel and the Arab Palestinians. ... Necessary Illusions is a book by Noam Chomsky about how political power uses propaganda to distort and distract from real issues to maintain confusion and complicity, preventing real democracy from becoming effective. ... Deterring Democracy is a book published in 1992 Noam Chomsky, which explores the differences between the rhetoric and reality of United States forign policy and how it affects various countries around the world. ... World Orders Old and New is a book by Noam Chomsky, first published in 1994 and updated in 1996 by Columbia University Press. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد سعيد) (November 1, 1935 – September 24, 2003) was a well-known literary theorist, critic and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Fateful Triangle is a 1983 book by Noam Chomsky about the relationship between America, Israel and the Arab Palestinians. ... Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World is a book by Noam Chomsky, titled after an observation by St. ... Hegemony or Survival: Americas Quest for Global Dominance, published November 2003 is a book by Noam Chomsky, a macroscopic view of United States foreign policy from World War II to the post-Iraq War reconstruction. ... Dr. Paul Farmer Paul Farmer (born October 26, 1959) is an American anthropologist and physician, currently the Presley Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard University and an attending physician at Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Amy Goodman Amy Goodman b. ... Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (ISBN 0-8050-7912-2) is a book by Noam Chomsky, first published in 2006, in which Chomsky argues that the United States is a “failed state,” and thus a danger to its own people and the world. ... Gilbert Achcar (born 1951 in Lebanon) is a Lebanese-French academic, writer, and socialist activist. ... Interventions is a book by Noam Chomsky, an American linguist and political activist. ...

Filmography

  • Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, Director: Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick (1992)
  • Last Party 2000, Director: Rebecca Chaiklin and Donovan Leitch (2001)
  • Power and Terror: Noam Chomsky in Our Times, Director: John Junkerman (2002)
  • Distorted Morality—America's War On Terror?, Director: John Junkerman (2003)
  • Noam Chomsky: Rebel Without a Pause (TV), Director: Will Pascoe (2003)
  • The Corporation, Directors: Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott; Writer: Joel Bakan (2003)
  • Peace, Propaganda & the Promised Land, Directors: Sut Jhally and Bathsheba Ratzkoff (2004)
  • On Power, Dissent and Racism: A discussion with Noam Chomsky, Journalist: Nicolas Rossier; Producers: Eli Choukri, Baraka Productions (2004)
  • Chomsky et compagnie Director: Olivier Azam (out in 2008)

Manufacturing Consent movie poster Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media (1992) is a documentary film that explores the political life and ideas of Noam Chomsky, world-renowned linguist, intellectual, and political activist. ... The Corporation is a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation, considering it as a class of person and evaluating its behaviour towards society and the world at large as a psychologist might evaluate an ordinary person. ... Peace, Propaganda & the Promised Land is a 2004 documentary which purports to shows the influence of Israeli propaganda and PR on American media coverage of the Israel/Palestine dispute. ...

Interviews

By Amy Goodman Amy Goodman Amy Goodman b. ...

By Maria Hinojosa Maria Hinojosa is a reporter for CNN. She is based in the New York bureau and joined CNN in 1997. ...

By Peshawa Muhammed

By Andrew Marr Andrew Marr (born 31 July 1959, Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scottish journalist and political commentator. ...

By Big Think

  • Noam Chomsky On William Buckley, Iraq, Israel and the Global Power Dynamic

By David Barsamian (from Alternative Radio, published in book form) Barsamian interviewing Chomsky David Barsamian is an American radio broadcaster and writer of Armenian descent. ... Alternative Radio is an internationally syndicated, 1-hour, weekly radio program, featuring interviews with progressive thinkers. ...

  • Keeping the Rabble in Line (1994)
  • Class Warfare (1996)
  • The Common Good (1998)
  • Propaganda and the Public Mind (2001)
  • Imperial Ambitions—Conversations With Noam Chomsky On The Post-9/11 World (2005)

By Danilo Mandic (published COPYLEFT by Datanews Editrice, Italy.)

  • On Globalization, Iraq and Middle East Studies (2005)
  • On the NATO Bombing of Yugoslavia (2006)

By Harry Kreisler (host of the TV series "Conversations with History" by UC Berkley)

  • Activism, Anarchism, and Power (March 22, 2002) MP4 video

By others

See also

Noam Chomsky is a widely known intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ... The Chomskybot is a program that generates paragraphs which appear similar to those in the corpus of Noam Chomskys linguistic works, but are humorously devoid of any meaning, by combining at random phrases taken from Chomskys actual works. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field. ... Approximate X-Bar representation of Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. ... Intellectual worker (brain worker or knowledge worker) is a term used in various anarchist, communist, and socialist writings. ... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... David Edwards (born 1962) is a British political writer who specializes in the analysis of corporate media. ...

References

  1. ^ Kanan Makiya, Fouad Moughrabi, Adel Safty, Rex Brynen, "Letters to the Editor" in Journal of Palestine Studies, Journal of Palestine Studies via JSTOR (Vol. 23, No. 4, Summer, 1994, pp. 196-200), accessed December 4, 2007. Relevant quotation: "On page 146 of my book, I clearly adopt the propaganda model developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman..."
  2. ^ "Chomsky is Citation Champ", MIT News Office, 1992-04-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  3. ^ Hughes, Samuel. "Speech!", The Pennsylvania Gazette, July/August 2001. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. "According to a recent survey by the Institute for Scientific Information, only Marx, Lenin, Shakespeare, Aristotle, the Bible, Plato, and Freud are cited more often in academic journals than Chomsky, who edges out Hegel and Cicero." 
  4. ^ Robinson, Paul. "The Chomsky Problem", The New York Times, 1979-02-25. "Judged in terms of the power, range, novelty and influence of his thought, Noam Chomsky is arguably the most important intellectual alive today. He is also a disturbingly divided intellectual." 
  5. ^ Brian Lamb "Book TV: Interview with Noam Chomsky", June 1, 2000 Book TV C-Span[dead link]
  6. ^ Kreisler (2002), Chapter 1: Background. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  7. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1967-02-23). "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". The New York Review of Books 8 (3). 
  8. ^ Turan, Kenneth (2003-01-24). Power and Terror—MOVIE REVIEW. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. “[Chomsky] "is so lucid" [and his] "point of view is so rarely heard.”
  9. ^ Wall, Richard (2004-08-17). Who's Afraid of Noam Chomsky?. LewRockwell.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. “[Chomsky] has historically been distrusted and shunned by the US mainstream media.”
  10. ^ Flint, Anthony (1995-11-19). Divided Legacy. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. “Ask this intellectual radical why he is shunned by the mainstream, and he'll say that established powers have never been able to handle his brand of dissent.”
  11. ^ Barsky (1997), Chapter 4. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. Barsky quotes an excerpt of Edward Herman examining why "one of America's most well-known intellectuals and dissidents would be thus ignored and even ostracized by the mainstream press." For example, "Chomsky has never had an Op Ed column in the Washington Post, and his lone opinion piece in the New York Times was not an original contribution but rather excerpts from testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee."
  12. ^ Stroumboulopoulos, George (2006-03-13). Noam Chomsky on The Hour. CBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  13. ^ Stroumboulopoulos, George (2006-03-13). Noam Chomsky on The Hour. CBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  14. ^ Stroumboulopoulos, George (2006-03-13). Noam Chomsky on The Hour. CBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  15. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press. 
  16. ^ Huang, Cheng-Teh James (1982). "Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar". . MIT PhD dissertation Available online [1].
  17. ^ Matthews, G.H. (1965). Hidatsa Syntax. Mouton. 
  18. ^ Platero, Paul Randolph (1978). "Missing noun phrases in Navajo". . MIT PhD dissertation Available online [2].
  19. ^ Schütze, Carson T. (1993). "Towards a Minimalist Account of Quirky Case and Licensing in Icelandic". . MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19 Available online [3]
  20. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (1997). "Matching Effects and the Syntax-Morphology Interface: Evidence from Hindi Correlatives". . MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 31 Available online [4].
  21. ^ The New Yorker, John Colapinto. April 16, 2007. p. 119.
  22. ^ http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/000411
  23. ^ Ray, Robin H.. "Linguists doubt exception to universal grammar", MIT News, 2007-04-23. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. 
  24. ^ The Cognitive Science Millennium Project
  25. ^ Barsky (1997), Chapter 3. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  26. ^ Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Courrége, Philippe; Danchin, Antoine (October 1973). "A Theory of the Epigenesis of Neuronal Networks by Selective Stabilization of Synapses" (PDF). . PNAS Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  27. ^ Deborah Solomon. The Way We Live Now: 11-02-03: Questions For Noam Chomsky; The Professorial Provocateur
  28. ^ Chomsky, Noam (November 22, 2002). Chomsky on Democracy & Education. Routledge, 93. ISBN 0415926319. 
  29. ^ Kreisler (2002), Chapter 3: Thinking about Power. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  30. ^ Chomsky, Noam. Rationality/Science. Z Communications. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  31. ^ Chomsky (1996), pp. 71.
  32. ^ Chomsky, Noam, "Notes on Anarchism" [5] … "Libertarian socialism is properly to be regarded as the inheritor of the liberal ideals of the Enlightenment."
  33. ^ Chomsky wrote the preface to an edition of Rudolf Rocker's book Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. In it Chomsky wrote: "I felt at once, and still feel, that Rocker was pointing the way to a much better world, one that is within our grasp, one that may well be the only alternative to the 'universal catastrophe' towards which 'we are driving on under full sail'…" Book Citation: Rudolph Rocker. Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. AK Press. p. ii. 2004.
  34. ^ Industrial Workers of the World IWW Member Biographies
  35. ^ Anarchism 101 with Noam Chomsky [6]
  36. ^ Conversation with Noam Chomsky, p. 2 of 5
  37. ^ An Evening With Noam Chomsky
  38. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1993). What Uncle Sam Really Wants. ZMag. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  39. ^ Noam Chomsky et al.. Noam Chomsky on Drugs [TV]. ROX.
  40. ^ Chomsky, Noam (2002-02-08). DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky. DRCNet. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  41. ^ Chomsky (1996), p. 77.
  42. ^ "Interview with Noam Chomsky, Bill Bennett", May 30, 2002 American Morning with Paula Zahn CNN
  43. ^ Adams, Tim (2003-10-30). Noam Chomsky: Thorn in America's Side. The Observer. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  44. ^ Chomsky, Noam. 2003. Chomsky on Democracy & Education. Routledge. p. 399
  45. ^ Chomsky Rebel
  46. ^ Chomsky, Noam. "False, False, False, and False: Noam Chomsky interviewed by Ray Suarez", January 20, 1999 Chomsky.info
  47. ^ An Exchange on "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", Noam Chomsky debates with Fryar Calhoun, E. B. Murray, and Arthur Dorfman
  48. ^ Free speech in a Democracy, by Noam Chomsky (Daily Camera)
  49. ^ http://www.insight-info.com/articles/item.aspx?i=1158
  50. ^ Sakharov, Alex (2003-05-12). Grammar. MathWorld. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  51. ^ Lecture 6: Evolutionary Psychology, Problem Solving, and 'Machiavellian' Intelligence. School of Psychology. Massey University (1996). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  52. ^ Van Zyl Slabbert to present TB Davie Memorial Lecture
  53. ^ The Current Crisis in the Middle East: About the Lecture. MIT World.
  54. ^ Noam Chomsky, MIT Linguistics Program
  55. ^ NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language
  56. ^ Department of Social Sciences. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
  57. ^ Uppsala University’s Honorary Doctorates in Commemoration of Linnaeus. Uppsala University (2007-02-13). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  58. ^ Chomsky named top intellectual: British poll. Breitbart.com (2005-10-18). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  59. ^ Cowley, Jason (2006-05-22). Heroes of Our Time. New Statesman. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  • Barsky, Robert F. (1997). Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-1550222821. 
  • Chomsky, Noam (1996). Perspectives on Power. Montréal: Black Rose. ISBN 978-1551640488. 
  • Kreisler, Harry (2002-03-22). Activism, Anarchism, and Power: Conversation with Noam Chomsky. Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.

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The Pennsylvania Gazette may be: The Pennsylvania Gazette (newspaper), the colonial American newspaper published from 1723 to 1800, made famous by Benjamin Franklin; or The Pennsylvania Gazette (newsletter), a newsletter published by the University of Pennsylvania Alumni Society six times per year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Z Communications is a self-described journalism-intensive media group, founded in 1987 by Michael Albert and Lydia Sargent. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolf Rocker (1873-1958) Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 - September 19, 1958) was an anarcho-syndicalist writer, historian and prominent activist. ... Z Communications is a self-described journalism-intensive media group, founded in 1987 by Michael Albert and Lydia Sargent. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Neo-Renaissance main University building in the University Park, Uppsala (designed by Herman Teodor Holmgren and completed in 1887). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... 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External links

Find more about Noam Chomsky on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Official website
  • An Interaction between Noam Chomsky and Hindol Bhattacharjee
  • Noam Chomsky Columns in Khaleej Times—UAE Newspaper
  • Why It's Over For America, by Noam Chomsky, The Independent, May 30, 2006
  • BookTalk.org -- Interview on "Interventions" Nov. 2007
  • Latest ZNet forum replies (you might need to log in as a guest first.)
  • MIT homepage
  • Noam Chomsky at the Internet Movie Database
  • ZNet: Noam Chomsky Archive
  • Interview with Noam Chomsky, June 1, 2003 C-Span's Book TV
  • A-Infos Radio Project: Talks by Noam Chomsky (MP3)
  • Internet Archive Chomsky media files
  • Example of Chomsky's views on the Free Market
  • Conversation with Noam Chomsky
  • Noam Chomsky Video Clips (QuickTime, .mov, format)
  • Noam Chomsky "Just War Theory" at West Point May 27, 2006 C-Span 2
  • Noam Chomsky on NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Danilo Mandic, RTS).
  • Webster Tarpley interviews Barry Zwicker on Chomsky on RBNLive (at the 35:00 minute mark in the interview)
  • NY Times article on Chomsky—September 22, 2006
  • Noam Chomsky A resource from Tidsskriftcentret.dk in English & Scandinavian.
  • The Chomsky Viewer Video compilation of Chomsky with other activists in PowerPoint format.
  • Noam Chomsky talking about the current crisis in the Middle East
  • Video of Chomsky's talk 'Force, law and the possibilities for survival' in March 2005
  • joint Noam Chomsky—Howard Zinn interview, April 16 2007 part one part two
  • OneBigTorrent.org (originally called "Chomskytorrents") begun with (and still has) lots of links to Chomsky-related media.
  • On Media: State of Nature Interview with Noam Chomsky (September, 2006)
  • Articles and videos featuring Noam Chomsky at AnarchismToday.org
  • Video: Noam Chomsky - The Political Economy of the Mass Media, Part 1 (March 15, 1989), lecture delivered at the Madison campus of the University of Wisconsin.
  • Video: Noam Chomsky - The Political Economy of the Mass Media, Part 2 (March 15, 1989).
  • Video - "On Referring" Revisited, delivered at Harvard University on October 30th 2007.
  • Internalist Explorations of Meaning, reading group at Harvard university, 2007, with selections and analysis of Chomsky's work.
Persondata
NAME Chomsky, Noam
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Chomsky, Avram Noam (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION linguist, psychologist, and activist
DATE OF BIRTH December 7, 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH East Oak Lane, Philadelphia, United States
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... Noam Chomsky is a widely known intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments. ... Criticism of Noam Chomsky - the linguist and social critic - typically centers on his political writings on American political and military power. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... Approximate X-Bar representation of Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Syntactic Structures is the name of an influential book by Noam Chomsky first published in 1957. ... The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... American Power and the New Mandarins is a book by the US academic Noam Chomsky. ... Necessary Illusions is a book by Noam Chomsky about how political power uses propaganda to distort and distract from real issues to maintain confusion and complicity, preventing real democracy from becoming effective. ... Deterring Democracy is a book published in 1992 Noam Chomsky, which explores the differences between the rhetoric and reality of United States forign policy and how it affects various countries around the world. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Hegemony or Survival: Americas Quest for Global Dominance, published November 2003 is a book by Noam Chomsky, a macroscopic view of United States foreign policy from World War II to the post-Iraq War reconstruction. ... Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship is the title of a book by the US academic Noam Chomsky. ... Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (ISBN 0-8050-7912-2) is a book by Noam Chomsky, first published in 2006, in which Chomsky argues that the United States is a “failed state,” and thus a danger to its own people and the world. ... Manufacturing Consent movie poster Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media (1992) is a documentary film that explores the political life and ideas of Noam Chomsky, world-renowned linguist, intellectual, and political activist. ... Peace, Propaganda & the Promised Land is a 2004 documentary which purports to shows the influence of Israeli propaganda and PR on American media coverage of the Israel/Palestine dispute. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Oak Lane is a neighborhood in the Northern section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Noam Chomsky - MSN Encarta (589 words)
Noam Avram Chomsky was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 7, 1928.
Chomsky made a distinction between the innate, often unconscious knowledge people have of their own language and the way in which they use the language in reality.
Chomsky also addressed the effects of U.S. foreign policy, and he felt that intellectuals have a responsibility to use scientific method in criticizing government policies that they find immoral and to develop practical strategies to combat these policies.
Noam Chomsky - Conservapedia (787 words)
Chomsky was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Chomsky, a Russian immigrant, and Elsie Simonofsky Chomsky.
Noam Chomsky advocates the view that the human brain has innate ability to generate grammatical sentences, thus all utterances which is deemed sensical to the speaker is necessarily grammatical, and the only role the linguist should play is to decipher its grammatical structure.
Noam Chomsky also proposed the theory that a kind of universal grammar, a grammar that underlies all human languages, is hard-wired in the human brain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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