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Encyclopedia > Noahide Laws
 The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible.
The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible.

The Seven Laws of Noah (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נח, Sheva mitzvot B'nei Noach), often referred to as the Noahide Laws are a list of seven moral imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God to Noah as a binding set of laws for all mankind.[1] According to Judaism any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as a Righteous Gentile and furthermore only a non-Jew who carefully abides by these laws is assured of a place in the world to come, the Jewish concept of eternal life[2]. Adherents are often called B'nei Noah (Children of Noah) or Noahides and may often network in Jewish synagogues. Image File history File links Rainbow123. ... Image File history File links Rainbow123. ... Full featured rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... This article is on mythology involving great floods. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... After the World War II, the term Righteous Among the Nations (Transliterated חסידי עומות עולם Hebrew language: Khasiday Umot Olam) has been used to describe non-Jews who behaved heroically during the Holocaust (ha-Shoah) in order to save... Jewish eschatology is concerned with Mashiach (the Jewish Messiah) the continuation of the Davidic line, and Olam Haba (Hebrew for the world to come; i. ... According to the Old Testament, B’nei Noah literally the children of Noah[1] descendants of Noah the only survivor of the flood that destroyed all of humanity. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


The Noahide Laws were predated by six laws given to Adam in the Garden of Eden.[3] Later at the Revelation at Sinai the Seven Laws of Noah were succeeded by the Ten Commandments and the other laws of the Torah. According to Judaism, the 613 mitzvot or "commandments" given in the written Torah, as well as their reasonings in the oral Torah, were only issued to the Jews and are therefore only binding upon them, since they are regarded as having inherited the obligation from their ancestors. Furthermore it is actually forbidden by the Torah for non-Jews on whom the Noahide Laws are still binding, to elevate their observance to the Torah's mitzvot.[4] Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ēden, גַּן עֵדֶן) (Arabic jannato aden جنة عدن) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived after they were... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Tora redirects here. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ...


Whilst several Jewish organizational bodies such as Chabad form the loose frame of a Noahide community, Noahides tend to congregate less than followers of other religions, thus their exact numbers are unknown. Noahides exist predominantly in the United States, South America and Europe. The Seven Laws of Noah have officially been recognised in the United States Congress: Chabad Lubavitch, or Lubavich, is one of the largest branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi . ... According to the Old Testament, B’nei Noah literally the children of Noah[1] descendants of Noah the only survivor of the flood that destroyed all of humanity. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican...

"Whereas Congress recognizes the historical tradition of ethical values and principles which are the basis of civilized society and upon which our great Nation was founded; Whereas these ethical values and principles have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization, when they were known as the Seven Noahide Laws."[5]

Contents

The Seven Laws

The seven laws listed by the Talmud are[6]

  1. Prohibition of Idolatry: - You shall not make for yourself an idol.
  2. Prohibition Murder: - You shall not murder.
  3. Prohibition of Theft: - You shall not steal.
  4. Prohibition of Sexual Promiscuity: - You shall not commit adultery.
  5. Prohibition of Blasphemy: - You shall not blaspheme.
  6. Prohibition of Cruelty to Animals: - Do not eat the flesh of a living animal.
  7. Requirement to have just Laws: - You shall set up an effective government to police the preceding six laws.

Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Promiscuity is the practice of making relatively casual and indiscriminate choices. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that causes unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. ... Lady Justice is a personification of the law. ...

Background

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According to rabbinic Judaism, as expressed in the Talmud, the Noahide Laws apply to all humanity through mankind's descent from one paternal ancestor who in Hebrew tradition is called Noah (the head of the only family to survive during The Flood). In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah (Hebrew, "Descendants of Noah", "Children of Noah") refers to all of mankind.[citation needed] Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ... Tora redirects here. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Humash or Chumash (Hebrew: חומש) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The siddur (plural siddurim) is the prayerbook used by Jews over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים, Hebrew: Four columns - on the High Priests breastplate), also abbreviated as Tur, is an important work of Jewish law, composed by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Likkutei Amarim ( ליקוטי אמרים תניא, Hebrew, collection of statements), more commonly known as the Tanya, is an early work of Hasidic Judaism, written by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidic dynasty, in 1797 CE. The name Tanya derives from the books first word, which is Aramaic... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... The Shabbat table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... Hanukkah (Hebrew: ‎), the Festival of Rededication (also known incorrectly as the Festival of Lights) is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of Kislev, which can occur in very late November, or throughout December. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of all the Jews at the time who were living under the authority of the Persian Empire, resulting from the Babylonian captivity (after Persia had conquered Babylonia), from Hamans plot... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... Pasch could also refer to the mathematician, Moritz Pasch, and the surname. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... setting fire, one of the symbols of the holiday Lag Baomer (Ashkenazi) or Lag laomer (Sephardi) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the thirty-third day of the counting of the Omer which is on the 18th of Iyar. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... The Three Weeks are days of mourning commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem within Judaism. ... The Nine Days are the first nine days of the Jewish month of Av. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Tu BAv (Hebrew: טו באב, the fifteenth of the month Av) is a celebratory day in the Jewish calendar. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (רִבְקָה Captivating, Enchantingly Beautiful, Noose or Snare, Standard Hebrew Rivqa, Tiberian Hebrew Riḇqāh) is the wife of Isaac. ... Look up Rachel, רחל in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (דְּבוֹרָה Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shlomo) Standard Tibe88rian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Portrait of Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1812) founder of Chabad Lubavitch and author of Tanya and Shulchan Aruch HaRav. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Rabbi Shach Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shidduch (or shiduch) (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Redemption of First-born (pidyon ha-ben in Hebrew), is an important ritual in Judaism. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbÄ« is derived from a recent (18th... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... A hazzan (or chazzan, Hebrew for Cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Havdalah, also spelled Habdalah or Havdala, is a Jewish ceremony that formally concludes the Shabbat (weekly day of rest) and Yom Tov (Jewish holidays). ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Tzitzit (Ashkenazi Hebrew: tzitzis) are fringes or tassels (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ... The Rainbow is the ancient symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the seven coloured rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in Greek and many other cultural myths. ... According to the Old Testament, B’nei Noah literally the children of Noah[1] descendants of Noah the only survivor of the flood that destroyed all of humanity. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


The Talmud also states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come" (Sanhedrin 105a). Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles". Maimonides writes that this refers to those who have acquired knowledge of God and act in accordance with the Noahide laws out of obedience to Him. According to what scholars consider to be the most accurate texts of the Mishneh Torah, Maimonides continues on to say that anyone who upholds the Noahide laws only because they appear logical is not one of the "righteous among the nations," but rather he is one of the wise among them. The more prolific versions of the Mishneh Torah say of such a person: "..nor is he one of the wise among them."[citation needed] Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ...


According to the Biblical narrative, the Deluge covered the whole world killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his family and the creatures of Noah's Ark. After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions (Genesis 9): The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in Greek and many other cultural myths. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ...

  • Food: "Also, flesh with the life -the blood- in it do not eat." (9:4)
  • Murder: "I will also inquire about your blood, your life, from all animals, and from each human I will inquire about his brother's blood. Who sheds the blood of man, by man his blood will be shed, because in the image of God was man made."

The Talmud (tractate Sanhedrin 56a/b, quoting Tosefta Sanhedrin 9:4) states that the instruction to not eat "flesh with the life" was given to Noah, and that Adam and Eve had already received six other commandments. Adam and Eve were not enjoined from eating from a living animal since they were forbidden to eat any animal. [7] The remaining six are exegetically derived from a seemingly superfluous sentence in Genesis 2:16. For the council of seventy-one Jewish sages in Judea during the Roman period, see Sanhedrin. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...


Judaism holds that gentiles (or goyim "non-Jews [literally 'Nations']") are not only not obligated to adhere to all the laws of the Torah (indeed, they are forbidden to fulfill some laws, such as the keeping of the Jewish Sabbath in the exact same manner as Israel [8]). Rabbinic Judaism and its modern-day descendants discourage proselytization. The Noahide Laws are regarded as the way through which non-Jews can have a direct and meaningful relationship with God or at least comply with the minimal requisites of civilization and of divine law.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Goy (Hebrew: גוי, plural goyim גוים) is a transliterated Hebrew word which translates as nation or people. // A page from Elia Levitas Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary (16th century) contains a list of nations, including word גוי, translated to Latin as Ethnicus In the Hebrew Bible, goy and its variants appear over... The Shabbat table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ... It has been suggested that Ger toshav be merged into this article or section. ...


A non-Jew who keeps the Noahide Law in all its details is said to attain the same spiritual and moral level as Israel's own Kohen Gadol (high priest) (Talmud, Bava Kamma 38a). Maimonides states in his work Mishneh Torah (The laws of kings and their rulership 8:11) that a Ger Toshav who is precise in the observance of these Seven Noahide commandments is considered to be a Righteous Gentile and has earned a place in the world to come. This follows a similar statement in the Talmud (tractate Sanhedrin 105b). However, according to Maimonides, a gentile is considered righteous only if a person follows the Noahide laws specifically because he or she considers them to be of divine origin (through the Torah) and not if they are merely considered to be intellectually compelling or good rules for living.[9] Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Ger toshav (pl. ...


Noahide law differs radically from the Roman law for gentiles (Jus Gentium), if only because the latter was an enforceable judicial policy. Rabbinic Judaism has never adjudicated any cases under Noahide law (per Novak, 1983:28ff.), although scholars disagree about whether the Noahide law is a functional part of Halakha ("Jewish law") (cf. Bleich). Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


In recent years, the term "Noahide" has come to refer to non-Jews who strive to live in accord with the seven Noahide Laws; the terms "observant Noahide" or "Torah-centered Noahides" would be more precise but are infrequently used. The rainbow, referring to the Noahide or First Covenant (Genesis 9), is the symbol of many organized Noahide groups.[citation needed] A non-Jewish person of any ethnicity or religion is referred to as a bat ("daughter") or ben ("son") of Noah, but most organizations that call themselves בני נח (b'nei noach) are composed of gentiles who are keeping the Noahide Laws.[citation needed] Full featured rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...


Subdividing the Seven Laws

Various rabbinic sources have different positions on the way the seven laws are to be subdivided in categories. Maimonides (Melakhim 10:6 of the Mishneh Torah) lists one additional Noahide commandment forbidding the coupling of different kinds of animals and the mixing of trees. Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra (Radbaz), a contemporary commentator on Maimonides, expressed surprise that he left out castration and sorcery which were listed in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 56b). Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra, also called Radbaz, was a Spanish Talmudist and cabalist. ...


The tenth century Rabbi Saadia Gaon added tithes and levirate marriage. The eleventh century Rav Nissim Gaon included "listening to God's Voice", "knowing God" and "serving God" besides going on to say that all religious acts which can be understood through human reasoning are obligatory upon Jew and Gentile alike. The fourteenth century Rabbi Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi added the commandment of charity. Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Levirate marriage is the practice of a woman marrying one of her husbands brothers after her husbands death, if there were no children, in order to continue the line of the dead husband. ... Nissim Ben Jacob (Rav Nissim Gaon, 990-1062, Hebrew: ניסים בן יעקב) was a rabbi and Talmudist best known today for his Talmudic commentary HaMafteach, by which title he is also known. ... Rabbi Nissim ben Reuven (1320 - 1380) of Girona was an influential talmudist and authority in Jewish law. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ...


The sixteenth century work Asarah Maamarot by Rabbi Menahem Azariah of Fano (Rema mi-Fano) enumerates thirty commandments, listing the latter twenty-three as extensions of the original seven. Another commentator, Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Chajes (Kol Hidushei Maharitz Chayess I, end Ch. 10) suggests these are not related to the first seven, nor based on Scripture, but were passed down by oral tradition. The number thirty derives from the statement of the Talmudic sage Ulla in tractate Hullin 92a, though he lists only three other rules in addition to the original seven, consisting of the prohibitions against homosexuality and cannibalism, as well as the imperative to honor the Torah. Zvi Hirsch Chajes (November 20, 1805 – October 12, 1855) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars. ... Ulla or Ulla was one of the leading halakhic amoraim in the Land of Israel during the latter part of the third and in the beginning of the fourth centuries CE. In his youth he studied under R. Eleazar II. (Tos. ...


Talmud commentator Rashi remarks on this that he does not know the other Commandments referred to. Though the authorities seem to take it for granted that Ulla's thirty commandments included the original seven, an additional thirty laws is also possible from the reading. Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ...


The tenth century Shmuel ben Hophni Gaon lists thirty Noahide Commandments based on Ulla's Talmudic statement, though the text is problematic. He includes the prohibitions against suicide and false oaths, as well as the imperatives related to prayer, sacrifices and honoring one's parents. The commandments, according to Shmuel ben Hophni Gaon, cover: Samuel ben Hofni (d. ... Samuel ben Hofni (d. ...


Prohibition against idolatry

  • No idolatry
  • To pray only to God
  • To offer ritual sacrifices only to God

Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ...

Prohibition against blasphemy

In theology, monotheism (Greek μόνος(monos) = single and θεός(theos) = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Witch be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... The word conjuration (from Latin conjuratio, conjurare, to swear together) can be interpreted in several different ways: as an invocation or evocation (the latter in the sense of binding by a vow); as an exorcism; or as an act of illusionism. ... John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit: Elizabethans who claimed magical knowledge A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, which can be described as either the act of entertaining with tricks that are in apparent violation of natural law, such as those... In spirituality, a medium or spirit medium (plural mediums) is an individual who possesses the ability to receive messages from spirits (discorporate entities), or claims that he or she can channel such entities — that is, write or speak in the voice of these entities rather than in the mediums... Demonology is the systematic study of demons. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Necromancy (Greek νεκρομαντία, nekromantía) is a form of divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon the spirits of the dead, called operative spirits or spirits of divination, for multiple reasons, from spiritual protection to wisdom. ...

Prohibition against murder

Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the willful act of killing oneself. ... Moloch or Molech or Molekh representing Hebrew מלך mlk is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please, propitiate or force supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...

Prohibition against theft

  • No stealing
  • No kidnapping of persons

Prohibition against sexual immorality

Adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a partner other than the lawful spouse. ... “Matrimony” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ... Crossbreeding is the process of creating hybrids (also known as crossbreeds, or a description of the lineage of that which has undergone hybridization. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

Prohibition against eating the limb of a living animal

  • Not to eat a limb of a living creature (whilst it is still alive)
  • Not to eat or drink blood
  • Not to eat carrion (for those recognised by a Beth Din)

Titan arum Carrion is the carcass of a dead animal that becomes food for other scavenging animals such as hyenas, Tasmanian Devils, or Californian condors. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ...

Establish courts of justice

  • To establish courts and a system of justice
  • No false oaths

The contemporary Rabbi Aaron Lichtenstein counts 66 instructions but Rabbi Harvey Falk has suggested that much work remains to be done in order to properly identify all of the Noahide Commandments, their divisions and subdivisions. Aharon Lichtenstein (born 1933) is a noted Orthodox Jewish rabbi and rosh yeshiva. ...


Theft, robbery and stealing covers the appropriate understanding of other persons, their property and their rights. The establishment of courts of justice promotes the value of the responsibility of a corporate society of people to enforce these laws and define these terms. The refusal to engage in unnecessary lust or cruelty demonstrates respect for the Creation itself as renewed after the Flood. To not do murder would include human sacrifice. Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Recent developments

Orthodox Judaism does not usually promote conversion to Judaism but does, on the other hand, believe that the Jewish people have a duty to help establish the Noahide Laws, based on Maimonides. Some Jewish groups have been particularly active in promoting the Seven Laws, notably the Chabad-Lubavitch movement and certain ones affiliated with Dor Daim and strict students of Maimonidies. Chabad-Lubavitch even succeeded in having a reference to these laws enshrined in law. In Presidential Proclamation 5956 [1], then-President George H. W. Bush, recalling Joint House Resolution 173, and recalling that the ethical and moral principles of all civilizations come in part from the Seven Noachide Laws, proclaimed April 16, 1989 and April 6, 1989 as "Education Day, U.S.A." Subsequently, Public Law 102-14, formally designated the Lubavitcher Rebbe's birthday as "Education Day, U.S.A.", with Congress recalling that "without these ethical values and principles the edifice of civilization stands in serious peril of returning to chaos", and that "society is profoundly concerned with the recent weakening of these principles that has resulted in crises that beleaguer and threaten the fabric of civilized society".[2] Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew גיור, giur, conversion) is the religious conversion of a previously non-Jewish person to the Jewish religion. ... Dor Daim, sometimes known as Dardaim, are adherents of the Dor Deah movement in Judaism. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


Small groups calling themslves the B'nei Noah (children of Noah) have recently organised themselves into a religion.[citation needed] Some Orthodox Jewish groups have sought ties with these groups.[citation needed] The High Council of B'nei Noah is particularly reflective of an apparent success at forming such ties. According to the Old Testament, B’nei Noah literally the children of Noah[1] descendants of Noah the only survivor of the flood that destroyed all of humanity. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... The High Council of Bnei Noah is a group of Noachides who, at the request of the nascent Sanhedrin, gathered in Israel[1][2] on Monday January 10, 2006/10 Tevet 5766 to be recognized as an international Noachide organization for the purpose of serving as a bridge between...


Other religions as Noahide

From the Orthodox Jewish perspective, if a non-Jew keeps all of the laws entailed in the categories covered by the Seven Noahide commandments, then he or she is considered a Ger Toshav "Sojourning Alien" amid the people of Israel. Jewish law only allows the offical accepting of a "Ger Toshav" as a sojourner in the Land of Israel during a time when the Year of Jubilee (yovel) is in effect. A "Ger Toshav" is the only kind of non-Jew who Jewish law permits to live among the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. A Ger Tzedek is a person who prefers to proceed to total conversion to Judaism, a procedure that is traditionally discouraged by Judaism and allowed only after much thought and deliberation over the conversion has taken place. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Ger toshav (pl. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The Jubilee year (every 50th year) and the Sabbatical year (every seventh year) are Biblical commandments concerning ethical ownership of land. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Ger tzedek (Hebrew: righteous proselyte or proselyte [of] righteousness) or Ger (stranger or proselyte) is a gentile (i. ... Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew גיור, giur, conversion) is the religious conversion of a previously non-Jewish person to the Jewish religion. ...


The term Noahide is not the name of any specific religion but a term used to describe religions and cultures compliant with the Noahide Laws outside of Israel.


Although the term "Noachide" is often used to describe those individuals attempting to be compliant with the Seven Laws the term itself is defined as being a non-Jew, that is, a gentile.


Druze

In January 2004, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Noahide Laws as laid down in the Hebrew Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition. The mayor of the Galilean city of Shefa-'Amr (Shfaram) - where Muslim, Christian and Druze communities live side by side - also signed the document. The declaration includes the commitment to make a better, more humane world based on the Seven Noachide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai. Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ... Sheikh Mowafak Tarif is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Shefa-Amr (Arabic شفا عمر , Hebrew שְׁפַרְעָם , unofficially also spelled Shfaram) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ...


Support for the spread of the Seven Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the Biblical narrative itself. The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, Jethro, whom Arabs call Shoaib. According to the Biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Jewish people in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. In fact, the tomb of Jethro in Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community. [3] Jethro (יִתְרוֹ Standard Hebrew Yitro, Tiberian Hebrew Yiṯrô, Shoaib Arabic Quran His excellence/posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... Shoaib (Arabic: ‎ ; also ShuÊ•ayb, ShuÊ•aib, Shuaib, literally Who Shows the Right Path), is traditionally associated with the biblical figure Jethro. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ...


Christianity

Within Judaism it is a matter of debate whether Christianity's doctrine of the Trinity constitutus a violation of the Noahide prohibition of idolatry or not. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...


The strict view is that Christian theology is considered avodah zarah (loosely translated as "idolatry") for all people, both Jew and gentile alike. This would be one reason to disqualify Christians from being considered Noahides. However, Unitarians and those followers of Jesus who do not believe that Jesus is a deity would not be so disqualified. It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Other rabbinic views make a distinction between avodah zarah (idolatry) and shittuf (lit. "association"), defined as any doctrine that recognizes one Supreme G-d, but ascribes power, albeit secondary, to a created being (the term refers to one who does not deny the monotheistic and exclusionary aspect of G-d, but "associates" something else with Him). Judaism prohibits shittuf for Jews as idolatry, but not for non-Jews. The Tosafist Rabbeinu Tam (Rashi's grandson), in Bekhorot 2b and Sanhedrin 63b, apparently ruled that trinitarianism could be permitted to gentiles as a form of shittuf. This view was echoed by Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet (Rivash, responsa 119) and apparently accepted by Rabbi Moses Isserles (Rema, Orah Hayyim 156:1.) However, no rabbinic source allows Jews to worship through any form of shittuf; rather, all worship must be directed to the one and only Creator. Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbeinu Tam (רבינו תם) (real name Rabbeinu Yaakov, or Jacob in English) was the son of Rabbeinu Meir and his wife Yochebed. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet (1326-1408) (Hebrew: יצחק בר ששת) was a Spanish Talmudic authority, also know by his acronym, Rivash (ריבש). He was born at Valencia and settled early in life at Barcelona, where he studied under Perez ha-Kohen, under Hasdai ben Judah, and especially under R. Nissim ben Reuben (RaN), for... Responsa constitute a special class of rabbinic literature. ... Moses Isserles (or Moshe Isserlis) (1530 - 1572), was a rabbi and Talmudist, best known for his fundamental work of halakha (Jewish law), titled the Mapah (HaMapah), a component of the Shulkhan Arukh; he is also well known for Darkhei Moshe, a commentary on the Tur. ... Orach Chayim is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Ashers compilation of Jewish Law, Arbaah Turim, that treats all aspects of Jewish Law primarily pertinent to the Jewish calendar (whether the daily, weekly, monthly, or annual calendar). ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ...


Harvey Falk, in his book Jesus the Pharisee proposes that the spread of the Noahide laws may have been an important part of Jesus' intentions, as well as those of his early followers (see also Council of Jerusalem). Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ...


Christian criticism

Christian critics of the Noahide laws contend that insisting upon a basic set of moral laws is contrary to religious pluralism. Some believe that their existence implies that Jews may set up a legal system that would effectively outlaw Christianity. The Jewish community responds by noting that it makes laws and customs for its own members (like all faiths) and does not set up governments to force Jewish beliefs on non-Jews; in contrast, some non-Jewish faiths have carried out such actions in practice. In addition, with their minimal threshold of morality, the Noahide law may be compared to Catholic social teachings, especially natural law theory. Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


The major Christian bodies (e.g. the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Protestant Churches) believe the Ten Commandments to be binding on them and would regard the Noahide laws as essentially a subset of these (though the requirement to set up courts, and the dietary regulation, are not explicit in the Ten Commandments). By contrast, most Jewish thinkers consider the Seven Noahide Laws a parallel system of general categories of commandments, each containing many components and details. Some Jewish thinkers regard the determination of the details of the Noahide Law as something to be left to Jewish rabbis. This, in addition to the teaching of the Jewish law that punishment for violating one of the seven Noahide Laws includes a theoretical death penalty (Talmud, tractate Sanhedrin 57a), is a factor in modern opposition to the notion of a Noahide legal system. Jewish scholars respond by noting that Jews today no longer carry out the death penalty, even within the Jewish community. Jewish law, in contemporary practice, sees the death penalty as an indicator of the seriousness of an offense; violators are not actually put to death. Some Jewish thinkers believe that penalties are a detail of the Noahide Laws and that Noahides themselves must determine the details of their own laws for themselves. According to this school of thought - see N. Rakover, Law and the Noahides (1998); M. Dallen, The Rainbow Covenant (2003)- the Noahide Laws offer mankind a set of absolute values and a framework for righteousness and justice, while the detailed laws that are currently on the books of the world's states and nations are presumptively valid. Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Christian adherence

Some Christian writers [4], particularly those affiliated with Primitive Apostolic Christianity see the verses in Acts 15:19-21 as a directive from the first Council of Jerusalem to observe the basic understanding of the Noahide Laws in order to be considered Righteous Gentiles, and not be required to live completely as Jews. According to Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem determined that circumcision was not required of new converts, only avoidance of "pollution of idols, fornication, things strangled, and blood" (KJV, Acts 15:20). The basis for these prohibitions as found in Acts 15:21 states only: "For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day". The evidence of these Noachian inclusions to primitive Christian observance were in addition to the moral Ten Commandments given to Moses at Sinai, which covers the most essential requirements of the Noachian covenant. The additions of the four cited above were to complete the requirements of the new Gentile converts to primitive Christianity. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Shabbat table is set: two covered challahs, a kiddush cup, two candles, and flowers. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Primitive Apostolic Christianity may refer to: Early Christianity Primitive Apostolic Christianity (Sabbatarian) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Several Christian congregations have abandoned traditional Christianity (rejecting the Nicene Creed) and adopted the First Covenant or Noahism in recent years.[citation needed] In the United States a few organized movements of non-Jews (primarily of Christian origin) have either chosen to reject mainstream religious affiliation and live by the Apostolic Decree, which they view as the original Christian observance of Noahide Laws, or, under the influence of Orthodox Judaism, adhere to the Talmud's listing of the Laws (without converting to Judaism). Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Council of Jerusalem is a name applied in retrospect to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


Jubilees, part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible, generally considered to be a 2nd century BCE Jewish apocrypha, Chapter 7, verses 20-33 states: "And in the twenty-eighth jubilee [1324-1372 A.M.] Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth ... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth." The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The Jubilee year (every 50th year) and the Sabbatical year (every seventh year) are Biblical commandments concerning ethical ownership of land. ... A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. ...


Islam

Muslims believe that Noah was a true Prophet of Allah and was given laws. The laws set by him and other earlier Prophets like Moses and Jesus are included in the revelation of the Quran to Muhammad. The Noahide laws, such as prohibitions against idolatry, witchcraft, suicide or anal sex, and others, are still valid in the Quran . For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...


References

  1. ^ compare Genesis 9:4-6
  2. ^ Sheva M Bnei Noach, Mishnah Torah
  3. ^ Genesis 2:16
  4. ^ Yerusha LeYacov,[citation needed] Talmud Bavli
  5. ^ Public Law 102-14, H.J. Res 104, 102nd Congress of the United States of America, March 5, 1991.
  6. ^ Sanhedrin 56
  7. ^ Rashi on Gensis 9:3
  8. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia but are forbidden to observe them.Gentiles May Not Be Taught the Torah.
  9. ^ Mishneh Torah Shofitm, Wars and Kings 8:14

The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the council of seventy-one Jewish sages in Judea during the Roman period, see Sanhedrin. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ...

Further reading

  • Bleich, J. David. "Judaism and natural law" in Jewish law annual, vol. VII 5-42
  • Bleich, J. David. "Tikkun Olam: Jewish Obligations to Non-Jewish Society" in: Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Broyde, Michael J. "The Obligation of Jews to Seek Observance of Noahide Laws by Gentiles: A Theoretical Review" in Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J. : Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Clorfene C and Rogalsky Y. The Path of the Righteous Gentile: An Introduction to the Seven Laws of the Children of Noah. New York: Phillip Feldheim, 1987. ISBN 0-87306-433-X. Online version.
  • Lichtenstein, Aaron. "The Seven Laws of Noah". New York: The Rabbi Jacob Joseph School Press and Z. Berman Books, 2d ed. 1986. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 80-69121.
  • Novak, David. The image of the non-Jew in Judaism: an historical and constructive study of the Noahide Laws. New York : E. Mellen Press, 1983.
  • Novak, David. Natural law in Judaism. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Rakover, Nahum. Law and the Noahides: law as a universal value. Jerusalem: Library of Jewish Law, 1998.
  • Michael Dallen. The Rainbow Covenant: Torah and the Seven Universal Laws - Clearest explanations about the Noahide Laws - Very Readable - ISBN 0-9719388-2-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2003102494 online excerpts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Under the Noahide Laws (6650 words)
It is worth noting that the Noahide Laws will be administered by a restored Sanhedrin, the ruling body of the Jews which found Jesus Christ guilty of blasphemy on the accusations of two false witnesses.
The Noahide Laws are termed The Path of the Righteous Gentile.
Chabad Lubavitch in Cyberspace presents a fabricated History Of The Noahide Laws as having been given to Adam, Noah and Moses, and cites the Talmud and a Jewish sage, Rashi, as contributing to this mythology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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