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Encyclopedia > Noah's Ark
A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noah's Ark two by two.
A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noah's Ark two by two.

According to Abrahamic religions, Noah's Ark was a vessel built at God's command to save Noah, his family, and a core stock of the world's animals from the Great Flood. The story is mentioned in the book of Genesis, the Qur'an, and a number of other sources. Noahs Ark usually means a watercraft described by the Jewish scriptures; see Noahs Ark. ... Noahs Ark by Edward Hicks. ... Noahs Ark by Edward Hicks. ... The Peaceable Kingdom (c. ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... This article is about great floods. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The story told in Genesis has been subject to extensive elaborations in the various Abrahamic traditions, mingling theoretical solutions to practical problems (e.g. how Noah might have disposed of animal waste) with allegorical interpretations (e.g. the Ark as a precursor of the Church, offering salvation to mankind). An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


By the 19th century, the growth of geology and biogeography as sciences meant that few natural historians felt able to justify a literal interpretation of the Ark story,[1] and biblical critics were turning their attention to its secular origins and purposes. Nevertheless, Biblical literalists today continue to take the Ark as test-case for their understanding of the Bible, and to explore the region of the mountains of Ararat in northeastern Turkey where Genesis says Noah's Ark came to rest. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ...

Contents

Narrative

The story of Noah's Ark, according to chapters 6 to 9 in the Book of Genesis,[2] begins with God observing man's evil behaviour and deciding to flood the earth and destroy all life. However, God found one good man, Noah, "a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time," and decided that he would carry forth the lineage of man. God told Noah to make an ark, and to bring with him his wife, and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives. Additionally, he was told to bring examples of all animals and birds, male and female. In order to provide sustenance, he was told to bring and store food. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4096x1577, 944 KB) Description: Title: de: Deckenfresko zur Schöpfungsgeschichte in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Hauptszene: Die Sintflut Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other notes: de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4096x1577, 944 KB) Description: Title: de: Deckenfresko zur Schöpfungsgeschichte in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Hauptszene: Die Sintflut Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische Kapelle Other notes: de... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ...


Noah and his family and the animals entered the Ark, and "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights." The flood covered even the highest mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet, and all creatures died; only Noah and those with him on the Ark were left alive.


After 150 days, the Ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. The waters continued to recede, and after about seventy more days the hilltops emerged. Noah sent out a raven which "went to and fro until the waters were dried up from the earth." Next, Noah sent a dove out, but it returned having found nowhere to land. After a further seven days, Noah again sent out the dove, and it returned with an olive leaf in its beak, and he knew that the waters had subsided. Noah waited seven days more and sent out the dove once more, and this time it did not return. Then he and his family and all the animals left the Ark, and Noah made a sacrifice to God, and God resolved that he would never again curse the ground because of man, and never again would He destroy all life on it in this manner. In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ... Species See text. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ...


In order to remember this promise, God put a rainbow in the clouds, saying, "Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and all living creatures of every kind on the earth." For other uses, see Rainbow (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


The Ark in later traditions

In Rabbinic tradition

Noah descending from the mountains of Ararat. Painting by Hovhannes Ayvazovsky.
Noah descending from the mountains of Ararat. Painting by Hovhannes Ayvazovsky.

The story of Noah and the Ark was subject to much discussion in later Jewish rabbinic literature. Noah's failure to warn others of the coming flood was widely seen as casting doubt on his righteousness—was he perhaps only righteous by the lights of his own evil generation? According to one tradition, he had in fact passed on God's warning, planting cedars one hundred and twenty years before the Deluge so that the sinful could see and be urged to amend their ways. In order to protect Noah and his family, God placed lions and other ferocious animals to guard them from the wicked who mocked them and offered them violence. According to one midrash, it was God, or the angels, who gathered the animals to the Ark, together with their food. As there had been no need to distinguish between clean and unclean animals before this time, the clean animals made themselves known by kneeling before Noah as they entered the Ark. A differing opinion said that the Ark itself distinguished clean from unclean, admitting seven of the first and two of the second. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ... Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: , Armenian: - Hovhannes Aivazovsky July 29, 1817 - May 5, 1900) was a Russian painter of Armenian descent, most famous for his seascapes, which constitute more than half of his paintings. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ...


Noah was engaged both day and night in feeding and caring for the animals, and did not sleep for the entire year aboard the Ark. The animals were the best of their species, and so behaved with utmost goodness. They abstained from procreation, so that the number of creatures that disembarked was exactly equal to the number that embarked. Yet Noah was lamed by the lion, rendering him unfit for priestly duties, and the sacrifice at the end of the voyage was therefore carried out by his son Shem. The raven created problems, refusing to go out of the Ark when Noah sent it forth and accusing the Patriarch of wishing to destroy its race. Nevertheless, as the commentators pointed out, God wished to save the raven, for its descendants were destined to feed the prophet Elijah. Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Refuse was stored on the lowest of the Ark's three decks, humans and clean beasts on the second, and the unclean animals and birds on the top. A differing opinion placed the refuse in the utmost story, from where it was shovelled into the sea through a trapdoor. Precious stones, bright as midday, provided light, and God ensured that food was kept fresh. The giant Og, king of Bashan, was among those saved, but owing to his size had to remain outside, Noah passing him food through a hole cut into the wall of the Ark.[3][4][5] According to several books of the Old Testament, Og (pronounced , , or ; meaning gigantic) was an ancient Amorite king of Bashan who, along with his sons and army, was slain by Moses and his men at the battle of Edrei (probably modern day Dara, Syria). ... Bashan (meaning light soil) is a biblical place first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth, where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. ...


In Christian tradition

Construction of the Ark. Nuremberg Chronicle (1493).
Construction of the Ark. Nuremberg Chronicle (1493).

Early Christian writers created elaborate allegorical meanings for Noah and the Ark: thus the First Epistle of Peter compares the Christian saved through baptism to those saved by the Ark of the waters of the Flood,[6] and the equation of Ark and Church is still found in the Anglican rite of baptism, which asks God, "who of thy great mercy didst save Noah," to receive into the Church the infant about to be baptised. Early Christian artists frequently depicted Noah standing in a small box on the waves, symbolising God saving the Church as it persevered through turmoil. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x752, 1646 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Noahs Ark ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x752, 1646 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Noahs Ark ... Depiction of God creating the world Juvenal The Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the best documented early printed books. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


St. Augustine of Hippo (354–430), in City of God, demonstrated that the dimensions of the Ark corresponded to the dimensions of the human body, which is the body of Christ, which is the Church.[7] St. Jerome (c. 347–420) called the raven, which was sent forth and did not return, the "foul bird of wickedness" expelled by baptism;[8] more enduringly, the dove and olive branch came to symbolize the Holy Spirit and the hope of salvation and, eventually, peace. “Augustinus” redirects here. ... This article is about the work by St. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


St. Hippolytus of Rome, (d. 235), seeking to demonstrate that "the ark was a symbol of the Christ who was expected," stated that it was built in three storeys, the lowest for wild beasts, the middle for birds and domestic animals, and the top level for humans, and the male animals were separated from the females by sharp stakes, to help maintain the prohibition against cohabitation aboard the vessel. He adds that a door was built on the east side, that the bones of Adam were brought aboard together with gold, frankincense and myrrh, and that the Ark floated to and fro in the four directions on the waters, making the sign of the cross, before eventually landing on Mount Kardu "in the east, in the land of the sons of Raban, and the Orientals call it Mount Godash; the Arabians and Persians call it Ararat".[9] In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ...


On a more practical plane, Origen (c. 182–251), responding to a critic who doubted that the Ark could contain all the animals in the world, countered with a learned argument about cubits, holding that Moses, the traditional author of the book of Genesis, had been brought up in Egypt and would therefore have used the larger Egyptian cubit. He also fixed the shape of the Ark as a truncated pyramid, rectangular rather than square at its base, and tapering to a square peak one cubit on a side; it was not until the 12th century that it came to be thought of as a rectangular box with a sloping roof.[10] Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ...


In Islamic tradition

Ibn Battuta, 1304–77, the Moroccan world-traveller who passed by the mountain of al-Judi, near Mosul, resting place of the Ark in Islamic tradition.
Ibn Battuta, 1304–77, the Moroccan world-traveller who passed by the mountain of al-Judi, near Mosul, resting place of the Ark in Islamic tradition.

Noah (Nuh) is one of the five principal prophets of Islam, generally mentioned in connection with the fate of those who refuse to listen to the Word. References are scattered through the Qur'an, with the fullest account at surah 11:27–51, entitled "Hud". Image File history File links Painting of Ibn Battuta. ... Image File history File links Painting of Ibn Battuta. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... نوح Nūḥ (the Arabic form of Noah) is a prophet in the Quran. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ...


In contrast to the Jewish tradition, which uses a term which can be translated as a "box" or "chest" to describe the Ark, surah 29:14 refers to it as a safina, an ordinary ship, and surah 54:13 as "a thing of boards and nails". Surah 11:44 says it settled on Mount Judi, identified by tradition with a hill near the town of Jazirat ibn Umar on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Mosul in northern Iraq. Mount Judi (جودي), according to the Quran (surah 11:44), is the resting place of the Ark built by the Prophet Noah at Gods command. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. 956) says that the spot where it came to rest could be seen in his time. Masudi also says that the Ark began its voyage at Kufa in central Iraq and sailed to Mekka, where it circled the Kaaba, before finally travelling to Judi. Sura 11:41 says: "And he said, 'Ride ye in it; in the Name of God it moves and stays!'" Abdallah ibn 'Umar al-Baidawi, writing in the 13th century, takes this to mean that Noah said, "In the Name of God!" when he wished the Ark to move, and the same when he wished it to stand still. Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Baidawi (Abdallah ibn Umar al-Baidawi Arabic: عبدالله بن عمر البيدوي), Muslim critic, was born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu Bakr ibn Sad (1226-60). ...


The flood was sent by Allah in answer to Noah's prayer that this evil generation should be destroyed; yet as Noah was righteous he continued to preach, and seventy idolaters were converted and entered the Ark with him, bringing the total aboard to 78 humans (these seventy plus the eight members of Noah's own family). The seventy had no offspring, and all of post-flood humanity is descended from Noah's three sons. A fourth son (or a grandson, according to some) named Canaan was among the idolaters, and was drowned. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Baidawi gives the dimensions of the Ark as 300 cubits by 50 by 30, and explains that in the first of the three levels wild and domesticated animals were lodged, in the second the human beings, and in the third the birds. On every plank was the name of a prophet. Three missing planks, symbolising three prophets, were brought from Egypt by Og, son of Anak, the only one of the giants permitted to survive the Flood. The body of Adam was carried in the middle to divide the men from the women. For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ...


Noah spent five or six months aboard the Ark, at the end of which he sent out a raven. But the raven stopped to feast on carrion, and so Noah cursed it and sent out the dove, which has been known ever since as the friend of mankind. Masudi writes that God commanded the earth to absorb the water, and certain portions which were slow in obeying received salt water in punishment and so became dry and arid. The water which was not absorbed formed the seas, so that the waters of the flood still exist.


Noah left the Ark on the tenth day of Muharram, and he and his family and companions built a town at the foot of Mount Judi named Thamanin ("eighty"), from their number. Noah then locked the Ark and entrusted the keys to Shem. Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179–1229) mentions a mosque built by Noah which could be seen in his day, and Ibn Batutta passed the mountain on his travels in the 14th century. Modern Muslims, although not generally active in searching for the Ark, believe that it still exists on the high slopes of the mountain.[4][3] Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ...


In other traditions

The Mandaeans of the southern Iraqi marshes regard Noah as a prophet, while rejecting Abraham (and Jesus) as false prophets. In the version given in their scriptures, the ark was built of sandalwood from Jebel Harun and was cubic in shape, with a length, width and height of 30 gama (the length of an arm); its final resting place is said to be Egypt. Religions Mandaeism Scriptures Ginza Rba, Qolusta Languages Mandaic, Arabic, Aramaic Mandaeism or Mandaeanism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Mount Hor (Hebrew: הֹר הָהָר, Hor Ha-Har), the scene in the Bible of Aarons death, situated in the edge of the land of Edom (Numbers 33:37). ...


The Yazidi of the Sinjar mountains north of Mosul practise a unique blend of indigenous and Islamic beliefs. According to their Mishefa Reş, the Deluge occurred not once, but twice. The original Deluge is said to have been survived by a certain Na'umi, father of Ham, whose ark landed at a place called Ain Sifni, in the region of Mosul. Some time after this came the second flood, upon the Yezidis only, which was survived by Noah, whose ship was pierced by a rock as it floated above Mount Sinjar, then went on to land on Mount Judi as described in Islamic tradition. Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... Sinjar is a small town in northwestern Iraq near the Syrian border, with an estimate population in the 2006 census of about 39,875 residents [1]. The wall and other evidence at a huge mound in northeastern Syria known as Tell Hamoukar indicate a complex government dating back at least... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... This religion article needs to be wikified. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Sinjar is a small town in northwestern Iraq near the Syrian border, with an estimate population in the 2006 census of about 39,875 residents [1]. The wall and other evidence at a huge mound in northeastern Syria known as Tell Hamoukar indicate a complex government dating back at least...


The Bahá'í Faith, a religion founded in 19th century Persia by Bahá'u'lláh, states that the references to the Ark and the Flood in both the Bible and the Quran are symbolic.[11] In Bahá'í belief, only Noah's followers were spiritually alive, preserved in the ark of his teachings, as others were spiritually dead.[12][13] The Bahá'í scripture Kitáb-i-Íqán endorses the Islamic belief that Noah had a large number of companions, either 40 or 72, besides his family on the Ark, and that he taught for 950 years before the flood, though the years are not solar years and are symbolic.[14] This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Kitáb-i-Íqán (Lit. ...


The Ark in scientific and critical scholarship

The Ark under scrutiny

Paradisaea apoda, so named by naturalists because the first specimens to reach Europe were prepared as skins without the feet, with consequences for 17th century theories of exotic animals aboard the Ark.
Paradisaea apoda, so named by naturalists because the first specimens to reach Europe were prepared as skins without the feet, with consequences for 17th century theories of exotic animals aboard the Ark.

The Renaissance saw a continued speculation that might have seemed familiar to Origen and Augustine: What of the Phoenix, which is unique, how could it come in as a pair? (A popular solution was that it contained male and female in itself.) And might the Sirens, which by their nature lure sailors to their doom, have been permitted on board? (The answer was no; they swam outside.) And the bird of paradise, which has no feet—did it therefore fly endlessly inside the Ark? Yet at the same time, a new class of scholarship arose, one which, while never questioning the literal truth of the Ark story, began to speculate on the practical workings of Noah's vessel from within a purely naturalistic framework. Thus in the 15th century, Alfonso Tostada gave a detailed account of the logistics of the Ark, down to arrangements for the disposal of dung and the circulation of fresh air, and the noted 16th-century geometrician Johannes Buteo calculated the ship's internal dimensions, allowing room for Noah's grinding mills and smokeless ovens, a model widely adopted by other commentators.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The phoenix from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ... This article is about the mythological sea nymphs. ... For the flowering plant of this name, see Strelitzia Genera Cicinnurus Diphyllodes Epimachus Lophorina Manucodia Paradisaea Parotia Ptiloris Seleucidis Lesser Bird of Paradise Paradisaea minor (c)Roderick Eime The birds of paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes, found in Oceania. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ...


By the 17th century, it was becoming necessary to reconcile the exploration of the New World and increased awareness of the global distribution of species with the older belief that all life had sprung from a single point of origin on the slopes of Mount Ararat. The obvious answer was that man had spread over the continents following the destruction of the Tower of Babel and taken animals with him, yet some of the results seemed peculiar: why had the natives of North America taken rattlesnakes, but not horses, wondered Sir Thomas Browne in 1646? "How America abounded with Beasts of prey and noxious Animals, yet contained not in that necessary Creature, a Horse, is very strange."[10] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ...


Browne, who was among the first to question the notion of spontaneous generation, was a medical doctor and amateur scientist making this observation in passing. Biblical scholars of the time such as Justus Lipsius (1547–1606) and Athanasius Kircher (c.1601–80) were also beginning to subject the Ark story to rigorous scrutiny as they attempted to harmonise the Biblical account with natural historical knowledge. The resulting hypotheses were an important impetus to the study of the geographical distribution of plants and animals, and indirectly spurred the emergence of biogeography in the 18th century. Natural historians began to draw connections between climates and the animals and plants adapted to them. One influential theory held that the biblical Ararat was striped with varying climatic zones, and as climate changed, the associated animals moved as well, eventually spreading to repopulate the globe. There was also the problem of an ever-expanding number of known species: for Kircher and earlier natural historians, there was little problem finding room for all known animal species in the Ark, but by the time John Ray (1627–1705) was working, just several decades after Kircher, their number had increased dramatically. Incorporating the full range of animal diversity into the Ark story was becoming increasingly difficult, and by 1700 few natural historians could justify a literal interpretation of the Noah's Ark narrative.[1] Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... Justus Lipsius, Joost Lips or Josse Lips (October 18, 1547 — March 23, 1606), was a Flemish philologian and humanist. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Secular biblical scholarship

See also: documentary hypothesis
Torah scroll, open to the Song of the Sea in Exodus 15: British Library Add. MS. 4,707
Torah scroll, open to the Song of the Sea in Exodus 15: British Library Add. MS. 4,707

According to Jewish and Christian tradition, the Torah, including Genesis and the story of the Ark, was dictated by God to Moses, and for many centuries to question this belief was to risk ostracism or worse. But the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries (the European Enlightenment) saw the rise of a secular biblical scholarship, one which treated the Bible as the product of human authors. The work of a century of these scholars was synthesised in 1886 by Julius Wellhausen in his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels ("Prolegomena to the History of Israel"), a book which did for biblical studies what Charles Darwin's Origin of Species had previously done for biology. The core of Wellhausen's documentary hypothesis, and a principle that is still the core of biblical scholarship today, is that the five books of the Pentateuch are a composite creation, and date in their final form from the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x768, 145 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x768, 145 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Song of the Sea is a poem which appears in Exodus at Exodus 15:1b-18. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ... Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (Prolegomena to the History of Israel) is a book by German biblical scholar Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) which formulated the documentary hypothesis (a theory regarding the origins of the Torah or Pentateuch, the first five books of the bible). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


Wellhausen posited four independent source texts, known for convenience as J, E, D and P. All were composed within the last millennium before Christ, with the final unified version dating from the Babylonian exile. Two of the four texts, J (short for Jahwist), and P, (the Priestly source), contributed to the Ark narrative, and their combination into a single narrative explains many confusions and inconsistencies which had puzzled commentators since the Middle Ages. Why, for example, does the story state twice over that mankind had grown corrupt but that Noah was to be saved (Genesis 6:5-8; Genesis 6:11-13)? Was Noah commanded to take one pair of each clean animal into the Ark (Genesis 6:19-20) or seven pairs (Genesis 7:2-3)? Did the flood last forty days (Genesis 7:17) or a hundred and fifty days (Genesis 7:24)? How could the raven that was sent out from the Ark and "went to and fro until the waters had subsided from the face of the earth" survive the two to three weeks involved (Genesis 8:7)? Why does the narrative appear to have two logical end-points (Genesis 8:20-22 and Genesis 9:1-17)?[15] The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ...


The Jahwist is held to be the earlier of the two texts, composed in the kingdom of Judah from even earlier texts and traditions soon after the separation of Judah and Israel c. 920 BC. This narrative is the simpler story: God sends his flood (for forty days), Noah and his family and the animals are saved (seven pairs of each clean animal, a single pair for the unclean), Noah builds an altar and makes sacrifices, and God resolves never again to destroy the earth with a flood. The Jahwist source makes no mention of the covenant between God and Noah.[15] Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC Events and trends 925 BC - On the death of king Solomon, his son Rehoboam is unable to...


The Priestly text is believed to have been composed by the Aaronid priests of the temple in Jerusalem after the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 BC, with the specific purpose of countering certain points in the J text. The material from the Priestly source contains far more detail than the Jahwist—for example, the instructions for the building of the Ark, and the detailed chronology—and also provides the vital theological core of the story, the covenant between God and Noah at Genesis 9:1-17, which introduces the peculiarly Jewish method of ritual slaughter and forms the quid pro quo for God's promise not to destroy the world again. It is the Priestly source which gives us the raven (the Jahwist has the dove) and the rainbow, and which introduces the windows of heaven and the fountains of the deep (the Jahwist simply says that it rained). All four texts now making up the Pentateuch were edited into their present form following the return from the Babylonian exile in the fifth century BC.[15] Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ...


At a theological level, the theme of Yahweh's decision to administer an exacting punishment for man's wickedness, and his later promises never again to repeat such punishment, are typical of the Jahwist, who treat God as a human-like figure who appears in person in the narrative. The Priestly source, by contrast, presents God as distant and unapproachable except through the Aaronic priesthood. As a result, the Jahwist source allows Noah to sacrifice to Yahweh after the flood, and therefore requires seven pairs of each clean animal, while the Priestly source reduces this to a single pair, as no sacrifices can be made under priestly rules until Aaron, the first priest, appears in Exodus. The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...


In recent decades the documentary hypothesis has been challenged by scholars who allocate far later dates for Biblical texts than those advanced by the older generation of scholars, and warn against accepting any text at face value. Thus scholars point to the strong strand of Mesopotamian myth in Genesis (the creation stories, the story of the Tower of Babel, and many individual elements within these stories) as indicative that the Ark story was written was in Babylon, following the Babylonian conquest of Judah (587 BC). Faced with Babylonian stories about Babylonian gods creating and controlling the world (including a story about how the gods saved one man from a great flood), the exiled priests of Yahweh rewrote the myths of their conquerors to give primacy to Yahweh, effectively denying the power both of the Babylonians and of their divinities.[16] Umberto Cassuto, E. Nielsen and F.I. Andersen have all defended the unity of the Flood story, while Gordon Wenham (1978) has noted that the entire account is in the form of a single rhetorical figure known as a palistrophe, which could only have been composed as a unity.[17] This article is about the biblical text. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ... Gordon Wenham is a theologian and author of several books about the Bible. ... Chiastic structure is a literary structure used in the Torah, the Bible, as well as in other works. ...


Mesopotamian flood stories

The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian

The majority of modern Biblical scholars accept the thesis that the Biblical flood story is linked to a cycle of Assyro-Babylonian mythology with which it shares many features. The Mesopotamian flood-myth had a very long currency—the last known retelling dates from the 3rd century BC. A substantial number of the original Sumerian, Akkadian and Assyrian texts, written in cuneiform, have been recovered by archaeologists, but the task of recovering more tablets continues, as does the translation of extant tablets. Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... This article is about great floods. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... It has been suggested that Assyro-Babylonian religion be merged into this article or section. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Cuneiform redirects here. ...


The earliest of these extant tablets, the epic of Atrahasis, can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi's great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BC). Written in Akkadian (the language of ancient Babylon), it tells how the god Enki warns the hero Atrahasis ("Extremely Wise") of Shuruppak to dismantle his house (which is made of reeds) and build a boat to escape a flood with which the god Enlil, angered by the noise of the cities, plans to wipe out mankind. The boat is to have a roof "like Apsu" (the underworld ocean of freshwater of which Enki is lord), upper and lower decks, and must be sealed with bitumen. Atrahasis boards the boat with his family and animals and seals the door. The storm and flood begin. Even the gods are afraid. "Bodies clog the river like dragonflies." After seven days the flood ends and Atrahasis offers sacrifices. Enlil is furious, but Enki, the friend of mankind, defies him - "I made sure life was preserved" - and eventually Enki and Enlil agree on other measures for controlling the human population. The story also exists in a later Assyrian version.[18] The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... In publishing, a colophon describes details of the production of a book. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... Ammi-Saduqa (or Ammisaduqa, Ammizaduga) was a king of the First Dynasty of Babylon. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... Ancient sumerian city. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


The story of Ziusudra is told in the Sumerian language in the fragmentary Eridu Genesis, which can be dated from its script to the late 17th century BC. It tells how Enki warns Ziusudra (meaning "he saw life," in reference to the gift of immortality given him by the gods), king of Shuruppak, of the gods' decision to destroy mankind with a flood—the passage describing why the gods have decided this is lost. Enki instructs Ziusudra to build a large boat—the text describing the instructions is also lost. After a flood of seven days, Ziusudra makes appropriate sacrifices and prostrations to An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods), and is given eternal life in Dilmun, the Sumerian Eden.[19] Utnapishtim, whose name means he found life or he who saw life, is also known as Atrahasis, meaning the exceptional wise one. In the Akkadian sources, a wise citizen of Shurrupak on the banks of the Euphrates, or Ziusudra in the Sumerian poems. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Look up AN on Wiktionary, the free dictionary AN may mean: NATO country code for Andorra IATA code for Ansett Australia (now defunct) a prefix in Army-Navy Equipment Code Designators the AAR reporting mark for Apalachicola Northern Railroad ISO country code for the Netherlands Antilles An may mean: an... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ...


The story of Utnapishtim (a translation of "Ziusudra" into Akkadian), an episode in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, is known from first millennium copies and is probably derived from the Atrahasis story.[20][21] Ellil, (the equivalent of Enlil), chief of the gods, wishes to destroy mankind with a flood. Utnapishtim, king of Shurrupak, is warned by the god Ea (equivalent to Enki) to tear down his house of reeds and use the materials to build an ark and load it with gold, silver, and the seed of all living creatures and all his craftsmen. After a storm lasting seven days, and a further twelve days on the waters, the ship grounds on Mount Nizir; after seven more days Utnapishtim sends out a dove, which returns, then a swallow, which also returns, and finally a raven, which does not come back. Utnapishtim then makes offerings (by sevens) to the gods, and the gods smell the roasting meat and gather "like flies." Ellil is angry that any human has escaped, but Ea upbraids him, saying, "How couldst thou without thought send a deluge? On the sinner let his sin rest, on the wrongdoer rest his misdeed. Forbear, let it not be done, have mercy, [That men perish not]." Utnapishtim and his wife are then given the gift of immortality and sent to dwell "afar off at the mouth of the rivers."[22] In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Enki ( DEN.KI lord of the earth) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief God of the city of Eridu. ...


In the 3rd century BC Berossus, a high priest of the temple of Marduk in Babylon, wrote a history of Mesopotamia in Greek for Antiochus Soter (323–261 BC). Berossus's Babyloniaka has not survived, but the 3rd/4th century Christian historian Eusebius retells from it the legend of Xisuthrus, the Greek version of Ziusudra, and essentially the same story. Eusebius concludes that the vessel was still to be seen "in the Corcyræan Mountains of Armenia; and the people scrape off the bitumen, with which it had been outwardly coated, and make use of it by way of an alexipharmic and amulet."[23] This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Silver coin of Antiochus I Antiochus I Soter ( 324/323_262/261 BC reigned 281 BC - 261 BC) was half Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC. On the assassination of his father Seleucus I in... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...


Biblical literalism and the Ark

John Everett Millais: The Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851)
John Everett Millais: The Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851)

Many Orthodox Jews and conservative Christians are believers in Biblical inerrancy, the concept that the Bible, as the word of God, is without error, but must be interpreted properly in order to be understood correctly. They also tend to trust in traditions regarding the composition of the Bible (see, e.g. the historical-grammatical method, Sacred Tradition and Midrash). Those who follow these Biblical hermeneutical methods, therefore, generally accept the traditional Jewish belief that the Ark narrative in Genesis was written by Moses. There is less agreement on when Moses lived, and thus on when the Ark story was written—various dates have been proposed ranging from the 16th century BC to the late 13th century BC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1019x1600, 314 KB) John Everett Millais: The Return of the Dove to the Ark / Die Rückkehr der Taube zur Arche Noah / La retour de la colombe à l’arche 1851 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford File links The following pages link to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1019x1600, 314 KB) John Everett Millais: The Return of the Dove to the Ark / Die Rückkehr der Taube zur Arche Noah / La retour de la colombe à l’arche 1851 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford File links The following pages link to this... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


For the date of the Flood, literalists rely on interpretation of the genealogies contained in Genesis 5 and 11. Archbishop Ussher, using this method in the 17th century, arrived at 2349 BC, and this date still has acceptance among many. A more recent Christian fundamentalist scholar, Gerhard F. Hasel, however, summarising the current state of thought in the light of the various Biblical manuscripts (the Masoretic text in Hebrew, various manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint), and differences of opinion over their correct interpretation, demonstrated that this method of analysis can date the flood only within a range between 3402 and 2462 BC.[24] Other opinions, based on other sources and methodologies, lead to dates outside even this bracket—the deuterocanonical Book of Jubilees, for example, providing a date equivalent to 2309 BC. James Ussher (also spelled Usher) (January 4, 1581–March 21, 1656) was Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656 and a prolific religious scholar who most famously published a chronology which dated creation from 4004 BC. Ussher was born in Dublin, Ireland into a... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ...


Literalists explain apparent contradiction in the Ark narrative as the result of the stylistic conventions adopted by an ancient text: thus the confusion over whether Noah took seven pairs or only one pair of each clean animal into the Ark is explained as resulting from the author (Moses) first introducing the subject in general terms—seven pairs of clean animals—and then later, with much repetition, specifying that these animals entered the Ark in twos. Literalists see nothing puzzling in the reference to a raven—why should Noah not release a raven?—nor do they see any sign of alternative endings.[attribution needed]


Apart from questions of date, authorship, and textual integrity, literalists devote much attention to technical matters such as the identity of "gopher wood" and details of the Ark's construction. The following sets out some of the more commonly discussed topics:

  • Gopher wood: Gen 6:14 states that Noah built the Ark of גפר (gofer, more commonly gopher) wood, a word not otherwise known in the Bible or in Hebrew. The Jewish Encyclopedia believes it was most likely a translation of the Babylonian "gushure iş erini" (cedar-beams), or the Assyrian "giparu" (reed).[25] The Greek Septuagint (3rd–1st centuries BC) translated it as ξύλων τετραγώνων ("xylon tetragonon"), "squared timber."[26] Similarly, the Latin Vulgate (5th century AD) rendered it as "lignis levigatis", or "smoothed (possibly planed) wood." Older English translations, including the King James Version (17th century), simply leave it untranslated. Many modern translations tend to favour cypress (although the word for "cypress" in Biblical Hebrew is erez), on the basis of a mistaken etymology based on phonetic similarities, while others favour pine or cedar. Recent suggestions have included a lamination process, or a now-lost type of tree, or a mistaken transcription of the word kopher (pitch), but there is no consensus.[27]
  • Seaworthiness: The Ark is described as 300 cubits long, the cubit being a unit of measurement from elbow to outstretched fingertip. The ancient cubit was from 17.5 inches to 21.5 inches, giving a length in the range 437.5 feet (133 m) to 537.5 feet (164 m);[28] literalist websites seem to agree that the Ark was approximately 450 feet (137 m)long. This is considerably longer than the schooner Wyoming, launched in 1909 and the longest documented wooden-hulled vessel ever built: it measured only 329.5 feet (100 m) and needed iron cross-bracing to counter warping and a steam pump to handle a serious leak problem. "The construction and use histories of [late 19th-century wooden European] ships indicated that they were already pushing or had exceeded the practical limits for the size of wooden ships."[29]
  • Capacity and logistics: According to Ark dimensions commonly accepted by literalists, the Ark would have had a gross volume of about 1.5 million cubic feet (40,000 m³), a displacement a little less than half that of the Titanic at about 22,000 tons, and total floor space of around 100,000 square feet (9,300 m²).[30] The question of whether it could have carried two (or more) specimens of the various species (including those now extinct), plus food and fresh water, is a matter of much debate, even bitter dispute, between literalists and their opponents. While some literalists hold that the Ark could have held all known species, a more common position today is that the Ark contained "kinds" rather than species—for instance, a male and female of the cat "kind" rather than representatives of tigers, lions, cougars, etc.[31] The many associated questions include whether eight humans could have cared for the animals while also sailing the Ark, how the special dietary needs of some of the more exotic animals could have been catered for, how the creatures could have been prevented from preying on each other, questions of lighting, ventilation, and temperature control, hibernation, the survival and germination of seeds, the position of freshwater and saltwater fish, the question of what the animals would have eaten immediately after leaving the Ark, how they traveled (or were gathered) from all over the world to board the Ark and how they could have returned to their far-flung habitats across the Earth's bare, flood-devastated terrain, and how two or a few members of a species could have provided enough genetic variety to avoid inbreeding and reconstitute a healthy population. The numerous literalist websites, while agreeing that none of these problems is insurmountable, give varying answers on how to resolve them.

A painting of Noahs Ark, said to be constructed from gopher wood. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... Cubit is the name for any one of many units of measure used by various ancient peoples. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The Wyoming was the largest six-masted schooners built of wood and at all. ... Finding the worlds largest wooden ship is not straightforward since there are several contenders, depending on which definitions are used. ... The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... A square foot is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 foot (unit of length) long. ... In creation biology, created kinds are believed to be the original forms of life as they were created by God. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...

The search for Noah's Ark

For centuries, Mount Ararat (pictured here) has been searched for remains of Noah's ark. Recently Mount Sabalan in Iran, over 300 km (200 miles) away, has been under investigation.
For centuries, Mount Ararat (pictured here) has been searched for remains of Noah's ark. Recently Mount Sabalan in Iran, over 300 km (200 miles) away, has been under investigation.

Believers in the historicity of the Genesis account feel that finding the Ark would validate their views on a whole range of matters, from geology to evolution. "If the flood of Noah indeed wiped out the entire human race and its civilization, as the Bible teaches, then the Ark constitutes the one remaining major link to the pre-flood World. No significant artifact could ever be of greater antiquity or importance.... [with] tremendous potential impact on the creation-evolution (including theistic evolution) controversy."[32] Mount Ararat (39°42′N, 44°17′E), satellite image — a stratovolcano, 5,137 meters (16,854 ft) above sea level, prominence 3,611 meters, believed to have erupted within the last 10,000 years. ... Credit(s): Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. ... Credit(s): Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: , Russian: , Hebrew: , Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... Sabalan (سبلان Sabalân in Persian;also called Sāvālān in Azerbaijani) is an inactive volcano in Ardabil province of Iran. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Searches have concentrated on Mount Ararat itself, although Genesis actually refers only to the "mountains of Ararat." The Durupinar site, near but not on Ararat, and much more accessible, attracted attention in the 1980s and 1990s; In early 2004 a Honolulu businessman traveled to Washington DC to “announce with great fanfare” a planned expedition to investigate a site he called the Ararat anomaly but National Geographic later concluded it may have been an ineffective stunt to “persuade the Turkish government into granting him a permit” that “few expeditions have actually obtained.”;[33] and in 2006 there was brief flurry of interest when an expedition reported a potential site in Iran. Despite all these efforts, no physical remains have been found. Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: , Russian: , Hebrew: , Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ... From Noahs Ark: Adrift in Dark Waters - the Durupinar ark site with site promoter David Fasold in the foreground The Durupinar site is a boat-shaped mound site in the Tenderuk mountains named after Turkish Army Captain Ilhan Durupinar who identified the formation in a Turkish Air Force aerial... Picture of the Ararat anomaly taken by the US Defense Intelligence Agency in 1949 The Ararat anomaly is an object appearing on photographs of the snowfields at the summit of Mount Ararat, Turkey, and advanced by some believers in Biblical literalism as the remains of Noahs Ark. ...


See also

The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article is about great floods. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... From Noahs Ark: Adrift in Dark Waters - the Durupinar ark site with site promoter David Fasold in the foreground The Durupinar site is a boat-shaped mound site in the Tenderuk mountains named after Turkish Army Captain Ilhan Durupinar who identified the formation in a Turkish Air Force aerial... Mount Ararat (39°42′N, 44°17′E), satellite image — a stratovolcano, 5,137 meters (16,854 ft) above sea level, prominence 3,611 meters, believed to have erupted within the last 10,000 years. ... Although Genesis tells us next to nothing about the four women aboard the Ark, who had witnessed the days before the Flood, there exist substantial extra-biblical traditions regarding these women and their names. ... Ron Wyatt Ronald Eldon Wyatt (1933 - August 4, 1999) was an amateur archaeologist (he had no training in the discipline and held no professional position) who claimed to have discovered many significant biblical sites and artifacts. ... From Noahs Ark: Adrift in Dark Waters - David Fasold with the Durupinar ark site in the background Donald Fasold (?-1998) was a former merchant marine officer and salvage expert who is best known for his book The Ark of Noah, chronicling his early expeditions to the so-called Durupinar... Evan Almighty is a 2007 comedy film, and sequel to the 2003 film Bruce Almighty. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ...

References

  • Bailey, Lloyd R. (1989). Noah, the Person and the Story. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-637-6. 
  • Best, Robert M. (1999). Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Fort Myers, Florida: Enlil Press. ISBN 0-9667840-1-4. 
  • Brenton, Sir Lancelot C.L. [1851] (1986). The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English (reprint). Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 0-913573-44-2. 
  • Tigay, Jeffrey H., (1982). The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-7805-4. 
  • Woodmorappe, John (1996). Noah's Ark: A Feasibility Study. El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research. ISBN 0-932766-41-2. 
  • Young, Davis A. (1995). The Biblical Flood. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-0719-4. 

External links



Walt Brown Dr Walt Brown is an American young earth creationist, who runs his own ministry called the Center for Scientific Creation. ... Talk. ... Chabad. ... AiGs logo Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry with a particular focus on Young Earth creationism and a literal, or plain,[1] interpretation of the first chapters of Genesis. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Browne, Janet (1983). The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02460-6. 
  2. ^ Book of Genesis (Revised Standard Version).
  3. ^ a b McCurdy, JF, Bacher, W, Seligsohn, M, Hirsch, EG, & Montgomery, MW (2002). Jewish Encyclopedia: Noah. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  4. ^ a b Jastrow, M, McCurdy, JF, Jastrow, M, Ginzberg, L & McDonald, DB (2002). Jewish Encyclopedia: Ark of Noah. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  5. ^ Hirsch, EG, Muss-Arnolt, W & Hirschfeld, H (2002). Jewish Encyclopedia: The Flood. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  6. ^ 1 Peter.
  7. ^ Schaff, P (1890). St. Augustin's City of God and Christian Doctrine, Chapter 26.—That the Ark Which Noah Was Ordered to Make Figures In Every Respect Christ and the Church. The Christian Literature Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. 
  8. ^ Schaff, P (1892). Jerome: The Principal Works of St. Jerome, Letter LXIX. To Oceanus.. The Christian Literature Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. 
  9. ^ Knight, K (2007). Fragments from Commentaries on Various Books of Scripture. New Advent. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  10. ^ a b c Cohn, Norman (1996). Noah's Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06823-9. 
  11. ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, October 28, 1949: Bahá'í News, No. 228, February 1950, p. 4. Republished in Compilations (1983). in Hornby, Helen (Ed.): Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, p. 508. ISBN 8185091463. 
  12. ^ Poirier, Brent. The Kitab-i-Iqan: The key to unsealing the mysteries of the Holy Bible. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  13. ^ Shoghi Effendi (1971). Messages to the Bahá'í World, 1950–1957. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, p. 104. ISBN 0877430365. 
  14. ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, November 25, 1950. Published in Compilations (1983). in Hornby, Helen (Ed.): Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, p. 494. ISBN 8185091463. 
  15. ^ a b c Friedman, Richard Elliot (2003). The Bible with Sources Revealed: A new view into the five books of Moses. New York: Harper SanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-073065-X. .
  16. ^ For an on-line exposition of the minimalist position, including a brief overview of minimalist views of the Ark story, see Athas, G (1999). 'Minimalism' The Copenhagen School of Thought in Biblical Studies. John Mark Ministries. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  17. ^ Gordon Wenham, "The Coherence of the Flood Narrative", Vestus Testamentum, 1978. See Wenham's footnotes for references to Cassuto and others.
  18. ^ Webster, M (2005). The Story of Atrahasis. Grand Valley State University. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  19. ^ Kramer, SN (1961). Sumerian Mythology: Chapter IV. Miscellaneous Myths. The internet sacred text archive. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  20. ^ Overview of Mesopotamian flood myths. University of Tennessee, Frank H. McClung Museum. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  21. ^ Tigay, Jeffrey H., (1982). The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-7805-4. 
  22. ^ Anonymous (1960). The Epic of Gilgamesh: An English Version with an Introduction. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0140441000. 
  23. ^ Best, RM (199). Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic: Sumerian Origins of the Flood Myth. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0966784015. 
  24. ^ Hasel, GF (1980). "THE MEANING OF THE CHRONOGENEALOGIES OF GENESIS 5 AND 11". Origins 7 (2): 53–70. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. 
  25. ^ Hirsch, EG & Hyvernat, H (2002). The Jewish Encyclopedia: Goper-Wood. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  26. ^ Brenton, Sir Lancelot C.L. [1851] (1986). The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English (reprint). Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 0-913573-44-2. 
  27. ^ Taylor, Paul (2001). What is “Gopher Wood”?. Eden Communications. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  28. ^ biblestudy.org
  29. ^ Gould, R (2001). Asia's Undersea Archeology. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  30. ^ Mendez, AC. How Big was Noah's Ark. biblestudy.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  31. ^ Sarfati, J (2007). Variation and natural selection versus evolution. Answers in Genesis. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  32. ^ Morris, John (2007). Noah's Ark the Search Goes On. Institute for Creation Research. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  33. ^ Lovgren, S (2004). Noah's Ark Quest Dead in Water--Was It a Stunt?. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.

E. Janet Browne (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Cohn, also known as Norman Rufus Colin Cohn, (born 12 January 1915) is British academic, historian and writer, now Emeritus Astor-Wolfson Professor at the University of Sussex. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Noah's Ark - Truth or Myth? (2785 words)
Noah was given instructions about how he was to build a big boat--450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high.
Noah was also told that the Ark would save his family (four married couples) and a male and female pair of every kind of "unclean" animal and 7 each (or 7 pairs) of every "clean" animal.
Noah was also instructed to store food in the Ark for his family and for all the animals.
Problems with a Global Flood, 2nd edition (9127 words)
In conclusion, an ark of the size specified in the Bible would not be large enough to carry a cargo of animals and food sufficient to repopulate the earth, especially if animals that are now extinct were required to be aboard.
The ark would need to be well ventilated to disperse the heat, humidity, and waste products (including methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia) from the many thousands of animals which were crowded aboard.
Noah could not have gathered seeds for all plants because not all plants produce seeds, and a variety of plant seeds can't survive a year before germinating.
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