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Encyclopedia > No first use

No first use refers to a pledge not to use nuclear weapons unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...



The former-Soviet Union, Russia, India, and the People's Republic of China have pledged not to initiate the use of nuclear weapons in a conflict, while the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, France, Pakistan, and North Korea have not. Historically, the reluctance of the NATO allies to pledge to not initate nuclear attacks during the Cold War resulted from the numerical superiority of Warsaw Pact conventional forces and the belief that the use of tactical nuclear weapons would have been required in defeating a Soviet invasion.[citation needed] NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Clockwise from top: United States President John F. Kennedy and Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev meet in a 1961 summit held in Vienna; East German border guards at the Berlin Wall; the first Soviet nuclear weapon Joe 1 is tested; American soldiers land in Vietnam during the Vietnam War; Sputnik... Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...

Soviet Union

In the case of the Soviet Union, a no-first-use pledge was seen as a means of undermining support for the United States, particularly among Europeans, on whose territory a nuclear war might have been fought.[citation needed] Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one. ...

People's Republic of China

In the case of People's Republic of China, the limited number and accuracy of its nuclear arsenal rendered it suicidal for any doctrine other than assured destruction and hence it has pledged no first use against other countries.[citation needed] Since China's original no-first-use pledge in the 1960s, it has been somewhat unclear if the pledge would apply to a conflict involving Taiwan, especially in the event of military involvement by the United States. However, China officially reaffirmed its no-first-use policy in July 2005 at the request of the United States Department of State[1]. That request was prompted by remarks of a Chinese military official, who suggested Beijing might indeed respond to a US attack on the mainland in a conflict over Taiwan with a nuclear strike upon US forces.[citation needed] Assured Destruction is a concept sometimes used in game theory and similar discussions to describe a condition where certain behaviors or choices are deterred because they will lead to the imposition by others of overwhelming punitive consequences. ... Ongoing events • 2005 Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes • 2005 Maharashtra floods • 2005 Gujarat Flood • Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan • Fuel prices • Gomery Comm. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... (help· info) (IPA peiË© tɕɪŋ˦), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

Post cold war

After the end of the Cold War, Russia has continued to pledge no first use in large part because the Russian economy does not allow for the expansion of its nuclear arsenal to serve as anything other than a deterrent force.[citation needed] Despite the fact that a Soviet invasion of Western Europe is no longer possible, the United States has stated that it reserves the right to respond to an attack by weapons of mass destruction with nuclear weapons, and a leaked Pentagon report in March 2002 purports to show that the use of nuclear weapons - "mini-nukes" - for new purposes (such as bunker busters) is being considered.[citation needed] Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for March, 2002. ... Bunker-busting nuclear weapons are a proposed type of nuclear weapon that would be designed to penetrate into soil, rock or concrete to deliver a low-yield nuclear warhead. ...

At NATO's summit in April 1999, Germany proposed that NATO adopt a no-first-use policy, but the proposal was rejected.[citation needed] The US Department of Defense revised the doctrine for the use of nuclear weapons titled "Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations" and written under the direction of Air Force Gen. Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. [citation needed] The new doctrine envisions commanders requesting presidential approval to use nuclear weapons to preempt an attack by a nation or a terrorist group using weapons of mass destruction. [citation needed] The draft also includes the option of using nuclear weapons to destroy known enemy stockpiles of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons. [citation needed] The draft is not yet approved by Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld. This new policy would update rules and procedures governing use of nuclear weapons to reflect a preemption strategy first announced by the Bush White House in December 2002. [citation needed] NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... General Richard B. Myers General Richard Bowman Myers (born March 1, 1942) of the United States Air Force is the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest ranking uniformed position in the United States Armed Forces. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff, photographed in the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gold Room in the Pentagon on Jan. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Donald Rumsfeld Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the current Secretary of Defense of the United States, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...

President G W Bush

In March 2006, President Bush held a town hall meeting at a retirement community in the Washington D.C. area, where a man identifying himself only as one of the few surviving members of the U.S. negotiation team for the non-proliferation treaty asked Bush to re-examine the administrations "first use" policy [2]: George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... A retirement community is a very broad, generic term that covers many varieties of housing for retirees and seniors - especially designed or geared for people who no longer work, or restricted to those over a certain age. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Negotiation is the process whereby interested parties resolve disputes, agree upon courses of action, bargain for individual or collective advantage, and/or attempt to craft outcomes which serve their mutual interests. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ...

"...the basic bargain there was that other countries would give up their nuclear weapons if we, the nuclear powers, would engage in a program of nuclear disarmament. Now, I'm aware of all of the agreements that have taken place. I'm aware of the negotiations that you had with Mr. Putin. The point is that we cannot expect that agreement, that basic agreement to hold if the United States, particularly, goes on acting as -- and has the position that we might initiate a nuclear war if it is necessary. And I would ask you just to think about the time -- while you're still President, taking the one position that only one American President has taken, and that is President Johnson, to consider a "no first-use" policy to help the prospect of nuclear proliferation in the long run." Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, (help· info), Vladímir Vladímirovich Pútin; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ...

The response from the president:

"Well, thank you. Thank you very much. Thanks for your contribution, by the way. I appreciate it. (Applause) ... I did do an agreement with President Putin -- thanks for noticing -- where we are -- both of us are reducing nuclear stockpiles. But I will take your words to heart, and think about it. Thank you. No commitment standing right here, of course. (Laughter) ...."

External links

  • [3] Andrew Yeh, "China Acts to Ease Fears over N-arms Policy," Financial Times, July 25, 2005
  • [4] Globalsecurity.org



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