FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide - space-filling model

Nitrous oxide's bond lengths
Nitrous oxide's canonical forms
Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Nitrous Oxide may refer to: Nitrous oxide, the chemical compound Nitrous Oxide, a Polish trance music producer Nitros Oxide, a video game character from Crash Bandicoot Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x807, 150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrous oxide Nitrogen oxide ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 383 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 526 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x205, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrous oxide Talk:Nitrous oxide ...

General
Molecular formula N2O
Molar mass 44.0128 g·mol−1
Appearance colourless gas
CAS number 10024-97-2
Properties
Density and phase 1222.8 kg m-3 (liquid)
1.8 kg m-3 (gas STP)
Solubility in water
Melting point -90.86 °C (182.29 K)
Boiling point -88.48 °C (184.67 K)
Structure
Molecular shape linear
Dipole moment 0.166 D
Thermodynamic data
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
+82.05 kJ/mol
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Oxidising (O)
NFPA 704
0
2
0
OX
R-phrases R8
S-phrases S38
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Related nitrogen oxides Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Dinitrogen trioxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
Related compounds Nitric acid
Nitrous acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references


Nitrous oxide, dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects, where it is commonly known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it; its oxidative effects also make it popular in motorsports, where it is known commonly as "nitrous", "nitro boost" or "NOS". A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... four sp³ orbitals three sp² orbitals In chemistry, hybridisation or hybridization (see also spelling differences) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound dinitrogen trioxide (chemical formula: N2O3) is a pale blue liquid, and is unstable above 3°C (37° F) at standard pressure. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Dinitrogen pentoxide is the binary nitrogen oxide N2O5, also known as nitrogen pentoxide. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A symbol for flammable chemicals Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This page discusses the use of nitrous oxide in a racing context. ...

Contents

History

The gas was first synthesized by English chemist and natural philosopher borris borren in the stone age. in 1775 [2], who called it phlogisticated nitrous air (see phlogiston). Priestley describes the preparation of "nitrous air diminished" by heating iron filings dampened with nitric acid in Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air, (1775). Priestley was delighted with his discovery: "I have now discovered an air five or six times as good as common air... nothing I ever did has surprised me more, or is more satisfactory." [1] Humphry Davy in the 1790s tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, including the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey. They soon realised that nitrous oxide considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious. After it was publicized extensively by Gardner Quincy Colton in the United States in the 1840s, it came into use as an anaesthetic, particularly by dentists, who do not typically have access to the services of an anesthesiologist and who may benefit from a patient who can respond to verbal commands. The phlogiston theory is a now discredited 17th century hypothesis regarding combustion. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ... Gardner Quincy Colton (born February 17, 1814, Georgia, Vermont; died August 9, 1898, Rotterdam) was an American showman, lecturer, and former medical student who pioneered the use of nitrous oxide in dentistry. ... An anesthesiologist (American English), or anaesthetist (British English), also anaesthesiologist, is a medical doctor trained to administer anesthesia and manage the medical care of patients before, during, and after surgery. ...


Manufacture

The gas is present in trace amounts in Earth's atmosphere as a result of high temperature reactions between nitrogen and oxygen. Industrially the gas is prepared by gently heating ammonium nitrate [Archibald]:


NH4NO3(s) → 2 H2O(g) + N2O(g)


The preparation is dangerous because of N2O's tendency to explosively decompose into nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. (The World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings involved detonation of nitrous oxide produced by rapid high temperature decomposition.) N2O manufactured this way should NOT be inhaled, because it is contaminated with NO2, a corrosive, irritating gas that can cause permanent lung and genetic damage.


The addition of various phosphates favors formation of a purer gas at slightly lower temperatures. This reaction occurs between 170 - 240°C, temperatures where ammonium nitrate is a moderately sensitive explosive and a very powerful oxidizer (perhaps on the order of fuming nitric acid). At temperatures much above 240 °C the exothermic reaction may accelerate this reaction up to the point of detonation. The mixture must be cooled to avoid such a disaster. In practice, the reaction involves a series of tedious adjustments to control the temperature to within a narrow range. Professionals have destroyed whole neighborhoods by losing control (of the temperature and pressure in the ammonium nitrate retorts) in commercial scale processes. Examples include the Ohio Chemical debacle in Montreal, 1966 and the Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. disaster in Delaware City, Delaware, 1977. A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat . ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... Delaware City is a city in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. ...


Downstream, the hot, corrosive mixture of gases must be cooled to condense the steam and filtered to remove higher oxides of nitrogen. Also ammonium nitrate smoke in an extremly persistant colloid will likely have to be removed. The clean up is often done in a train of 3 gas washes; namely base, acid and base again. Any significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) may not neccessarily be absorbed directly by the base (sodium hydroxide) washes. The nitric oxide impurity is sometimes chelated out with iron II (ferrous sulfate), reduced with iron metal (such as steel wool or turnings) or oxidised (example: potassium permanganate) and then absorbed in base as a higher oxide. The first base wash may (or may not) react out much of the ammonium nitrate smoke, however this reaction generates ammonia gas, which may have to be absorbed in the acid wash.


The direct oxidation of ammonia may someday rival the ammonium nitrate pyrolysis synthesis of nitrous oxide mentioned above. This capital-intensive process, which originates in Japan, uses a manganese dioxide-bismuth oxide catalyst. (Suwa et al. 1961; Showa Denka Ltd.) For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) is a chemical compound also known as manganese dioxide or manganese oxide. ... Bismite is a bismuth oxide mineral, Bi2O3. ...

2NH3 + 2O2 → N2O + 3H2O

Higher oxides of nitrogen are formed as impurities. For comparison note that uncatalyzed ammonia oxidation (i.e. combustion or explosion) goes primarily to N2 and H2O. The Ostwald process oxidizes ammonia to nitric oxide (NO), using a platinum catalyst screen. (this is the beginning of the modern synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia, often much of the nitric acid is reacted with more ammonia to form ammonium nitrate and sometimes the ammonium nitrate cam be pyrolysed to . . . [see above]). In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... The Ostwald process is chemical process for producing nitric acid, which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ...


Nitrous oxide can be made by heating a solution of sulfamic acid and nitric acid. A lot of gas was made this way in Bulgaria (Brozadzhiew & Rettos, 1975). Sulfamic acid, also known as amidosulfonic acid amidosulfuric acid, aminosulfonic acid, and sulfamidic acid, is a molecular compound with the formula H3NSO3. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...

HNO3 + NH2SO3H → N2O + H2SO4 + H2O

There is no explosive hazard in this reaction if the mixing rate is controlled. However, as usual, toxic higher oxides of nitrogen form.


Nitrous oxide is produced in large volumes as a by-product in the synthesis of adipic acid; one of the two reactants used in nylon manufacture. This might become a major commercial source, but will require the removal of higher oxides of nitrogen and organic impurities. Currently much of the gas is decomposed before release for environmental protection. Greener proceses may prevail that substitute peroxide for nitric acid oxidation; hence no generation of oxide of nitrogen by-products.


Colorless solutions of hydroxylammonium chloride and sodium nitrite can also be used to produce N2O: The chemical compound Hydroxylammonium Chloride is an ammonia like compound containing Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Chlorine. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ...

NH3OH+Cl + NaNO2 → N2O + NaCl + H2O

If the nitrite is added to the hydroxylamine solution, the gas produced is pure enough for inhalation, and the only remaining byproduct is salt water. However, if the hydroxylamine solution is added to the nitrite solution (nitrite is in excess), then toxic higher oxides of nitrogen are also formed.


Uses

Inhalant effects

Nitrous oxide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Nitrous oxide
Identifiers
CAS number 10024-97-2
ATC code N01AX13
PubChem  ?
Chemical data
Formula N2O 
Mol. mass 44.0128 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism 0.004%
Half life 5 minutes
Excretion Respiratory
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x807, 150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrous oxide Nitrogen oxide ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Respiration can refer to: Cellular respiration, which is the use of oxygen in the metabolism of organic molecules. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Anasthetic use allowed in the United States and Australia; Recreational use often illegal on a state-by-state basis The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Inhalation
8g canister of nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a dissociative drug that can cause analgesia, depersonalization, derealization, dizziness, euphoria, flanging of sound, slight hallucinations and neurotoxicity. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1782x1719, 569 KB)[edit] Summary (Turkeyphant) [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1782x1719, 569 KB)[edit] Summary (Turkeyphant) [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Depersonalization is an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, ones mental processes or body. ... Derealization (DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unreal. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Flanging is a time-based audio effect that occurs when two identical signals are mixed together, but with one signal time-delayed by a small and gradually changing amount, usually smaller than 20 ms (milliseconds). ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ...


In medicine

Previously, nitrous oxide was typically administered by dentists through a demand-valve inhaler over the nose that only releases gas when the patient inhales through the nose; full-face masks are not commonly used by dentists, so that the patient's mouth can be worked on while the patient continues to inhale the gas.Dentist now do not use as much thanks to the fairly recent invention of numb magic which allows you to numb only a specific area. Current use involves constant supply flowmeters which allow the proportion of nitrous oxide and the combined gas flow rate to be individually adjusted. The masks still obviously cover only the nose.


Because nitrous oxide is minimally metabolized, it retains its potency when exhaled into the room by the patient and can pose an intoxicating and prolonged-exposure hazard to the clinic staff if the room is poorly ventilated. Where nitrous oxide is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or nitrous-scavenging system is used, to prevent waste gas buildup.


Nitrous oxide is a weak general anesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia.


In general anesthesia it is used as a carrier gas in a 2:1 ratio with oxygen for more powerful general anaesthetic agents such as sevoflurane or desflurane. It has a MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) of 105% and a blood:gas partition coefficient of 0.46. Less than 0.004% is metabolised in humans. Sevoflurane (2, 2, 2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Desflurane is a highly flourinated ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. ... Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is a concept anaesthetists use to compare the strengths of anaesthetic vapours; in simple terms, it is defined as the minimal concentration of the vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent physical response to a noxious stimulus in 50% of subjects. ...


Recreational use

Since the earliest uses of nitrous oxide for medical or dental purposes, it has also been used recreationally, because it causes euphoria and slight hallucinations. Only a small number of recreational users (such as dental office workers or medical gas technicians) have legal access to pure nitrous oxide canisters that are intended for medical or dental use. Most recreational users obtain nitrous oxide from compressed gas containers which use nitrous oxide as a propellant for whipped cream or from automotive nitrous systems. Automotive nitrous available to the public often has ~100 ppm Sulfur dioxide added to prevent recreational use/abuse; (not hydrogen sulfide as suggested by [2]). Inhalation of such a mixture is nearly impossible after one breath due to gagging and sooner or later, involuntary clamping off of the esophagus; (some with "sulfate" allergies could even die due to allergic reaction). Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Can may mean one of several things: Look up Can in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A can or canister (also spelled cannister) is usually a products, such as the aluminum beverage can and tin can, the latter of which is usually accessed with a can opener. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Users typically inflate a balloon or plastic bag with nitrous oxide and inhale the gas for its effects. While nitrous oxide is not a dangerous substance per se, recreational users typically do not mix it with air or oxygen (as is standard procedure in a dentist's office) and thus may risk injury or death from lack of oxygen (anoxia). Nitrous oxide, when inhaled using a home made system consisting of a mask and/or regulator, presents more potential danger due to the automatic, continuous application. This may in turn prevent adequate oxygen from reaching the user, rendering them unconscious, subsequently leading to death due to asphyxiation. Inhaling nitrous oxide in conjunction with an alkyl nitrite is in some circles referred to as "space surfing", as the nitrous oxide acts synergistically with the alkyl nitrite to create strong (but short-lived) euphoria, analgesia, dissociation, and in some cases, sensations of internal movement or agitation. The name also comes from the sound-flanging effects of nitrous oxide, which some users compare to the sound of waves crashing on a beach (hence "surfing"). While powerful, this is a potentially dangerous combination, as the CNS depressing effects of the nitrous oxide, combined with the drop in blood pressure (which is characteristic of nitrite inhalant use), may cause hypotension, unconsciousness, or, in the case of extreme overdose, death. Individuals with cardiac conditions, complications arising from stroke or surgery, or chronically low blood pressure are advised not to use these two drugs simultaneously. Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Rush, and Rave; Marketed Brands of Alkyl Nitrites Alkyl nitrites or Poppers are a class of inhalant used for the treatment of angina. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ...


Nitrous oxide is used as a whipping agent due to the ease at which it migrates into and out of oils; only a few seconds of rapid shaking is enough to migrate the gas into the oily cream under pressure. Due to this ability, nitrous also easily moves throughout the body, into and out of cells, because cell membranes are oil-based lipids. Prolonged inhalation of high concentrations of nitrous oxide will cause it to migrate throughout the body into sinus cavities, the digestive tract, and into fat cells. An inactive person who has breathed high concentrations for 20-30 minutes but then breathes normally will still retain the gas in their body at low doses as the gas slowly migrates back out of these internal cavities. Even after several hours of not breathing the gas, sudden rapid whole-body movements such as callisthenics causes the dissolved gas to suddenly begin migrating out of fat cells, resulting in a latent dosing effect.


Nitrous oxide can be habit-forming because of its short-lived effect (generally from 1 - 5 minutes in recreational doses) and ease of access. Death can result if it is inhaled in such a way that too little oxygen is breathed in. While the pure gas is generally not toxic, long-term use in very large quantities has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency, anemia due to reduced hemopoiesis, neuropathy, tinnitus, and numbness in extremities. Harmful irreversible effects that may be caused by abuse of nitrous oxide include peripheral neuropathies and limb spasms.[3] Pregnant women should not use nitrous oxide as chronic use is teratogenic and foetotoxic. One study in rats found that long term exposure to high doses of nitrous oxide may lead to Olney's lesions.[4] Seizures, perception of time, and vision-altering perceptions are possible side effects.[citation needed] Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Haematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components. ... Neuropathy is usually short for peripheral neuropathy, meaning a disease of the peripheral nervous system. ... Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... Paresthesia (paraesthesia in British) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent physical cause, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Olneys Lesions, also known as NMDA Receptor Antagonist Neurotoxicity (NAN), are a form of brain damage theorized to be caused by high doses of dissociative anaesthetics, particularly those referred to as noncompetitive NMDA-channel-blockers such as ketamine, phencyclidine, and dextromethorphan. ...


Aerosol propellant

The gas is approved for use as a food additive (also known as E942), specifically as an aerosol spray propellant. Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters, cooking sprays, and as an inert gas used to displace bacteria-inducing oxygen when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods. Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of raw milk before homogenization. ... Cooking spray is used as a substitute for lard, butter, and other products applied to frying pans and other cookware to prevent food from sticking to it. ... Saratoga chips Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. ...


The gas is extremely soluble in fatty compounds. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam. Used in this way, it produces whipped cream four times the volume of the liquid, whereas whipping air into cream only produces twice the volume. If air were used as a propellant, under increased pressure the oxygen would accelerate rancidification of the butterfat, while nitrous oxide inhibits such degradation. However, the whipped cream produced with nitrous oxide is unstable, and will return to a more or less liquid state within half an hour to one hour. Thus, the method is not suitable for decorating food that will not be immediately served. Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ...


Similarly, cooking spray, which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin (an emulsifier), may use nitrous oxide as a propellant; other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane. Cooking spray is used as a substitute for lard, butter, and other products applied to frying pans and other cookware to prevent food from sticking to it. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ...


Users of nitrous oxide often obtain it from whipped cream dispensers that use nitrous oxide as a propellant (see above section), for recreational use a as a euphoria-inducing inhalant drug. It is non-harmful in small doses, but risks due to lack of oxygen do exist (see section on "Recreational use" above). An aerosol metered-dose inhaler (MDI) used for administration of asthma medication. ...


Rocket motors

Nitrous oxide can be used as an oxidizer in a rocket motor. This has the advantages over other oxidizers that it is non-toxic and, due to its stability at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


Nitrous oxide has been the oxidizer of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidizer). The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It is also notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel. An episode of MythBusters featured a hybrid rocket built using a paraffin/powdered carbon mixture (and later salami) as its solid fuel and nitrous oxide as its oxidizer. A hybrid rocket propulsion system comprises propellants of two different states of matter, the most common configuration being a rocket engine composed of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot... Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is a polymer of butadiene terminated at each end with a hydroxyl functional group. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ... Amateur rocketry, sometimes known as amateur experimental rocketry or experimental rocketry is a hobby in which participants experiment with fuels and make their own rocket motors, launching a wide variety of types and sizes of rockets. ... High power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry, with the major difference that the rockets flown are significantly larger. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... MythBusters is an American popular science television program on the Discovery Channel starring special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use basic elements of the scientific method to test the validity of various rumors and urban legends in popular culture. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... Salami Salami is cured sausage, fermented and air-dried. ...


Nitrous oxide can also be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of approximately 1300 °C. In a vacuum thruster, this can provide a monopropellant specific impulse (Isp) of as much as 180s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters (monopropellant or bipropellant with nitrogen tetroxide), the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. A monopropellant rocket (or monoprop rocket) is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its power source and propellant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rockets combustion chamber. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ...


Internal combustion engine

Main article: Nitrous

In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide (often referred to as just "nitrous" in this context to differ from the acronym NOS which is the brand Nitrous Oxide Systems) is sometimes injected into the intake manifold (or prior to the intake manifold), some systems directly inject right before the cylinder (direct port injection) to increase power. The gas itself is not flammable, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures, allowing the engine to burn more fuel and air and resulting in more powerful combustion. Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid; the evaporation and expansion of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature, resulting in a denser charge, further allowing more air/fuel mixture to enter the cylinder. The lower temperature can also reduce detonation. This page discusses the use of nitrous oxide in a racing context. ... This article is about the speed competition. ... This page discusses the use of nitrous oxide in a racing context. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... In automotive engineering, an intake manifold or inlet manifold is a part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ...


The same technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM 1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. Originally meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to extremely high altitudes. Accordingly, it was only used by specialized planes like high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptors. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... GM-1 was a system for injecting nitrous oxide into aircraft engines that was used by the Luftwaffe in World War II to boost the high-altitude performance of their aircraft. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... A Schnellbomber (German, literally fast bomber) was a specialized high-speed bomber aircraft. ... The MiG-25 is a Russian interceptor that was the mainstay of the Soviet air defence. ...


One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine. Very large power increases are possible, and if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be severely damaged or destroyed during this kind of operation.


It is very important with nitrous oxide augmentation of internal combustion engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent preignition, or detonation (sometimes referred to as knocking or pinging). The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


Neuropharmacology

Medical grade nitrous oxide tanks used in dentistry

Nitrous oxide shares many pharmacological similarities with other inhaled anesthetics, but there are a number of differences. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (482x1516, 114 KB) Medical grade Nitrous Oxide tanks used in dentistry. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (482x1516, 114 KB) Medical grade Nitrous Oxide tanks used in dentistry. ...


Nitrous oxide is relatively non-polar, has a low molecular weight, and high lipid solubility. As a result it can quickly diffuse into phospholipid cell membranes. In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that encapsulate the cell. ...


Like many classical anesthetics, the exact mechanism of action is still open to some conjecture. It antagonizes the NMDA receptor at partial pressures similar to those used in general anaesthesia. The evidence on the effect of N2O on GABA-A currents is mixed, but tends to show a lower potency potentiation.[5] N2O, like other volatile anesthetics, activates twin-pore potassium channels, albeit weakly. These channels are largely responsible for keeping neurons at the resting (unexcited) potential.[6] Unlike many anesthetics, however, N2O does not seem to affect calcium channels.[5] NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... The volatile anaesthetics are a class of general anaesthetic drugs. ... In cell biology, potassium channels are the most common type of ion channel. ... Ion channels are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. ...


Unlike most general anesthetics, N2O appears to affect the GABA receptor. In many behavioral tests of anxiety, a low dose of N2O is a successful anxiolytic. This anti-anxiety effect is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. Mirroring this, animals which have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to nitrous oxide.[7] Indeed, in humans given 30% N2O, benzodiazepine receptor antagonists reduced the subjective reports of feeling “high”, but did not alter psycho-motor performance.[8] what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ...


The effects of N2O seem linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descending noradrenergic system. When animals are given morphine chronically they develop tolerance to its analgesic (pain killing) effects; this also renders the animals tolerant to the analgesic effects of N2O[9]. Administration of antibodies which bind and block the activity of some endogenous opioids (not beta-endorphin), also block the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[10] Drugs which inhibit the breakdown of endogenous opioids also potentiate the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[10] Several experiments have shown that opioid receptor antagonists applied directly to the brain block the antinociceptive effects of N2O, but these drugs have no effect when injected into the spinal cord. Conversely, alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists block the antinociceptive effects of N2O when given directly to the spinal cord, but not when applied directly to the brain.[11] Indeed, alpha2B-adrenoreceptor knockout mice or animals depleted in noradrenaline are nearly completely resistant to the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[12] It seems N2O-induced release of endogenous opioids causes disinhibition of brain stem noradrenergic neurons, which release norepinephrine into the spinal cord and inhibit pain signaling (Maze, M. and M. Fujinaga, 2000). Exactly how N2O causes the release of opioids is still uncertain. Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... This article is about the drug. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G_protein coupled receptors that is the target of catecholamines. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


Safety

The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquified gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociative anaesthetic. Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...


Exposure to nitrous oxide causes decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity. [13]


A study of workers [14] and several experimental animal studies [15] [16] [17] [18] indicate that adverse reproductive effects may also result from chronic exposure to nitrous oxide. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to nitrous oxide should be controlled during the administration of anesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operatories. [19] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ...


Chemical/physical

At room temperature (20°C) the saturated vapour pressure is 58.5 bar, rising up to 72.45 bar at 36.4°C- the critical temperature. The pressure curve is thus unusually sensitive to temperature.[20] The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ...


Liquid nitrous oxide acts as a good solvent for many organic compounds; liquid mixtures and may form shock sensitive explosives.[citation needed] An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ...


As with many strong oxidisers, contamination of parts with fuels have been implicated in rocketry accidents, where small quantities of nitrous / fuel mixtures explode due to 'water hammer' like effects (sometimes called 'dieseling'- heating due to adiabatic compression of gases can reach decomposition temperatures).[21] This article covers adiabatic processes in thermodynamics. ...


There have also been accidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in plumbing has led to the explosion of large tanks.[22]


Biological

Nitrous oxide inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B12 by oxidation. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, including sensory neuropathy, myelopathy, and encephalopathy, can occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin B12, but recovery can be slow and incomplete. People with normal vitamin B12 levels have sufficient vitamin B12 stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged (nitrous oxide abuse). Vitamin B12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anesthesia. Neuropathy, strictly speaking, is any disease that affects the nervous system. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and mobility. ... Encephalopathy literally means disease of the brain. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ...


Nitrous oxide has also been shown to induce early stages of Olney's lesions in the brains of rats.[4] Olneys Lesions, also known as NMDA Receptor Antagonist Neurotoxicity (NAN), are a form of brain damage theorized to be caused by high doses of dissociative anaesthetics, particularly those referred to as noncompetitive NMDA-channel-blockers such as ketamine, phencyclidine, and dextromethorphan. ...


Thermal

Compressed nitrous oxide is usually stored at room temperature, but as the gas expands it quickly cools to sub-zero temperatures. A leak or unexpected release of compressed nitrous oxide can result in an immediate and severe burn. For other uses, see Burn. ...


Legality

In the United States, possession of nitrous oxide is legal under federal law and is not subject to DEA purview.[23] It is, however, regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under the Food Drug and Cosmetics Act; prosecution is possible under its "misbranding" clauses, prohibiting the sale or distribution of nitrous oxide for the purpose of human consumption. Many states have laws regulating the possession, sale, and distribution of nitrous oxide; but these are normally limited to either banning distribution to minors, or to setting an upper limit for the amount of nitrous oxide that may be sold without special license, rather than banning possession or distribution completely. In most jurisdictions, like at the federal level, sale or distribution for the purpose of recreational consumption is illegal.[23] The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the United Kingdom, recreational use of nitrous oxide is illegal, though sale and possession for non-inhalant use is legal for adults over the age of 18.[24] According to Times online, and certain other sources, laughing gas is legal in the UK.[25]


In New Zealand, the Ministry of Health has warned that nitrous oxide is a prescription medicine, and its sale or possession without a prescription is an offence under the Medicines Act.[26] This statement would seemingly prohibit all non-medicinal uses of the chemical, though it is implied that only recreational use will be legally targeted. Current Ministry of Health logo The Ministry of Health (Manatū Hauora), formerly Department of Health from 1903 to 1993, is a department of the New Zealand government. ...


Nitrous oxide in the atmosphere

Greenhouse gas trends.
Greenhouse gas trends.

Unlike other nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas. While its radiative warming effect is substantially less than CO2, nitrous oxide's persistence in the atmosphere, when considered over a 100 year period, per unit of weight, has 296 times more impact on global warming than that per mass unit of carbon dioxide (CO2) [3]. Control of nitrous oxide is part of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol. Despite its relatively small concentration in the atmosphere, nitrous oxide is the third largest greenhouse gas contributor to overall global warming, behind carbon dioxide and methane. (The other nitrogen oxides contribute to global warming indirectly, by contributing to tropospheric ozone production during smog formation). Global trends in major greenhouse gases. ... Global trends in major greenhouse gases. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ...


Nitrous oxide is emitted by bacteria in soils and oceans, and thus has been a part of Earth's atmosphere for eons. Agriculture is the main source of human-produced nitrous oxide: cultivating soil, the use of nitrogen fertilizers, and animal waste handling can all stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to produce more nitrous oxide. The livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide [4]. Industrial sources make up only about 20% of all anthropogenic sources, and include the production of nylon and nitric acid, and the burning of fossil fuel in internal combustion engines. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ...


Human activity is thought to account for somewhat less than 2 teragrams (this is multiplied by about 300 when calculated as an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide) of nitrogen oxides per year, nature for over 15 teragrams [5]. The global anthropogenic nitrous oxide flux is about 1 petagram of carbon dioxide carbon-equivalents per year; this compares to 2 petagrams of methane carbon dioxide carbon-equivalents per year, and to an atmospheric loading rate of about 3.3 petagrams of carbon dioxide carbon-equivalents per year. tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ...


Nitrous oxide also attacks ozone in the stratosphere, aggravating the excess amount of UV light striking the earth's surface in recent decades, in a manner similar to various freons and related halogenated organics. Nitrous oxide is the main naturally-occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ...


Recent Research [6] by Nobel Laureate Paul Crutzen suggests that emissions of Nitrous Oxide in the production of biofuels are more than enough to offset the advantages that biodiesel was hoped to have in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. More generally this concerns the use of all Nitrogen Fertilizer. Paul J. Crutzen (December 3rd, 1933 - ) is a Dutch nobel prize winning atmospheric chemist. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


References

  1. ^ J. R. Partington, A Short History of Chemistry, 3rd ed., Dover Publications, Inc., New York, New York, 1989, pp. 110-121.
  2. ^ http://www.justsayn2o.com/nitrous.obtain.html
  3. ^ National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2006). NIDA InfoFacts: Inhalants. Retrieved April 29, 2007, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/Inhalants.html
  4. ^ a b Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Beals J, Benshoff N, Olney J (2003). "Prolonged exposure to inhalational anesthetic nitrous oxide kills neurons in adult rat brain". Neuroscience 122 (3): 609-16. PMID 14622904. 
  5. ^ a b Mennerick, S., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Todorovic, S.M., Shen, W., Olney, J.W. & Zorumski, C.F. (1998). Effect of nitrous oxide on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures. J Neurosci, 18, 9716-26.
  6. ^ Gruss, M., Bushell, T.J., Bright, D.P., Lieb, W.R., Mathie, A. & Franks, N.P. (2004). Two-pore-domain K+ channels are a novel target for the anesthetic gases xenon, nitrous oxide, and cyclopropane. Mol Pharmacol, 65, 443-52.
  7. ^ Emmanouil, D.E., Johnson, C.H. & Quock, R.M. (1994). Nitrous oxide anxiolytic effect in mice in the elevated plus maze: mediation by benzodiazepine receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 115, 167-72.
  8. ^ Zacny, J.P., Yajnik, S., Coalson, D., Lichtor, J.L., Apfelbaum, J.L., Rupani, G., Young, C., Thapar, P. & Klafta, J. (1995). Flumazenil may attenuate some subjective effects of nitrous oxide in humans: a preliminary report. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 51, 815-9.
  9. ^ Berkowitz, B.A., Finck, A.D., Hynes, M.D. & Ngai, S.H. (1979). Tolerance to nitrous oxide analgesia in rats and mice. Anesthesiology, 51, 309-12.
  10. ^ a b Branda, E.M., Ramza, J.T., Cahill, F.J., Tseng, L.F. & Quock, R.M. (2000). Role of brain dynorphin in nitrous oxide antinociception in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 65, 217-21.
  11. ^ Guo, T.Z., Davies, M.F., Kingery, W.S., Patterson, A.J., Limbird, L.E. & Maze, M. (1999). Nitrous oxide produces antinociceptive response via alpha2B and/or alpha2C adrenoceptor subtypes in mice. Anesthesiology, 90, 470-6.
  12. ^ Sawamura, S., Kingery, W.S., Davies, M.F., Agashe, G.S., Clark, J.D., Koblika, B.K., Hashimoto, T. & Maze, M. (2000). Antinociceptive action of nitrous oxide is mediated by stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem and activation of [alpha]2B adrenoceptors. J Neurosci, 20, 9242-51.
  13. ^ Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases and vapors. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 77B140.
  14. ^ Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ [1992]. Reduced fertility among women employed as dental assistants exposed to high levels of nitrous oxide. New Eng J Med 327(14):993B997.
  15. ^ Corbett TH, Cornell RG, Endres JL, Millard RI [1973]. Effects of low concentrations of nitrous oxide on rat pregnancy. Anesthesiology 39:299B301.
  16. ^ Vieira E [1979]. Effect of the chronic administration of nitrous oxide 0.5% to gravid rats. Br J Anaesth 51:283B287.
  17. ^ Vieira E, Cleaton-Jones JP, Austin JC, Moyes DG, Shaw R [1980]. Effects of low concentrations of nitrous oxide on rat fetuses. Anesth and Analgesia 59(3):175B177.
  18. ^ Vieira E, Cleaton-Jones P, Moyes D [1983]. Effects of low intermittent concentrations of nitrous oxide on the developing rat fetus. Br J Anaesth 55:67B69.
  19. ^ NIOSH Alert: Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide During Anesthetic Administration. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-100 [1]
  20. ^ Air Liquid data on Nitrous oxide
  21. ^ vaseline triggered explosion of hybrid rocket
  22. ^ Nitrous Oxide Trailer Rupture July 2, 2001 Report at CGA Seminar “Safety and Reliability of Industrial Gases, Equipment and Facilities”, October 15 -17, 2001, St. Louis, Missouri by Konrad Munke, LindeGas AG
  23. ^ a b Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics: State Laws Concerning Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide
  24. ^ http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/nitrous/nitrous_law.shtml
  25. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article596797.ece
  26. ^ Beehive.govt.nz - Time's up for sham sales of laughing gas

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nitrous Oxide (3516 words)
Nitrous oxide was negative in three carcinogenicity assays in mice and rats exposed to concentrations as high as 400,000 ppm for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 78 weeks [ACGIH 1991].
Nitrous oxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200].
Nitrous oxide should also be stored separately from aluminum, boron, hydrazine, lithium hydride, phenyllithium, phosphine, sodium, tungsten carbide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, organic peroxides, ammonia, and carbon monoxide.
Nitrous oxide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1770 words)
Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas.
The structure of the nitrous oxide molecule is a linear chain of a nitrogen atom bound to a second nitrogen atom, which in turn is bound to an oxygen atom.
Nitrous oxide also attacks ozone in the stratosphere, aggravating the excess amount of UV striking the earth's surface in recent decades (various freons and related halogenated organics also consume ozone in the stratosphere).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m