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Encyclopedia > Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Nitrogen fixation is performed naturally by a number of different prokaryotes, including bacteria, actinobacteria, and certain types of anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms that fix nitrogen are called diazotrophs. Some higher plants, and some animals (termites), have formed associations with diazotrophs. Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... Diazotrophs are microorganisms that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas in to a more usable form such as ammonia. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ...


Nitrogen fixation also occurs as a result of non-biological processes. These include lightning, industrially through the Haber-Bosch Process, and combustion.[2] Not to be confused with lighting. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ...


Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck. Martinus Willem Beijerinck (March 16, 1851 - January 1, 1931) was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist. ...

Contents

Biological nitrogen fixation

Schematic representation of the nitrogen cycle.
Schematic representation of the nitrogen cycle.

Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by a pair of bacterial enzymes called nitrogenase.[1] The formula for BNF is: This is an image of nitrogen cycle taken from this [1] EPA website. ... This is an image of nitrogen cycle taken from this [1] EPA website. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ...

N2 + 8H+ + 8e + 16 ATP → 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16 Pi

Although ammonia (NH3) is the direct product of this reaction, it is quickly protonated into ammonium (NH4+). In free-living diazotrophs, the nitrogenase-generated ammonium is assimilated into glutamate through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ...


In most bacteria, the nitrogenase enzymes are very susceptible to destruction by oxygen (and many bacteria cease production of the enzyme in the presence of oxygen).[1] Low oxygen tension is achieved by different bacteria by: living in anaerobic conditions, respiring to draw down oxygen levels, or binding the oxygen with a protein (e.g. leghaemoglobin).[1][3] The great majority of legumes have this association, but a few genera (e.g., Styphnolobium) do not. The oxygen carrier leghemoglobin (also legoglobin) is a hemoprotein found in leguminous plants. ... Species Styphnolobium affine - Coralbean Styphnolobium japonicum - Pagoda Tree Styphnolobium monteviridis Styphnolobium is a small genus of three or four species of small trees and shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. ...


Non-leguminous nitrogen-fixing plants

Although by far the majority of nitrogen-fixing plants are in the legume family Fabaceae, there are a few non-leguminous plants that can also fix nitrogen. These plants, referred to as actinorhizal plants, consist of 22 genera of woody shrubs or trees scattered in 8 plant families. The ability to fix nitrogen is not universally present in these families. For instance, of 122 genera in the Rosaceae, only 4 genera are capable of fixing nitrogen. Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ...


Family: Genera


Betulaceae: Alnus Genera Alnus - Alder Betula - Birch Carpinus - Hornbeam Corylus - Hazel Ostrya - Hop-hornbeam Ostryopsis - Hazel-hornbeam Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. ... For other uses, see Alder (disambiguation). ...


Casuarinaceae: Genera Allocasuarina Casuarina Gymnostoma Casuarinaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of 3 or 4 genera and approximately 70 species of trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics (Indo-Malaysia), Australia, and the Pacific islands. ...

Allocasuarina
Casuarina
Gymnostoma

Coriariaceae: Coriaria Species List of Allocasuarina species Allocasuarina is a genus in the flowering plant family Casuarinaceae, found primarily in southern Australia. ... Selected species Casuarina cunninghamiana Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina glauca Casuarina is a genus of shrubs and trees in the Family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia and islands of the Pacific. ... Species About 30 species, including: Coriaria angustissima Coriaria arborea Coriaria japonica Coriaria kingiana Coriaria lurida Coriaria microphylla Coriaria myrtifolia Coriaria napalensis Coriaria plumosa Coriaria pteridoides Coriaria ruscifolia Coriaria sarmentosa Coriaria sinica Coriaria terminalis Coriaria is the sole genus in the family Coriariaceae. ... Species About 30 species, including: Coriaria angustissima Coriaria arborea Coriaria japonica Coriaria kingiana Coriaria lurida Coriaria microphylla Coriaria myrtifolia Coriaria napalensis Coriaria plumosa Coriaria pteridoides Coriaria ruscifolia Coriaria sarmentosa Coriaria sinica Coriaria terminalis Coriaria thymifolia Coriaria is the sole genus in the family Coriariaceae. ...


Datiscaceae: Datisca Genera Datisca Datiscaceae are a family of Dicotyledonous plants, containing two species of the genus Datisca. ...


Elaeagnaceae: Genera Elaeagnus Hippophae Shepherdia Elaeagnaceae is a plant family of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia. ...

Elaeagnus
Hippophae
Shepherdia

Myricaceae: Species See text. ... Species Hippophae rhamnoides - Common Sea-buckthorn Hippophae salicifolia - Willow-leaved Sea-buckthorn Hippophae tibetana - Tibetan Sea-buckthorn The Sea-buckthorns, also known as Seaberry or Sea Berry, are deciduous shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. ... Species see text The Buffaloberries (Shepherdia) are a genus of small shrubs which have rather bitter tasting berries, native to North America. ... Genera Canacomyrica Guillaumin Comptonia LHer. ...

Morella arborea
Myrica
Comptonia

Rhamnaceae: Binomial name (Hutch. ... Species About 35 species, including: Myrica adenophora Myrica californica - California Bayberry Myrica cerifera - Wax-myrtle Myrica esculenta Myrica faya - Faya Bayberry Myrica gale - Sweet Gale or Bog-myrtle Myrica hartwegii - Sierra Bayberry Myrica heterophylla Myrica holdrigeana Myrica inodora - Scentless Bayberry Myrica nana Myrica parvifolia Myrica pensylvanica - Northern Bayberry Myrica pubescens... Binomial name (L.) J.M.Coulter Synonyms Comptonia aspleniifolia (L.) LHér. ... Genera See text Rhamnaceae, the Buckthorn family, is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs and some vines. ...

Ceanothus
Colletia
Discaria
Kentrothamnus
Retanilla
Trevoa

Rosaceae: Species See text Ceanothus L., is a genus of about 50-60 species of shrubs or small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ... Species See text. ... Species Discaria americana Discaria articulata Discaria chacaye Discaria nana Discaria nitida Discaria pubescens Discaria toumatou Discaria trinervis Discaria is a genus of buckthorn plants. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ...

Cercocarpus
Chamaebatia
Purshia
Dryas

There are also several nitrogen-fixing symbiotic associations that involve cyanobacteria (such as Nostoc). These include some lichens such as Lobaria and Peltigera: Species - Birchleaf Mountain-mahogany - Hairy Mountain-mahogany - Littleleaf Mountain-mahogany - Curlleaf Mountain-mahogany - Alderleaf Mountain-mahogany - Catalina Island Mountain-mahogany Mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus) is a small genus of five or six species of deciduous shrubs or small trees in the Rosaceae, native to the western Mexico, where they grow in... Species Chamaebatia australis Chamaebatia foliolosa The plant genus Chamaebatia includes two species of aromatic evergreen shrubs known as mountain misery. ... Species See text Purshia (bitterbrush or cliff-rose) is a small genus of 5-8 species of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to western North America, where they grow in dry climates from southeast British Columbia in Canada south throughout the western United States to northern Mexico. ... Dryas Categories: Plant stubs | Plants ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Lobaria is a genus of lichens commonly known as lungwort or lung moss because their physical shape somewhat resembles a lung. ... Lichens of the genus Peltigera (Willd. ...

Species Azolla caroliniana Willd. ... Species Azolla caroliniana Willd. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Species See text Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them gigantic. ...

Microorganisms that fix nitrogen

Diazotrophs are microorganisms that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas in to a more usable form such as ammonia. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Genera Azomonas Azotobacter The family Azotobacteraceae contains aerobic diazotrophs with two Genera, Azomonas and Azotobacter, distinguished by the ability to form cysts. ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Species Frankia alni Frankia is a genus of nitrogen fixing filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, similar to Rhizobia. ...

Nitrogen Fixation by Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria inhabit nearly all illuminated environments on Earth and play key roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. Generally, cyanobacteria are able to utilize a variety of inorganic and organic sources of combined nitrogen, like nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea or some amino acids. Several cyanobacterial strains are also capable of diazotrophic growth. Genome sequencing has provided a large amount of information on the genetic basis of nitrogen metabolism and its control in different cyanobacteria. Comparative genomics, together with functional studies, has led to a significant advance in this field over the past years. 2-oxoglutarate has turned out to be the central signalling molecule reflecting the carbon/nitrogen balance of cyanobacteria. Central players of nitrogen control are the global transcriptional factor NtcA, which controls the expression of many genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, as well as the PII signalling protein, which fine-tunes cellular activities in response to changing C/N conditions. These two proteins are sensors of the cellular 2-oxoglutarate level and have been conserved in all cyanobacteria. In contrast, the adaptation to nitrogen starvation involves heterogeneous responses in different strains.[4] Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains. ...


Chemical nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen can also be artificially fixed for use in fertilizer, explosives, or in other products. The most popular method is by the Haber process. This artificial fertilizer production has achieved such scale that it is now the largest source of fixed nitrogen in the Earth's ecosystem. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


The Haber process requires high pressures and very high temperatures and active research is committed to the development of catalyst systems that convert nitrogen to ammonia at ambient temperatures. Many compounds can react with atmospheric nitrogen under ambient conditions (eg lithium makes lithium nitride if left exposed), but the products of such reactions are not easily converted into biologically accessible nitrogen sources. After the first dinitrogen complex was discovered in 1965 based on ammonia coordinated to ruthenium ([Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+)[5], research in chemical fixation focused on transition metal complexes. However, progress has been slow; dinitrogen is a poor ligand and the N-N triple bond is very strong. Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ...


The first example of homolytic cleavage of dinitrogen under mild conditions was published in 1995. Two equivalents of a molybdenum complex reacted with one equivalent of dinitrogen, creating a triple bonded MoN complex[6]. The first catalytic system converting nitrogen to ammonia at room temperature and 1 atmosphere was discovered in 2003 and is based on another molybdenum catalyst, a proton source and a strong reducing agent.[7][8][9] Unfortunately, the catalytic reduction only undergoes a few turnovers before the catalyst dies. In chemistry, homolysis is chemical bond dissociation of a neutral molecule generating two free radicals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x765, 14 KB) Nitrogen Reduction Schrock 2003 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Postgate, J (1998). Nitrogen Fixation, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. 
  2. ^ http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/nitrogen.htm
  3. ^ Smil, V (2000). Cycles of Life. Scientific American Library. 
  4. ^ Herrero A and Flores E (editor). (2008). The Cyanobacteria: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Evolution, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-15-8 . 
  5. ^ Chem. Commun. 1965, pp. 621-622
  6. ^ C. E. Laplaza and C. C. Cummins, Science, 1995, 268, pp 861
  7. ^ Synthesis and Reactions of Molybdenum Triamidoamine Complexes Containing Hexaisopropylterphenyl Substituents Dmitry V. Yandulov, Richard R. Schrock, Arnold L. Rheingold, Christopher Ceccarelli, and William M. Davis Inorg. Chem.; 2003; 42(3) pp 796 - 813; (Article) doi:10.1021/ic020505l
  8. ^ Catalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia at a Single Molybdenum Center Dmitry V. Yandulov and Richard R. Schrock Science 4 July 2003: Vol. 301. no. 5629, pp. 76 - 78 doi:10.1126/science.1085326
  9. ^ The catalyst is based on molybdenum(V) chloride and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine substituted with three very bulky hexa-isopropylterphenyl (HIPT) groups. Nitrogen adds end-on to the molybdenum atom and the bulky HIPT substituents prevent the formation of the stable and nonreactive Mo-N=N-Mo dimer, and the nitrogen is reduced in an isolated pocket. The proton donor is a pyridinium cation which is accompanied by a tetraborate counter ion. The reducing agent is the chromium metallocene CrCp2* where Cp* stands for the pentamethylcyclopentadiene ligand.

Richard Royce Schrock (born January 4, 1945) was one of the recipients of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to the metathesis method in organic chemistry. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Molybdenum pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula MoCl5. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Pyridinium cation Pyridinium refers to the cationic form of pyridine. ... Borates in chemistry are chemical compounds containing boron bonded to three oxygen atoms written as B(OR)3. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... In chemistry, and in particular, in organometallic chemistry, a metallocene is a compound consisting of an aromatic organic ligand bound to a metal. ... 1,2,3,4,5-Pentamethylcyclopentadiene is a cyclic diolefin with the formula C5Me5H (Me = CH3). ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a...

See also

This does not cite its references or sources. ... George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ... Nitrogen cycle Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... Nitrogen (N) deficiency in plants can occur when woody material such as sawdust is added to the soil. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... The Birkeland-Eyde process was developed by the Norwegian industrialist and scientist Kristian Birkeland along with his business partner Sam Eyde. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
PNAS Editor Details (0 words)
The first is a comprehensive system for analysis of the chromosome of the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus, which can do both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation and can also grow on a wide variety of carbon sources.
The second is the study of the differentiation of cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena, which grows in filaments of several hundred cells.
These cells are anaerobic factories for nitrogen fixation, trading amino acids for carbohydrates with their vegetative cell neighbors.
The Environmental Literacy Council - Nitrogen (1155 words)
Nitrogen was discovered in 1772 by Scottish chemist Daniel Rutherford when he removed oxygen and carbon dioxide from air and showed that the residual gas would not support fires or living organisms.
Nitrogen is the sixteenth most abundant element in seawater and a negligible amount appears in the igneous rock of the Earth's crust.
Liquid nitrogen is used to keep foods and biological specimens frozen, and gaseous nitrogen is used in environments where a non-reactive gas is needed to shield something from oxidization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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