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Encyclopedia > Nitrogen
7 carbonnitrogenoxygen
-

N

P
General
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Chemical series nonmetals
Group, period, block 152, p
Appearance colorless gas
Standard atomic weight 14.007(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.251 g/L
Melting point 63.15 K
(-210.00 °C, -346.00 °F)
Boiling point 77.36 K
(-195.79 °C, -320.42 °F)
Critical point 126.21 K, 3.39 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.360 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)
29.124 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,[1], -1, -3
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1402.3 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2856 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4578.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 65 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 56 pm
Covalent radius 75 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
References
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Nitrogen (pronounced /nī'trə-jən/) is a chemical element that has the symbol N and atomic number 7 and atomic weight 14.007. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.1% by volume of Earth's atmosphere. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The group 15 elements(a. ... A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Nitrogen sample (gas, doesnt look like much). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Nitrogen (N) Standard atomic mass: 14. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... A computer rendering of the Nitrogen Molecule, which is a diatomic molecule. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...


Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The very strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting the N2 into useful compounds, and releasing large amounts of energy when these compounds burn or decay back into nitrogen gas. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms — it is a constituent element of amino acids and thus of proteins, and of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); resides in the chemical structure of almost all neurotransmitters; and is a defining component of alkaloids, biological molecules produced by many organisms. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ...

Contents

Properties

Nitrogen is a nonmetal, with an electronegativity of 3.0. It has five electrons in its outer shell and is therefore trivalent in most compounds. The triple bond in molecular nitrogen (N2) is one of the strongest in nature. The resulting difficulty of converting (N2) into other compounds, and the ease (and associated high energy release) of converting nitrogen compounds into elemental N2, have dominated the role of nitrogen in both nature and human economic activities. Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... In chemistry, valency is the power of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms measured by the number of electrons which an atom will give, take, or share to form a chemical compound. ...


At atmospheric pressure molecular nitrogen condenses (liquifies) at 77 K (−195.8 °C) and freezes at 63 K (−210.0 °C) into the beta hexagonal close-packed crystal allotropic form. Below 35.4 K (−237.6 °C) nitrogen assumes the alpha cubic crystal allotropic form. Liquid nitrogen, a fluid resembling water, but with 80.8% of the density, is a common cryogen. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid. ... Close-packing of spheres refers to arranging an infinite lattice of spheres so that they take up the greatest possible fraction of an infinite 3-dimensional space. ... Allotropy (Gr. ... The cubic crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. ... A tank of liquid nitrogen, used to supply a cryogenic freezer (for storing laboratory samples at a temperature of about -150 Celsius). ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ...


Unstable allotropes of nitrogen consisting of more than two nitrogen atoms have been produced in the laboratory, like N3 and N4.[1] Under extremely high pressures (1.1 million atm) and high temperatures (2000 K), as produced under diamond anvil conditions, nitrogen polymerizes into the single bonded diamond crystal structure, an allotrope nicknamed "nitrogen diamond."[2] As reported in the January 18, 2002 Edition of Science at the University of Rome La Sapienza, Fulvio Cacace and his colleagues created a novel form of nitrogen known as tetranitrogen. ... A diamond anvil, more properly a diamond anvil cell (DAC), is a device used by physicists to exert extreme pressures on a material. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Occurrence

Nitrogen is the largest single constituent of the Earth's atmosphere (78.082% by volume of dry air, 75.3% by weight in dry air). It is created by fusion processes in stars, and is estimated to be the 7th most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe.[citation needed] This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Air redirects here. ... Cross section of a red giant showing nucleosynthesis and elements formed Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


Molecular nitrogen and nitrogen compounds have been detected in interstellar space by astronomers using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.[3] Molecular nitrogen is a major constituent of the Saturnian moon Titan's thick atmosphere, and occurs in trace amounts in other planetary atmospheres.[4] 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Look up Compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Interstellar Space was one of the last albums recorded before the death of John Coltrane in 1967. ... FUSE, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, is a space-based telescope, run by the Johns Hopkins University. ... This article is about the planet. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ...


Nitrogen is present in all living organisms in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules. It is a large component of animal waste (for example, guano), usually in the form of urea, uric acid, ammonium compounds and derivatives of these nitrogenous products, which are essential nutrients for all plants that are unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ...

See also: Nitrate minerals and Ammonium minerals

Isotopes

See also: Isotopes of nitrogen

There are two stable isotopes of nitrogen: 14N and 15N. By far the most common is 14N (99.634%), which is produced in the CNO cycle in stars and the remaining is 15N. Of the ten isotopes produced synthetically, 13N has a half life of ten minutes and the remaining isotopes have half lives on the order of seconds or less. Biologically-mediated reactions (e.g., assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification) strongly control nitrogen dynamics in the soil. These reactions typically result in 15N enrichment of the substrate and depletion of the product. Nitrogen (N) Standard atomic mass: 14. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about the computer game. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Nitrogen cycle Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ...


0.73% of the molecular nitrogen in Earth's atmosphere is comprised of the isotopologue 14N15N and almost all the rest is 14N2. Isotopologues are species that differ only in the isotopic composition of their molecules or ions. ...


Electromagnetic spectrum

Molecular nitrogen (14N2) is largely transparent to infrared and visible radiation because it is a homonuclear molecule and thus has no dipole moment to couple to electromagnetic radiation at these wavelengths. Significant absorption occurs at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, beginning around 100 nanometers. This is associated with electronic transitions in the molecule to states in which charge is not distributed evenly between nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen absorption leads to significant absorption of ultraviolet radiation in the Earth's upper atmosphere as well as in the atmospheres of other planetary bodies. For similar reasons, pure molecular nitrogen lasers typically emit light in the ultraviolet range. Dipole moment refers to the quality of a system to behave like a dipole. ... A 337nm wavelength and 170 µJ pulse energy 20 Hz cartridge notrogen laser A Nitrogen laser is a gas laser operating in the ultraviolet range (typically 337 nm), using molecular nitrogen as its gain medium, pumped by an electrical discharge. ...


Nitrogen also makes a contribution to visible air glow from the Earth's upper atmosphere, through electron impact excitation followed by emission. This visible blue air glow (seen in the polar aurora and in the re-entry glow of returning spacecraft) typically results not from molecular nitrogen, but rather from free nitrogen atoms combining with oxygen to form nitric oxide (NO). Air glow is a term for light emmited from the upper layers of the atmosphere of Earth, or of another planet. ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of...


History

Nitrogen (Latin nitrogenium, where nitrum (from Greek nitron) means "saltpetre" (see niter), and genes means "forming") is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. That there was a fraction of air that did not support combustion was well known to the late 18th century chemist. Nitrogen was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as azote, from the Greek word αζωτος meaning "lifeless". Animals died in it, and it was the principal component of air in which animals had suffocated and flames had burned to extinction. This term has become the French word for "nitrogen" and later spread out to many other languages. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Niter or nitre is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter. ... Daniel Rutherford, (November 3, 1749 – November 15, 1819), was a Scottish chemist and physician who was most famous for the discovery of nitrogen in 1772. ... Year 1772 (MDCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... For other persons named Henry Cavendish, see Henry Cavendish (disambiguation). ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794; pronounced ), the father of modern chemistry,[1] was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ...


Argon was discovered when it was noticed that nitrogen from air is not identical to nitrogen from chemical reactions. General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Compounds of nitrogen were known in the Middle Ages. The alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis (strong water). The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia (royal water), celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold (the king of metals). The earliest industrial and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds involved uses in the form of saltpeter (sodium- or potassium nitrate), notably in gunpowder, and much later, as fertilizer, The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Applications

A computer rendering of the nitrogen molecule, N2.
A computer rendering of the nitrogen molecule, N2.

Nitrogen gas is acquired for industrial purposes by the fractional distillation of liquid air, or by mechanical means using gaseous air (i.e. pressurised reverse osmosis membrane or pressure swing adsorption). Commercial nitrogen is often a byproduct of air-processing for industrial concentration of oxygen for steelmaking and other purposes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1445x1336, 379 KB)[edit] Summary A computer render of a nitrogen molecule. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1445x1336, 379 KB)[edit] Summary A computer render of a nitrogen molecule. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Nitrogen gas has a wide variety of applications, including serving as an inert replacement for air where oxidation is undesirable; In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ...

Nitrogen molecules are less likely to escape from the inside of a tire compared with the traditional air mixture used. Air consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen molecules have a larger effective diameter than oxygen molecules and therefore diffuse through porous substances more slowly.[8] Post Harvest products are subject to an active metabolism. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Technically, drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state, provided there is a source of heat, and sink of the vapor thus produced. ... Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of air into the cabin of an aircraft to increase the air pressure within the cabin. ... A dielectric is a nonconducting substance, i. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... An inerting system is a device that attempts to increase the safety of a fuel tank, ball mill, or other sealed or closed-in tank that contains highly flammable material, by pumping nitrogen, steam, carbon dioxide, or some other inert gas or vapor into its air space in order to... Car redirects here. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Car redirects here. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the physical mechanism of diffusion. ... A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ...


Molecular nitrogen, a diatomic gas, is apt to dimerize into a linear four nitrogen long polymer. This is an important phenomenon for understanding high-voltage nitrogen dielectric switches because the process of polymerization can continue to lengthen the molecule to still longer lengths in the presence of an intense electric field. A nitrogen polymer fog is thereby created. The second virial coefficient of nitrogen also shows this effect as the compressibility of nitrogen gas is changed by the dimerization process at moderate and low temperatures.[citation needed]


Nitrogen tanks are also replacing carbon dioxide as the main power source for paintball guns. The downside is that nitrogen must be kept at higher pressure than CO2, making N2 tanks heavier and more expensive.


Nitrogenated beer

A further example of its versatility is its use as a preferred alternative to carbon dioxide to pressurize kegs of some beers, particularly stouts and British ales, due to the smaller bubbles it produces, which make the dispensed beer smoother and headier. A modern application of a pressure sensitive nitrogen capsule known commonly as a "widget" now allows nitrogen charged beers to be packaged in cans and bottles.[9] Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Pressurization Pressurization generally refers to the application of pressure in a given situation or environment; and more specifically refers to the process by which atmospheric pressure is maintained in an isolated or semi-isolated atmospheric environment (for instance, in an aircraft, or whilst Scuba diving). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Bubbles is a Swedish girls bubblegum pop group. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Guinness floating widget The original widget was patented in the UK by Guinness. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Bottles is a New Zealand drinking game, commonly practiced by students. ...


Liquid nitrogen

Main article: Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is a cryogenic liquid. At atmospheric pressure, it boils at −196.5 °C. When insulated in proper containers such as dewar flasks, it can be transported without much evaporative loss. A tank of liquid nitrogen, used to supply a cryogenic freezer (for storing laboratory samples at a temperature of about -150 Celsius). ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... A Dewar flask is a vessel designed to provide very good thermal insulation. ... Vaporization redirects here. ...


Like dry ice, the main use of liquid nitrogen is as a refrigerant. Among other things, it is used in the cryopreservation of blood, reproductive cells (sperm and egg), and other biological samples and materials. It is used in cold traps for certain laboratory equipment and to cool x-ray detectors. It has also been used to cool central processing units and other devices in computers which are overclocked, and which produce more heat than during normal operation. Small pellets of dry ice sublimating in air. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... Cryopreservation of plant shoots. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... Vacuum systems For the vacuum device, see cryopump In vacuum applications a cold trap is a device that condenses a vapor into either a liquid or a solid. ... CPU redirects here. ... AMD Athlon XP Overclocking BIOS Setup on ABIT NF7-S. FSB frequency (External clock) has increased from 133 MHz to 148 MHz, and clock multiplier factor has changed from 13. ...


Biological role

See also: nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen is an essential part of amino acids and nucleic acids, both of which are essential to all life on Earth. Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere cannot be used directly by either plants or animals, and needs to be converted into nitrogen compounds, or "fixed," in order to be used by life. Precipitation often contains substantial quantities of ammonium and nitrate, both thought to be a result of nitrogen fixation by lightning and other atmospheric electric phenomena. However, because ammonium is preferentially retained by the forest canopy relative to atmospheric nitrate, most of the fixed nitrogen that reaches the soil surface under trees is in the form of nitrate. Soil nitrate is preferentially assimilated by tree roots relative to soil ammonium. A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Canopy of a forest The canopy is the uppermost level of a forest, formed by the tree crowns. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...


Specific bacteria (e.g. Rhizobium trifolium) possess nitrogenase enzymes which can fix atmospheric nitrogen (see nitrogen fixation) into a form (ammonium ion) which is chemically useful to higher organisms. This process requires a large amount of energy and anoxic conditions. Such bacteria may be free in the soil (e.g. Azotobacter) but normally exist in a symbiotic relationship in the root nodules of leguminous plants (e.g. clover, Trifolium species, or the soya bean plant, Glycine max). Nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be symbiotic with a number of unrelated plant species. Common examples are legumes, alders (Alnus) spp., lichens, Casuarina, Myrica, liverworts, and Gunnera. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Species A. vinladii Azotobacter are usually motile, oval, or spherical bacteria, form thick-walled cysts, and may produce large quantities of capsular slime. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Cross section though a soybean (Glycine max. ... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... Trifolium can mean: A type of Clover The universal symbol for radiation and radioactive materials This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... For other uses, see Alder (disambiguation). ... Selected species Casuarina cunninghamiana Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina glauca Casuarina is a genus of shrubs and trees in the Family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia and islands of the Pacific. ... Species About 35 species, including: Myrica adenophora Myrica californica - California Bayberry Myrica cerifera - Wax-myrtle Myrica esculenta Myrica faya - Faya Bayberry Myrica gale - Sweet Gale or Bog-myrtle Myrica hartwegii - Sierra Bayberry Myrica heterophylla Myrica holdrigeana Myrica inodora - Scentless Bayberry Myrica nana Myrica parvifolia Myrica pensylvanica - Northern Bayberry Myrica pubescens... Species See text Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them gigantic. ...


As part of the symbiotic relationship, the plant subsequently converts the ammonium ion to nitrogen oxides and amino acids to form proteins and other biologically useful molecules, such as alkaloids. In return for the usable (fixed) nitrogen, the plant secretes sugars to the symbiotic bacteria. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ...


Some plants are able to assimilate nitrogen directly in the form of nitrates which may be present in soil from natural mineral deposits, artificial fertilizers, animal waste, or organic decay (as the product of bacteria, but not bacteria specifically associated with the plant). Nitrates absorbed in this fashion are converted to nitrites by the enzyme nitrate reductase, and then converted to ammonia by another enzyme called nitrite reductase.


Nitrogen compounds are basic building blocks in animal biology. Animals use nitrogen-containing amino acids from plant sources, as starting materials for all nitrogen-compound animal biochemistry, including the manufacture of proteins and nucleic acids. Some plant-feeding insects are so dependent on nitrogen in their diet, that varying the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to a plant can affect the rate of reproduction of the insects feeding on it.[10] In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ...


Soluble nitrate is an important limiting factor in the growth of certain bacteria in ocean waters. In many places in the world, artificial fertilizers applied to crop-lands to increase yields result in run-off delivery of soluble nitrogen to oceans at river mouths. This process can result in eutrophication of the water, as nitrogen-driven bacterial growth depletes water oxygen to the point that all higher organisms die. Well-known "dead zone" areas in the U.S. Gulf Coast and the Black Sea are due to this important polluting process. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Many saltwater fish manufacture large amounts of trimethylamine oxide to protect them from the high osmotic effects of their environment (conversion of this compound to dimethylamine is responsible for the early odor in unfresh saltwater fish: PMID 15186102). In animals, the free radical molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is derived from an amino acid, serves as an important regulatory molecule for circulation. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a naturally occurring osmolyte that occurs in saltwater fish, sharks and rays, molluscs, and crustaceans. ... Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient. ... Safety (MSDS) data for dimethylamine General Synonyms: N-methyl-methanamine Molecular formula: C2H7N CAS No: 124-40-3 EINECS No: 204-697-4 EC index no: 612-001-00-9 Physical data Appearance: colourless gas with strong ammonia-like smell Melting point: -92 C Boiling point: 7. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Animal metabolism of NO results in production of nitrite. Animal metabolism of nitrogen in proteins generally results in excretion of urea, while animal metabolism of nucleic acids results in excretion of urea and uric acid. The characteristic odor of animal flesh decay is caused by nitrogen-containing long-chain amines, such as putrescine and cadaverine. // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... Putrescine (sometimes spelled putrescin or putrescene) is an organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) formed by and having the smell of rotting flesh. ... Cadaverine is a foul-smelling molecule produced by protein hydrolysis during putrefaction of animal tissue. ...


Decay of organisms and their waste products may produce small amounts of nitrate, but most decay eventually returns nitrogen content to the atmosphere, as molecular nitrogen.


Reactions

Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+.
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+.

Nitrogen is generally unreactive at standard temperature and pressure. N2 reacts spontaneously with few reagents, being resilient to acids and bases as well as oxidants and most reductants. Nitrogen reacts with elemental lithium at STP.[11] Lithium burns in an atmosphere of N2 to give lithium nitride: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A reagent is any substance used in a chemical reaction. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... Lithium nitride is a compound of lithium and nitrogen with the formula Li3N. It is the only stable alkali metal nitride. ...

6 Li + N2 → 2 Li3N

Magnesium also burns in nitrogen, forming magnesium nitride. Magnesium nitride Chemical Formula: Mg3N2 Molecular Weight: 100. ...

3 Mg + N2 → Mg3N2

N2 forms a variety of adducts with transition metals. The first example of a dinitrogen complex is [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (see figure at right). Such compounds are now numerous, other examples include IrCl(N2)(PPh3)2, W(N2)2(Ph2CH2CH2PPh2)2, and [(η5-C5Me4H)2Zr]2(μ2,η²,η²-N2). These complexes illustrate how N2 might bind to the metal(s) in nitrogenase and the catalyst for the Haber-Bosch Process.[12] A catalytic process to reduce N2 to ammonia with the use of a molybdenum complex in the presence of a proton source was published in 2005.[11] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+. Ball-and-stick model of ReCl(dppe)2N2 A dinitrogen complex is a coordination compound that contains the dinitrogen ligand, N2. ... 1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is a commonly used bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry. ... A bridging ligand is essentially a ligand that acts as a bridge connecting two metal centres in a complex. ... // η-bonding The Greek letter η (eta) is used to denote the number of atoms of a ligand that bind to a metal center. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


The starting point for industrial production of nitrogen compounds is the Haber-Bosch process, in which nitrogen is fixed by reacting N2 and H2 over a ferric oxide (Fe3O4) catalyst at about 500 °C and 200 atmospheres pressure. Biological nitrogen fixation in free-living cyanobacteria and in the root nodules of plants also produces ammonia from molecular nitrogen. The reaction, which is the source of the bulk of nitrogen in the biosphere, is catalysed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which contains Fe and Mo atoms, using energy derived from hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate (−20.5 kJ/mol). The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... Iron(III) oxide - also known as ferric oxide, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, rouge,or rust - is one of several oxide compounds of iron, and is most notable for its ferromagnetic properties. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Root nodules occur on the roots of plants that associate with symbiotic bacteria. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


Nitrogen compounds in industry

Simple compounds

See also the category Nitrogen compounds.


The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3), although hydrazine (N2H4) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic than water by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution ammonia forms the ammonium ion (NH4+). Liquid ammonia (b.p. 240 K) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brønsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH2-); both amides and nitride (N3-) salts are known, but decompose in water. Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds of ammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quarternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble, or at least amphiphilic, compound). Larger chains, rings and structures of nitrogen hydrides are also known, but are generally unstable. N22+ is another polyatomic cation as in hydrazine. Hydride is the name given to the negative ion of hydrogen, H−. Although this ion does not exist except in extraordinary conditions, the term hydride is widely applied to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements, particularly those of groups 1–16. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... In chemistry and physical sciences, a substance is described as amphiprotic if it can both donate or accept a proton, thus acting either like an acid or a base (according to Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases: acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors. ... In chemistry, the Brønsted-Lowry system defines acids and alkalis. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Definition The nitride ion is very very gay and retarded A nitride (compound) is a compound that has nitrogen with more electropositive elements. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... An amphipathic (a. ...


Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N3-), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in the body in a manner more resembling cyanide. Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas dinitrogen monoxide N2O, also known as laughing gas. This is one of a variety of oxides, the most prominent of which are nitrogen monoxide (NO) (known more commonly as nitric oxide in biology), a natural free radical molecule used by the body as a signal for short-term control of smooth muscle in the circulation. Another notable nitrogen oxide compound (a family often abbreviated NOx) is the reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide NO2, which also contains an unpaired electron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen molecules containing unpaired electrons show an understandable tendency to dimerize (thus pairing the electrons), and are generally highly reactive. An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... Two or more molecular entities (atoms, molecules, ions) are described as isoelectronic if they have the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (number and connectivity of atoms), but may differ in the elements involved. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... The chemical compound nitric oxide is a gas with chemical formula NO. It is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans, one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ...


The more standard oxides, dinitrogen trioxide N2O3 and dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5, are actually fairly unstable and explosive-- a tendency which is driven by the stability of N2 as a product. The corresponding acids are nitrous HNO2 and nitric acid HNO3, with the corresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. Dinitrogen tetroxide N2O4 (DTO) is one of the most important oxidisers of rocket fuels, used to oxidise hydrazine in the Titan rocket and in the recent NASA MESSENGER probe to Mercury. DTO is an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid HNO3, one of the few acids stronger than hydronium and a fairly strong oxidizing agent. The chemical compound dinitrogen trioxide (chemical formula: N2O3) is a pale blue liquid, and is unstable above 3°C (37° F) at standard pressure. ... Dinitrogen pentoxide is the binary nitrogen oxide N2O5, also known as nitrogen pentoxide. ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Titan is a family of U.S. expendable rockets. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article is about the NASA space mission. ... This article is about the planet. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ...


Nitrogen is notable for the range of explosively unstable compounds that it can produce. Nitrogen triiodide NI3 is an extremely sensitive contact explosive. Nitrocellulose, produced by nitration of cellulose with nitric acid, is also known as guncotton. Nitroglycerin, made by nitration of glycerin, is the dangerously unstable explosive ingredient of dynamite. The comparatively stable, but more powerful explosive trinitrotoluene is the standard explosive against which the power of nuclear explosions are measured. Contact explosives explode when energy is applied to the substance, whether that be heat, light, sound, or physical pressure. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ...


Nitrogen can also be found in organic compounds. Common nitrogen functional groups include: amines, amides, nitro groups, imines, and enamines. The amount of nitrogen in a chemical substance can be determined by the Kjeldahl method. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... In chemistry, the term amide has several meanings. ... Nitro may refer to: Nitroglycerin, an extremely explosive chemical compound Nitrous, a type of fuel additive for race cars Nitromethane, another type of fuel additive for race cars [[GlyceryBold textl trinitrate (pharmacology)]], a medical compound used for the treatment of angina pectoris Nitrogen, especially when used in draught beer Nitrocellulose... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... An enamine is an unsaturated compound derived by the reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine followed by loss of H2O. Form Categories: Functional groups | Stub ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... The Kjeldahl method in analytical chemistry is a method for the quantitative determination of nitrogen in chemical substances developed by Johan Kjeldahl [1]. The method as described in Julius Cohens Practical Organic Chemistry of 1910 consists of heating a substance with sulfuric acid which decomposes the organic nitrogen present...


Nitrogen compounds of notable economic importance

Molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is relatively non-reactive due to its strong bond, and N2 plays an inert role in the human body, being neither produced or destroyed. In nature, nitrogen is converted into biologically (and industrially) useful compounds by some living organisms, notably certain bacteria (i.e. nitrogen fixing bacteria – see Biological role above). Molecular nitrogen is also released into the atmosphere in the process of decay, in dead plant and animal tissues. The ability to combine or fix molecular nitrogen is a key feature of modern industrial chemistry, where nitrogen and natural gas are converted into ammonia via the Haber process. Ammonia, in turn, can be used directly (primarily as a fertilizer, and in the synthesis of nitrated fertilizers), or as a precursor of many other important materials including explosives, largely via the production of nitric acid by the Ostwald process. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Diazotrophs are microorganisms that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas in to a more usable form such as ammonia. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... The Ostwald process is chemical process for producing nitric acid, which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). ...


The organic and inorganic salts of nitric acid have been important historically as stores of chemical energy. They include important compounds such as potassium nitrate (or saltpeter used in gunpowder) and ammonium nitrate, an important fertilizer and explosive (see ANFO). Various other nitrated organic compounds, such as nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene, and nitrocellulose, are used as explosives and propellants for modern firearms. Nitric acid is used as an oxidizing agent in liquid fueled rockets. Hydrazine and hydrazine derivatives find use as rocket fuels and monopropellants. In most of these compounds, the basic instability and tendency to burn or explode is derived from the fact that nitrogen is present as an oxide, and not as the far more stable nitrogen molecule (N2) which is a product of the compounds' thermal decomposition. When nitrates burn or explode, the formation of the powerful triple bond in the N2 which results, produces most of the energy of the reaction. This article is about common table salt. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... ANFO stands for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (most often diesel fuel, sometimes kerosene or even molasses). ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A (usually liquid) rocket propellant that can be used by itself, without the need for a second component. ...


Nitrogen is a constituent of molecules in every major drug class in pharmacology and medicine. Nitrous oxide (N2O) was discovered early in the 19th century to be a partial anesthetic, though it was not used as a surgical anesthetic until later. Called "laughing gas", it was found capable of inducing a state of social disinhibition resembling drunkenness. Other notable nitrogen-containing drugs are drugs derived from plant alkaloids, such as morphine (there exist many alkaloids known to have pharmacological effects; in some cases they appear natural chemical defences of plants against predation). Nitrogen containing drugs include all of the major classes of antibiotics, and organic nitrate drugs like nitroglycerin and nitroprusside which regulate blood pressure and heart action by mimicking the action of nitric oxide. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... This article is about the drug. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Sodium nitroprusside (Na2Fe(CN)5NO) is a potent peripheral vasodilator which affects both arterioles and venules. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of...


Dangers

Rapid release of nitrogen gas into an enclosed space can displace oxygen, and therefore represents an asphyxiation hazard. This may happen with few warning symptoms, since the human carotid body is a relatively slow and a poor low-oxygen (hypoxia) sensing system.[13] An example occurred shortly before the launch of the first Space Shuttle mission in 1981, when two technicians lost consciousness and died after they walked into a space located in the Shuttle's Mobile Launcher Platform that was pressurized with pure nitrogen as a precaution against fire. The technicians would have been able to exit the room if they had experienced early symptoms from nitrogen-breathing. Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... A Crawler-Transporter carries a MLP atop. ...


When inhaled at high partial pressures (more than about 3 atmospheres, encountered at depths below about 30 m in scuba diving) nitrogen begins to act as an anesthetic agent. It can cause nitrogen narcosis, a temporary semi-anesthetized state of mental impairment similar to that caused by nitrous oxide. Approximately, the partial pressure of a gas in atmospheres in a mixture or solution is what would be the pressure of that gas if all other components of the mixture or solution suddenly vanished without its temperature changing. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Nitrogen narcosis or inert gas narcosis is a reversible alteration in consciousness producing a state similar to alcohol intoxication in scuba divers at depth. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...


Nitrogen also dissolves in the bloodstream and body fats, and rapid decompression (particularly in the case of divers ascending too quickly, or astronauts decompressing too quickly from cabin pressure to spacesuit pressure) can lead to a potentially fatal condition called decompression sickness (formerly known as caisson sickness or more commonly, the "bends"), when nitrogen bubbles form in the bloodstream, nerves, joints, and other sensitive or vital areas. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ...


Direct skin contact with liquid nitrogen causes severe frostbite (cryogenic burns) within seconds, though not instantly on contact, depending on form of liquid nitrogen (liquid vs. mist) and surface area of the nitrogen-soaked material (soaked clothing or cotton causing more rapid damage than a spill of direct liquid to skin, which for a few seconds is protected by the Leidenfrost effect). This article is about a medical condition. ... The Leidenfrost effect is the phenomenon in which a liquid in near contact with a mass hotter than the liquids Leidenfrost point, which is higher than its boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer which keeps it from boiling rapidly. ...


See also

A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Nitrogenomics is the term coined for the branch of study of genomics pertaining to Nitrogen utilisation and assimilation in organisms. ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen or TKN is the sum of Organic Nitrogen, NH3 and NH4+ in biological wastewater treatment. ... As reported in the January 18, 2002 Edition of Science at the University of Rome La Sapienza, Fulvio Cacace and his colleagues created a novel form of nitrogen known as tetranitrogen. ...

References

  1. ^ A new molecule and a new signature - Chemistry - tetranitrogen. Science News (February 16, 2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  2. ^ Polymeric nitrogen synthesized. physorg.com (August 5, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  3. ^ Daved M. Meyer, Jason A. Cardelli, and Ulysses J. Sofia (1997). Abundance of Interstellar Nitorgen. arXiv. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  4. ^ Calvin J. Hamilton. Titan (Saturn VI). Solarviews.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  5. ^ Why don't they use normal air in race car tires?. Howstuffworks. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  6. ^ Diffusion, moisture and tyre expansion. Car Talk. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  7. ^ Is it better to fill your tires with nitrogen instead of air?. The Straight Dope. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  8. ^ G. J. Van Amerongen (1946). "The Permeability of Different Rubbers to Gases and Its Relation to Diffusivity and Solubility". Journal of Applied Physics 17 (11): 972–985. doi:10.1063/1.1707667.
  9. ^ Howstuffworks "How does the widget in a beer can work?"
  10. ^ Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia (2005). "Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.)". Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938–943.
  11. ^ a b Richard R. Schrock (2005). "Catalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia at a Single Molybdenum Center". Acc. Chem. Res. 38: 955-962. doi:10.1021/ar0501121.
  12. ^ Fryzuk, M. D. and Johnson, S. A. (2000). "The continuing story of dinitrogen activation". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 200–202: 379. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)00264-2.
  13. ^ Biology Safety - Cryogenic materials. The risks posed by them. University of Bath. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.

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The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... 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General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Nitrogen narcosis (669 words)
Nitrogen narcosis, commonly referred to as "rapture of the deep," typically becomes noticeable at 100 ft underwater and is incapacitating at 300 ft, causing stupor, blindness, unconsciousness, and even death.
Nitrogen narcosis is caused by gases in the body acting in a manner described by Dalton's Law of partial pressures: the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of gases in the mixture.
Nitrogen narcosis may be differentiated from toxicity of oxygen, carbon monoxide, or carbon dioxide by the absence of such symptoms as headache, seizure, and bluish color of the lips and nail beds.
Nitrogen - LoveToKnow 1911 (3505 words)
In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.
Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia, NH 3, hydrazine, N 2 H 4, and azoimide, N 3 H (qq.v.); the other known hydrides, N 4 H 4 and N5H5, are salts of azoimide, viz.
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