FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Nitrocellulose" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Nitrocellulose
Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose
Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose
Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose
Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it is also known as guncotton. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x701, 79 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrocellulose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x701, 79 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrocellulose ... Skeletal structure redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 673 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrocellulose ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 673 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrocellulose ... armchair conformational isomerism of Cyclohexane. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

Contents

Uses

  • Nitrocellulose is a major component of smokeless gunpowder (also see the section on guncotton below).
  • Early photographic film, especially 35mm motion picture film prior to 1950.
  • Nitrocellulose membrane or nitrocellulose paper is a sticky membrane used for immobilizing nucleic acids in Southern blots and Northern blots. It is also used for immobilization of proteins in Western blots, due to its non-specific affinity for amino acids. Nitrocellulose is widely used as support in diagnostic tests where antigen-antibody binding occur, e.g. pregnancy tests, U-Albumin tests and CRP.
  • When dissolved in ether or other organic solvents, the solution is called collodion, which has been used as a wound dressing and carrier of topical medications since the U.S. Civil War. To this day it is used in Compound W Wart Remover as a carrier of salicylic acid, the active ingredient.
  • Collodion was also used as the carrier for silver salts in some very early photographic emulsions, particularly spread in thin layers on glass plates.
  • Magician's flash paper, sheets of paper or cloth made from nitrocellulose, which burn almost instantly, with a bright flash, and leave no ash.
  • Nail polish
  • Hair coloring
  • Radon tests for alpha track etches
  • Nitrocellulose lacquer was used as a finish on guitars for most of the 20th century and is still used on some current applications. Manufactured by (among others) Dupont, the paint was also used on automobiles sharing the same color codes as many guitars, primarily Fender brands of guitars. It is also used on Gibson Guitars.[1]
  • Nitrocellulose lacquer is also used as an aircraft dope, painted onto fabric-covered aircraft to tauten and provide protection to the material.
  • As a transportation medium for one-time pads, thus making the disposal of the pad complete, secure, and efficient.

Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An artificial membrane, also called a synthetic membrane, is a membrane prepared for separation tasks in laboratory and industry. ... A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology to check for the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. ... The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression. ... A Western blot. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... Pink nail polish. ... Hair coloring products generally fall into four categories: temporary, semipermanent, deposit only/demi, and permanent. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-coated aircraft to tauten, stiffen, adhere and provide protection to the skin material. ... Excerpt from a one-time pad. ...

Guncotton and gunpowder

Various types of smokeless powder, consisting primarily of nitrocellulose
Various types of smokeless powder, consisting primarily of nitrocellulose

Henri Braconnot discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material which he named xyloïdine. A few years later in 1838 another French chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze (teacher of Ascanio Sobrero and Alfred Nobel) treated paper and cardboard in the same way. He obtained a similar material he called nitramidine. Both of these substances were highly unstable, and were not practical explosives. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixelsFull resolution (1567 × 965 pixel, file size: 362 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixelsFull resolution (1567 × 965 pixel, file size: 362 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Henri Braconnot Henri Braconnot (Commercy May 29, 1780 - Nancy January 15, 1855) was a French chemist and pharmacist. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Théophile-Jules Pelouze (also known as Jules Pelouze, Théophile Pelouze, Theo Pelouze, or TJ Pelouze, February 26, 1807 - 1867) was a French chemist. ... Ascanio Sobrero (1812-1888) was an Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin in 1847 while working under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Torino, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ...


However, Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution around 1846. As he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basle, he spilled a bottle of concentrated nitric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, and wiped it up. He hung the apron on the stove door to dry, and as soon as it was dry there was a flash as the apron exploded. His preparation method was the first to be widely imitated — one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in fifteen parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue. It was then slowly dried at a temperature below 100°C. Schönbein collaborated with the Frankfurt professor Rudolf Böttger, who had discovered the process independently in the same year. By a strange coincidence there was even a third chemist, the Braunschweig professor F. J. Otto, who had also produced guncotton in 1846 and was the first to publish the process, much to the disenchantment of Schönbein and Böttger. (Itzehoer Wochenblatt, 29 October 1846, columns 1626 f.) Christian Friedrich Schönbein (October 18, 1799 – August 29, 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is most well-known for his discovery of guncotton. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:[email protected]], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


The process uses the nitric acid to convert the cellulose into cellulose nitrite and water:

2HNO3+ C6H10O5 → C6H8(NO2)2O5 + 2H2O

The sulfuric acid is present to prevent the water produced in the reaction from diluting the concentrated nitric acid.


The power of guncotton made it suitable for blasting. As a projectile driver, it has around six times the gas generation of an equal volume of black powder and produces less smoke and less heating. However the sensitivity of the material during production led the British, Prussians and French to discontinue manufacture within a year. Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Jules Verne viewed the development of guncotton with optimism. He referred to the substance several times in his novels. His adventurers carried firearms employing this substance. Most notably, in his From the Earth to the Moon, guncotton was used to launch a projectile into space. This article is about the French author. ... The projectile, as pictured in an engraving from the 1872 Illustrated Edition. ...


Further research indicated that the key was the very careful preparation of the cotton: unless it was very well cleaned and dried, it was likely to explode spontaneously. The British, led by Frederick Augustus Abel, also developed a much lengthier manufacturing process at the Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills, patented in 1865, with the washing and drying times each extended to 48 hours and repeated eight times over. The acid mixture was also changed to two parts sulfuric acid to one part nitric. Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, Bart. ... Image:NapoleonicBattle. ...


Guncotton remained useful only for limited applications. For firearms, a more stable and slower burning mixture would be needed. Guncotton-like preparations were eventually prepared for this role, known at the time as smokeless powder. Firearms redirects here. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


Guncotton, dissolved at approximately 25% in acetone, forms a lacquer used in preliminary stages of wood finishing to develop a hard finish with a deep luster. It is normally the first coat applied, sanded, and followed by other coatings that bond to it.


Nitrate film

Nitrocellulose was used as the first flexible film base, beginning with Eastman Kodak products in August, 1889. Camphor is used as plasticizer for nitrocellulose film. It was used until 1933 for X-ray films (where its flammability hazard was most acute) and for motion picture film until 1951. It was replaced by safety film with an acetate base. Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Photographic film called safety film is made with an acetate base, chemically either cellulose diacetate, cellulose acetate propiarate, cellulose acetate butyrate, or cellulose triacetate. ...

German WW2 newsreel film (circa 1940) believed to be nitrocellulose, made by AGFA
German WW2 newsreel film (circa 1940) believed to be nitrocellulose, made by AGFA

The use of nitrocellulose film for motion pictures led to a widespread requirement for fireproof projection rooms with wall coverings made of asbestos. Famously, the US Navy shot a training film for projectionists which included footage of a controlled ignition of a reel of nitrate film which continued to burn even when fully submerged in water. Due to public safety precautions, the London Underground forbade transport of nitrate films on its system until well past the introduction of safety film. A cinema fire caused by ignition of nitrocellulose film stock (foreshadowed by an earlier small fire) was a central plot element in the Italian film Cinema Paradiso. Today nitrate film projection is usually highly regulated and requires extensive precautionary measures including extra projectionist health and safety training. Additionally, projectors certified to run nitrate films have many containment strategies in effect. Among them, this includes the chambering of both the feed and takeup reels in thick metal covers with small slits to allow the film to run through. Furthermore, the projector is modified to accommodate several fire extinguishers with nozzles all aimed directly at the film gate; the extinguishers automatically trigger if a piece of flammable fabric placed near the gate starts to burn. While this triggering would likely damage or destroy a significant portion of the projection components, it would prevent a devastating fire which almost certainly would cause far greater damage. In addition, projection rooms may be required to have automatically operating metal covers for the projection windows, preventing the spreading of a fire to the auditorium. For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Categories: Stub | 1989 films | Italian films ... An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ...


It was discovered decades later that nitrocellulose gradually decomposes, releasing nitric acid which further catalyzes the decomposition (usually into a still-flammable powder or goo). Low temperatures can delay these reactions indefinitely. It is estimated that the great majority of films produced during the early twentieth century were lost forever either through this accelerating, self-catalyzed disintegration or studio warehouse fires. Salvaging old films is a major problem for film archivists (see film preservation). The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ...


Nitrocellulose film base manufactured by Kodak can be identified by the presence of the word Nitrate in dark letters between the perforations. Acetate film manufactured during the era when nitrate films were still in use was marked Safety or Safety Film between the perforations dark letters. Letters in white or light colors are print-through from the negative. Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ...


Color negative film was never manufactured with a nitrate base, nor were 8 mm or 16 mm motion picture film stocks. This article is about the 8 mm film format. ... Super 16 redirects here. ...


Other uses

Depending on the manufacturing process, nitrocellulose is esterified to varying degrees. Table tennis balls, guitar picks and some photographic films have a fairly low esterification level and burn comparatively slowly with some charred residue. See celluloid. Ping Pong redirects here. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ...


Nitrated cotton: Used as liftcharge for indoor fireworks, for hand flashers and magicians


Nitrated yarn: Used as fuse for indoor fireworks and to make things fall down on command


Nitrated paper: Mainly used by magicians to make paper disapear in a flash, but also indoor fireworks as comets


Nitrated cellulose: Ice fountains, indoor fireworks, making smokeless gunpowder, celluloid, paints


MythBusters

An episode of MythBusters involved guncotton being fired inside of a miniature cannon. When the formula was revealed, sulfuric and nitric acids were censored by animal noises, and the two final steps were not included. MythBusters is an American popular science television program on the Discovery Channel starring American special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use basic elements of the scientific method to test the validity of various rumors, urban legends and news stories in popular culture. ...


References

  1. ^ What is "stand damage"?.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... Nitroglycerin (also nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate) is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... Nitrostarch is a secondary explosive similar to nitrocellulose made by the nitration of starch by a mixture of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. ...

External links

  • Pictures of a projector after a nitrate film fire
  • Nitrocellulose Paper Video (aka:Flash paper)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Manufacturer industrial grade nitrocellulose in India (323 words)
Industrial nitrocellulose is known to be one of the oldest film formers unequalled in properties like toughness, durability, fast solvent release capacity and solubility.
Nitrocellulose is a derivative of cellulose and is manufactured from purified cellulose either in the form of cotton linters or woodpulp.
Nitrex Chemicals India manufactures nitrocellulose from bleached cotton linters with nitrogen content in the range of 10.7% to 12.2%.
Nitrocellulose Summary (1514 words)
Nitrocellulose membrane or nitrocellulose paper is a sticky membrane used for Western blots and immobilizing DNA.
Nitrocellulose is widely used as support in diagnostic tests where antigen-antibody binding occur, e.g.
Nitrocellulose lacquer ("Nitro") was used as a finish on guitars in the 1950s and 1960s and is still used on some highend models.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m