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Encyclopedia > Nitrile

A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -CN functional group. The -CN functional group is called a nitrile group. In the -CN group, the carbon atom and the nitrogen atom are triple bonded together. The prefix cyano is used in chemical nomenclature to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule. A cyanide ion is a negative ion with the formula CN. The -CN group is sometimes, less properly, referred to as a cyanide group or cyano group and compounds with them are sometimes referred to as cyanides. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1737x569, 5 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Functional group Nitrile ... An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and gases containing carbon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ...


Nitriles sometimes release the highly toxic CN cyanide ion. See the article on cyanide for a discussion of biological effects and toxicity. A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ...

Contents


Synthesis of nitriles

Nitriles can be prepared in organic synthesis by the following methods: Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...

one-pot synthesis from aldehyde
In one study [1] an aromatic or aliphatic aldehyde is reacted with hydroxylamine and anhydrous sodium sulfate in a dry media reaction for a very small amount of time under microwave irradiation through an intermediate aldoxime.

In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... In chemistry, an amide is either the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to a nitrogen atom, a compound that contains this functional group, or a particular inorganic anion. ... Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... An oxime is one in a class of chemical compounds with the general formula R1R2CNOH, where R1 is an organic side chain and R2 is either hydrogen, forming an aldoxime, or another organic group, forming a ketoxime. ... Triethylamine, also known as N,N-diethylethanamine, TEA or N,N,N-Triethylamine, is a colorless, volatile liquid with a strong, unpleasant and fishy smell reminiscent of ammonia. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Zeolite Zeolites (Greek, zein,to boil;lithos,a stone) are minerals that have a porous structure. ... Sulfuryl chloride is SO2Cl2, a compound composed of sulfur, oxygen, and chlorine. ... In chemistry a one-pot synthesis is a strategy with the aim to improve the effiency of a chemical reaction whereby a reactant is subjected to successive chemical reactions in one and the same reactor. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... The compound hydroxylamine is a nitrogen-containing base whose chemical formula is NH2OH, and is therefore a close relative of the compound ammonia. ... Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Image File history File links Aldehyde_to_nitril_conversion. ... An ionic crystal is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... A dry media reaction or solid-state reaction is a chemical reaction system in the absence of a solvent. ... Microwave chemistry is the science of applying microwave irradiation to chemical reactions . Microwaves act as high frequency electric fields and will generally heat anything with a mobile electric charge. ... A Cyanohydrin reaction is an organic reaction by an aldehyde or ketone with a cyanide anion or a nitrile to form a cyanohydrin. ...

Reactions of Nitriles

Nitrile groups in organic compounds can undergo various reactions when subject to certain reactants or conditions. A nitrile group can be hydrolyzed, reduced, or ejected from a molecule as a cyanide ion.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)-OH, usually written as COOH. In general, the salts and anions of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group and have the general chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH, also written as R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. ... Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytēs) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction (see also catalysis). ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in a chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds by the addition of a nucleophile. ... The Blaise reaction is a chemical reaction that forms a β-ketoester from the reaction of zinc metal with a α-bromoester and a nitrile. ... In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in a chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds by the addition of a nucleophile. ... In chemistry, alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn is bound to other hydrogen and/or carbon atoms. ... The Pinner reaction is a chemical reaction of a nitrile with an alcohol under acid catalysis. ...

See also

Polymer is a generic term used to describe a very long molecule consisting of structural units and repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Nitrile rubber is a synthetic rubber co-polymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. ...

External links

  • IUPAC goldbook definition of nitrile
  • IUPAC goldbook definition of cyanide

References

  1.   One pot synthesis of nitriles from aldehydes and hydroxylamine hydrochloride using sodium sulphate (anhyd) and sodium bicarbonate in dry media under microwave irradiation Sharwan K, Dewan, Ravinder Singh, and Anil Kumar Arkivoc 2006 (ii) 41-44 Online article

  Results from FactBites:
 
For those of you allergic to latex, nitrile could be the glove material for you (676 words)
Objective To investigate the puncture resistance of a recently introduced non-latex, nitrile dental glove in comparison with a latex glove worn during routine clinical dental procedures.
The puncture resistance of the nitrile gloves was superior to the puncture resistance of previously tested worn non-latex (vinyl) gloves.
Of 1,020 used nitrile gloves and 1,000 used latex gloves, 5.3% and 1.9% respectively were punctured.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Nitrile (647 words)
The prefix cyano is used in chemical nomenclature to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule.
In hydrolysis the nitrile is reacted with an acid and water at a high temperature, or with a base and water.
In organic reduction the nitrile is reduced by reacting it with hydrogen with a nickel catalyst; an amine is formed in this reaction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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