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Encyclopedia > Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
Identifiers
CAS number 10102-43-9
Properties
Molecular formula NO
Molar mass 30.0061
Appearance colourless gas
Density 1.3 × 103 kg m−3 (liquid)

1.34 g dm−3 (vapour) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (890x584, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitric oxide ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x886, 154 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitric oxide Nitrogen oxide ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...

Melting point

−163.6°C (109.6 K) The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

−151.7°C (121.4 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Hazards
EU classification Toxic (T), corrosive (C)
NFPA 704

Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

0
3
2
 
R-phrases R23, R24, R25, R34, R44
S-phrases S23, S36, S37, S39
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants. R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Nitric oxide is a quite salient signaling molecule, instrumental in both learning and memory. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article is about modern humans. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color. In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Contents

Production environmental effects

From a thermodynamic perspective, NO is unstable with respect to O2 and N2, although this conversion is very slow at ambient temperatures in the absence of a catalyst. Because the heat of formation of NO is endothermic, its synthesis from molecular nitrogen and oxygen requires elevated temperatures, >1000°C. A major natural source is lightning. The use of internal combustion engines has drastically increased the presence of nitric oxide in the environment. One purpose of catalytic converters in cars is to minimize NO emission by catalytic reversion to O2 and N2.


Nitric oxide in the air may convert to nitric acid, which has been implicated in acid rain. Furthermore, both NO and NO2 participate in ozone layer depletion. Nitric oxide (NO) is a small highly diffusible gas and a ubiquitous bioactive molecule.


Technical applications

Although NO has relatively few direct uses, it is produced on a massive scale as an intermediate in the Ostwald process for the synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia. In 2005, the US alone produced 6M metric tons of nitric acid.[1] It finds use in the semiconductor industry for various processes. In one of its applications it is used along with nitrous oxide to form oxynitride gates in CMOS devices. The Ostwald process is chemical process for producing nitric acid, which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...


Miscellaneous applications

Nitric oxide can be used for detecting surface radicals on polymers. Quenching of surface radicals with nitric oxide results in incorporation of nitrogen, which can be quantified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Basic components of a monochromatic XPS system. ...


Biological functions

Main article: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known. It is a key biological messenger, playing a role in a variety of biological processes. Nitric oxide, known as the 'endothelium-derived relaxing factor', or 'EDRF', is biosynthesised from arginine and oxygen by various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes and by reduction of inorganic nitrate. The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels use nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus dilating the artery and increasing blood flow. The production of nitric oxide is elevated in populations living at high-altitudes, which helps these people avoid hypoxia. Effects include blood vessel dilatation, neurotransmission (see Gasotransmitters), modulation of the hair cycle, and penile erections. Nitroglycerin and amyl nitrite serve as vasodilators because they are converted to nitric oxide in the body. Sildenafil, popularly known by the trade name Viagra, stimulates erections primarily by enhancing signaling through the nitric oxide pathway in the penis. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was the tentative name of what was later discovered to be nitric oxide (NO). ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was the tentative name of what was later discovered to be nitric oxide (NO). ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Nitric oxide The nitric oxide synthase (NOS; EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Hypoxia may refer to: Hypoxia (medical), the lack of oxygen in tissues Hypoxia or Oxygen depletion, a reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body leading to stress or even death in aquatic organisms This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Gasotransmitters are gaseous molecules synthesized in the body*. They include nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) has been used to treat angina and heart failure since at least 1880. ... Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrito functional group. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ...


Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. In humans, a high-salt intake was demonstrated to attenuate NO production. [[1]]


Nitric oxide is also generated by macrophages and neutrophils as part of the human immune response. Nitric oxide is toxic to bacteria and other human pathogens. In response, however, many bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms for nitric oxide resistance.[2] A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury when excessive amount produced during reperfusion (following a period of ischemia) reacts with superoxide to produce the damaging free radical peroxynitrite. In contrast, inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to help survival and recovery from paraquat poisoning, which produces lung tissue damaging superoxide and hinders NOS metabolism. Reperfusion injury refers to damage to tissue caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent,which damages DNA, proteins and other cellular structures. ... Paraquat is the trade name for N,N-Dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride, a viologen. ...


In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) nitric oxide synthase (although the existence animal NOS homologs in plants is debated), (ii) by plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase, (iii) by mitochondrial electron transport chain, or (iv) by non-enzymatic reactions. It is a signaling molecule, acts mainly against oxidative stress and also plays a role in plant pathogen interactions. Treating cut flowers and other plants with nitric oxide has been shown to lengthen the time before wilting.[3] Nitrate reducatse are group of enzymes which reduce nitrate to nitrite This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


A biologically important reaction of nitric oxide is S-nitrosylation, the conversion of thiol groups, including cysteine residues in proteins, to form S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs). S-Nitrosylation is a mechanism for dynamic, post-translational regulation of most or all major classes of protein. Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ...


Everyone requires nitric oxide to carry out key physiological processes within the body. From a bodybuilder's perspective, nitric oxide supplementation may prove useful in increasing growth due to increases in blood flow to certain areas of the body. Signs of deficiency, on the other hand, include physical weakness and extreme fatigue. Most "nitric oxide" supplements contain the amino acid Arginine-alpha-keto-glutarate.


Reactions

When exposed to oxygen, NO is converted into NO2.

2NO + O2 → 2NO2

This conversion has been speculated as occurring via the ONOONO intermediate. In water, NO react with oxygen and water to form HNO2 or nitrous acid. The reaction is thought to proceed via the following stoichiometry: Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ...

4 NO + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO2

NO will react with fluorine, chlorine, and bromine to from the XNO species, known as the nitrosyl halides, such as nitrosyl chloride. Nitrosyl iodide can form but is an extremely short lived species and tends to reform I2. Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Bromo redirects here. ... Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound NOCl. ...

2NO + Cl2 → 2NOCl

Nitroxyl (HNO) is the reduced form of nitric oxide. Nitroxyl (HNO/NO-) or hyponitrous acid, in chemistry is the reduced form of nitric oxide (NO). ...


Preparation

As stated above, nitric oxide is produced industrially by the direct reaction of O2 and N2 at high temperatures. In the laboratory, it is conveniently generated by reduction of nitric acid:

8HNO3 + 3Cu → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O + 2NO

or by the reduction of nitrous acid: The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...

2 NaNO2 + 2 NaI + 2 H2SO4 → I2 + 4 NaHSO4 + 2 NO
2 NaNO2 + 2 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 → Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO
3 KNO2(l) + KNO3 (l) + Cr2O3(s) → 2 K2CrO4(s) + 4 NO (g)

The iron(II) sulfate route is simple and has been used in undergraduate laboratory experiments. Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ... Sodium bisulfate, also sodium hydrogen sulfate, has formula NaHSO4. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Commercially, NO is produced by the oxidation of ammonia at 750°C to 900°C (normally at 850°C) in the presence of platinum as catalyst:

4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O

The uncatalyzed endothermic reaction of O2 and N2 which is performed at high temperature (>2000°C) with lightning has not been developed into a practical commercial synthesis: In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...

N2 + O2 → 2NO

Coordination Chemistry

Main article: metal nitrosyl

NO forms complexes with all transition metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls. The most common bonding mode of NO is the terminal linear type (M-NO). The angle of the M-N-O group can vary from 160-180° but are still termed as "linear". In this case the NO group is formally considered a 3-electron donor. In the case of a bent M-N-O conformation the NO group can be considered a one electron donor.[4]. Alternatively, one can view such complexes as derived from NO+, which is isoelectronic with CO. Metal nitrosyls are compounds derived from the transition metals that contain NO as a ligand. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Metal nitrosyls are compounds derived from the transition metals that contain NO as a ligand. ...


Nitric oxide can serve as a one-electron pseudohalide. In such complexes, the M-N-O group is characterized by an angle between 120-140°.


The NO group can also bridge between metal centers through the nitrogen atom in a variety of geometries.


Measurement of nitric oxide concentration

The concentration of nitric oxide can be determined using a simple chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone[5]: A sample containing nitric oxide is mixed with a large quantity of ozone. The nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce oxygen and nitrogen dioxide. This reaction also produces light (chemiluminescence), which can be measured with a photodetector. The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample. A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Photosensors or photodetectors appear in several varieties: Photoresistors or Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) which change resistance when illuminated Photovoltaic cells or solar cells which produce a voltage and supply an electric current when illuminated Photodiodes which can operate in photovoltaic mode or photoconductive mode Phototubes containing a photocathode which emits...

NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 + light

Other methods of testing include electroanalysis, where NO reacts with an electrode to induce a current or voltage change. The detection of NO radicals in biological tissues is particularly difficult due to the short lifetime and concentration of these radicals in tissues. One of the few practical methods is spin trapping of nitric oxide with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and subsequent detection of the mono-nitrosyl-iron complex with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR).[6] [7] English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Spin trapping is a technique employed in the study of free radicals that are either unstable or terminate rapidly at ambient temperatures. ... Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is the chemical compound with the formula NaS2CN(C2H5)2. ... Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a technique for studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons, such as organic and inorganic free radicals or inorganic complexes possessing a transition metal ion. ...


A group of fluorescent dye indicators exist that are also available in acetylated form for intracellular measurements. The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2). [8] A fluorophore is a component of a molecule which causes a molecule to be fluorescent. ... Acetyl is the radical of acetic acid. ...


References

  1. ^ “Production: Growth is the Norm” Chemical and Engineering News, July 1 0, 2006, p. 59.
  2. ^ C. A. Janeway, et al. (2005). Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease, 6th ed., New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. 
  3. ^ Judy Siegel-Itzkovich. Viagra makes flowers stand up straight. Student BMJ, September 1999.
  4. ^ Catherine E. Housecroft and Alan G. Sharpe: "Inorganic Chemistry", page 570. Pearson Education Limited 2001, 2005
  5. ^ Fontijn, A., A. J. Sabadell and R. J. Ronco (1970). "Homogeneous chemiluminescent measurement of nitric oxide with ozone." Analytical Chemistry 42(6): 575-579.
  6. ^ Vanin A. F.; Huisman A.; van Faassen E.E.; Methods in Enzymology vol 359 (2002) 27 - 42
  7. ^ Nagano T.; Yoshimura T.; "Bioimaging of nitric oxide", Chemical Reviews vol 102 (2002) 1235 - 1269.
  8. ^ Kojima H, Nakatsubo N, Kikuchi K, Kawahara S, Kirino Y, Nagoshi H, Hirata Y, Nagano T (1998). "Detection and imaging of nitric oxide with novel fluorescent indicators: diaminofluoresceins". Anal. Chem. 70 (13): 2446-2453. PMID 9666719. 

Student BMJ (StudentBMJ, sBMJ) is a monthly, open-access (no registration, free of charge) medical journal published principally for medical students from around the world. ...

Further reading

  • F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, M. Bochmann; Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed. Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999.
  • K.J. Gupta , M. Stoimenova, and W. M. Kaiser "In higher plants, only root mitochondria, but not leaf mitochondria reduce nitrite to NO, in vitro and in situ" Journal of Experimental Botany 2005 56(420):2601-2609.
  • E.Planchet, K.J. Gupta, M .Sonada & W.M.Kaiser (2005) "Nitric oxide emission from tobacco leaves and cell suspensions: rate limiting factors and evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial electron transport"The Plant Journal 41 (5), 732-743.
  • Stöhr, C.; Stremlau, S. "Formation and possible roles of nitric oxide in plant roots" Journal of Experimental Botany 2006 57(3):463-470.
  • Pacher, P.; Beckman, J. S.; Liaudet, L.; “Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite: in Health and disease” Physiological Reviews 2007, volume 87(1), page 315-424. PMID 17237348.
  • van Faassen, E. E.; Vanin, A. F. (eds); " Radicals for life: The various forms of Nitric Oxide." Elsevier, Amsterdam 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0-444-52236-8.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nitric Oxide Reviews: 2003 (14573 words)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase is induced by T helper I cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and gamma-interferon), while arginases are induced by T helper II cytokines and other immune regulators such as interleukins 4, 10, and 13, transforming growth factor-beta and prostaglandin E2.
Nitric oxide disrupts free radical and oxidant-mediated reactions, due to a strong attraction and interaction with superoxide.The level of oxidative stress is positively related to the severity of the ischaemic injury, making the results in different myocardial syndromes more concordant.
We propose that nitric oxide is an important metabolite in hypoxic plant cells and that at least one of the functions of hypoxic stress-induced haemoglobins is to modulate nitric oxide levels in the cell.
Nitric oxide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1339 words)
The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels use nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus dilating the artery and increasing blood flow.
This underlies the action of nitroglycerin, amyl nitrate and other nitrate derivatives in the treatment of heart disease: The compounds are converted to nitric oxide (by a process that is not completely understood), which in turn dilates the coronary artery (blood vessels around the heart), thereby increasing its blood supply.
Nitric oxide was named "Molecule of the Year" in 1992 by the journal Science, a Nitric Oxide Society was founded, and a scientific journal devoted entirely to nitric oxide was created.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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