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Encyclopedia > Nitric acid
Nitric acid
IUPAC name Nitric acid
Other names Aqua fortis; Spirit of nitre; Salpetre acid
Identifiers
CAS number 7697-37-2
RTECS number QU5775000
SMILES O[N+](=O)[O-]
Properties
Molecular formula HNO3 (aq)
Molar mass 63.012 g/mol
Appearance Clear, colorless liquid
Density 1.51 g/cm³, colourless liquid
Melting point

-42 °C (231 K) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x779, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitric acid ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

83 °C (356 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water miscible
Viscosity  ? cP at ? °C
Dipole moment  ? D
Hazards
EU classification Oxidant (O)
Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R8, R35
S-phrases (S1/2), S23, S26, S36, S45
Flash point not applicable
Related Compounds
Related compounds Nitrous acid
Dinitrogen pentoxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). It is a highly corrosive and toxic acid that can cause severe burns. Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Fuming nitric acid is characterized as white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid, depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... Dinitrogen pentoxide is the binary nitrogen oxide N2O5, also known as nitrogen pentoxide. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... White fuming nitric acid (WFNA) is a storable liquid oxidizer used as a rocket fuel. ... RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ...

Contents

History

The synthesis of Nitric Acid was first recorded circa 800 AD by the Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan. [1] Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... 15th century European portrait of Geber, Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, in Latin Geber, was one of the most notable Islamic alchemists. ...


Pure anhydrous nitric acid (100%) is a colourless liquid with a density of 1522 kg/m³ which solidifies at -42°C to form white crystals and boils at 83°C. When boiling in light, even at room temperature, there is a partial decomposition with the formation of nitrogen dioxide following the reaction: “Spoilage” redirects here. ...

4HNO3 → 2H2O + 4NO2 + O2 (72°C)

which means that anhydrous nitric acid should be stored below 0°C to avoid decomposition. The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains dissolved in the nitric acid coloring it yellow, or red at higher temperatures. While the pure acid tends to give off white fumes when exposed to air, acid with dissolved nitrogen dioxide gives off reddish-brown vapours, leading to the common name "red fuming acid" or "fuming nitric acid". [citation needed] [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Nitric acid is miscible with water in all proportions and distillation gives an azeotrope with a concentration of 68% HNO3 and a boiling temperature of 120.5°C at 1 atm. Two solid hydrates are known; the monohydrate (HNO3·H2O) and the trihydrate (HNO3·3H2O). The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... יחכיטכיגיגיוגקאטגקעיגקDistillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ...


Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are soluble in nitric acid and this property influences more or less, all the physical characteristics depending on the concentration of the oxides. These mainly include the vapour pressure above the liquid and the boiling temperature, as well as the colour mentioned above. The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen...


Nitric acid is subject to thermal or light decomposition with increasing concentration and this may give rise to some non-negligible variations in the vapour pressure above the liquid because the nitrogen oxides produced dissolve partly or completely in the acid. Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...


Chemical properties

Nitric acid is a strong acid which ionises almost completely in water, a powerful oxidizing agent which also nitrates many organic compounds and a monoprotic acid because there is only one dissociation. Nitration is a general chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group in a chemical compound by means of a chemical reaction. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... An acid (often represented by the generic formula AH) is typically a water-soluble, sour-tasting chemical compound. ...


Acidic properties

Being a typical acid, nitric acid reacts with alkalis, basic oxides and carbonates to form salts, including ammonium nitrate. Due to its oxidizing nature, nitric acid does not (with some exceptions) liberate hydrogen on reaction with metals and the resulting salts are usually in the higher oxidized state. For this reason, heavy corrosion can be expected and should be guarded against by the appropriate use of corrosion resistant metals or alloys. In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... A basic oxide is an oxide that either reacts with water to have a proton transferred to it reacts with an acid to form a salt. ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...


Nitric acid has an acid dissociation constant (pKa) of −1.4: in aqueous solution, it almost completely (93% at 0.1 M) ionizes into the nitrate ion NO3 and a hydrated proton, known as a hydronium ion, H3O+. The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... // An ion is an atom, group of atoms, or subatomic particle with a net electric charge. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ...

HNO3 + H2O → H3O+ + NO3-

Oxidizing properties

Reactions with metals

Being a powerful oxidizing agent, nitric acid reacts violently with many organic materials and the reactions may be explosive. Depending on the acid concentration, temperature and the reducing agent involved, the end products can be variable. Reaction takes place with all metals except the precious metal series and certain alloys. As a general rule, oxidizing reactions occur primarily with the concentrated acid, favouring the formation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Cu + 4HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O

The acidic properties tend to dominate with dilute acid, coupled with the preferential formation of nitrogen oxide (NO). The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen...

3Cu + 8HNO3 → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

Since nitric acid is an oxidizing agent, hydrogen (H2) is rarely formed. Only magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) react with cold, dilute nitric acid to give hydrogen: General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...

Mg(s) + 2HNO3 (aq) → Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H2 (g)

Passivation

Although chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) readily dissolve in dilute nitric acid, the concentrated acid forms a metal oxide layer that protects the metal from further oxidation, which is called passivation. General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ...


Reactions with non-metals

Reaction with non-metallic elements, with the exception of silicon and halogens, usually oxidizes them to their highest oxidation states as acids with the formation of nitrogen dioxide for concentrated acid and nitrogen oxide for dilute acid. Not to be confused with Silicone. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen...

C + 4HNO3 → CO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O

or

3C + 4HNO3 → 3CO2 + 4NO + 2H2O

Synthesis and production

Nitric acid is made by mixing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water in the presence of oxygen or air to oxidize the nitrous acid also produced by the reaction. Dilute nitric acid may be concentrated by distillation up to 68% acid, which is an azeotropic mixture with 32% water. Further concentration involves distillation with sulfuric acid which acts as a dehydrating agent. On a laboratory scale, such distillation must be done in all glass apparatus at reduced pressure, to prevent decomposition of the acid. Rubber and cork fittings should also be avoided as nitric acid attacks these materials. Commercial grade nitric acid solutions are usually between 52% and 68% nitric acid. Commercial production of nitric acid is via the Ostwald process after Wilhelm Ostwald. [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Ostwald process is chemical process for producing nitric acid, which was developed by Wilhelm Ostwald (patented 1902). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ...


In laboratory, nitric acid can be made from Copper(II) nitrate or by reacting approximately equal masses of potassium nitrate (KNO3) with 96% sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and distilling this mixture at nitric acid's boiling point of 83 °C until only a white crystalline mass, potassium hydrogen sulfate (KHSO4), remains in the reaction vessel. The obtained red fuming nitric acid may be converted to the white nitric acid. Note that in a laboratory setting, it is necessary to use all-glass equipment, ideally a one-piece retort, because anhydrous nitric acid attacks cork, rubber, and skin, and leaks can be extremely dangerous. Copper(II) nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(NO3)2. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...

H2SO4 + KNO3 → KHSO4 + HNO3

The dissolved NOx are readily removed using reduced pressure at room temperature (10-30 min at 200 mmHg or 27 kPa). Obtained white fuming nitric acid has density 1.51 g/cm³. This procedure can also be performed under reduced pressure and temperature in one step in order to produce less nitrogen dioxide gas. Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimeter of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The acid can also be synthesized by oxidizing ammonia, but the product is diluted by the water also formed as part of the reaction. However, this synthesization method is important in producing ammonium nitrate from ammonia derived from the Haber process, because the final product can be produced from nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen as the sole feedstocks. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ...


White fuming nitric acid, also called 100% nitric acid or WFNA, is very close to the anhydrous nitric acid product. One specification for white fuming nitric acid is that it has a maximum of 2% water and a maximum of 0.5% dissolved NO2. Red fuming nitric acid, or RFNA, contains substantial quantities of dissolved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) leaving the solution with a reddish-brown color. One formulation of RFNA specifies a minimum of 17% NO2, another specifies 13% NO2. In either event, an inhibited fuming nitric acid (either IWFNA, or IRFNA) can be made by the addition of 0.6 to 0.7% hydrogen fluoride, HF. This fluoride is added for corrosion resistance in metal tanks (the fluoride creates a metal fluoride layer that protects the metal). R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Uses

Nitric acid in a laboratory.
Nitric acid in a laboratory.

Commonly used as a laboratory reagent, nitric acid is used in the manufacture of explosives including nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), as well as fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... A reagent is a material used to start a {[chemical reaction]}. For example hydrochloric acid is the chemical reagent that would cause calcium carbonate to release carbon dioxide. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Wikibooks Chemical synthesis has more about this subject: Cyclonite synthesis Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, also known as RDX, cyclonite, hexogen, and T4, is an nitroamine and explosive material widely used by the military. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of...


Also, in ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques, nitric acid (with a concentration from 0.5% to 2.0%) is used as a matrix compound for determining metal traces in solutions. Ultrapure acid is required for such determination, because small amounts of metal ions could affect the result of the analysis. ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) is a type of mass spectrometry that is highly sensitive and capable of the determination of a range of metals and several non-metals at concentrations below one part in 1012. ... ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer) uses ICP (inductively coupled plasma) to produce excited atoms that emit radiation at a wavelength characteristic of a particular element. ...


It has additional uses in metallurgy and refining as it reacts with most metals, and in organic syntheses. When combined with hydrochloric acid, it forms aqua regia, one of the few reagents capable of dissolving gold and platinum. Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Refining is the process of purification of a substance, usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ...


Nitric acid is a component of acid rain. The term acid rain Since the industrial revolution, emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased. ...


Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent, and the reactions of nitric acid with compounds such as cyanides, carbides, and metallic powders can be explosive. Reactions of nitric acid with many organic compounds, such as turpentine, are violent and hypergolic (i.e., self-igniting). European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... Calcium carbide. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ...


Concentrated nitric acid dyes human skin yellow due to a reaction with the protein keratin. These yellow stains turn orange when neutralized. Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ...


One use for IWFNA is as an oxidizer in liquid fuel rockets. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ...


One use for nitric acid is in a colorometric test to distinguish heroin and morphine.


Nitric acid is also used in school laboratory to perform experiments involving the testing of chloride. The sample is added with silver nitrate solution and nitric acid to see if a white precipitate, silver chloride remains. The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Related Compounds Other anions silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. ...


A solution of nitric acid and alcohol, Nital, is used for etching of metals to reveal the microstructure. This article is considered orphaned, since there are few or no other articles linked to this one. ...


Trivia

Artist Allela Cornell (with whom American author Patricia Highsmith had an affair in 1943) committed suicide in 1946 by drinking Nitric acid. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... 1962 publicity photo of Patricia Highsmith Patricia Highsmith (January 19, 1921 - February 4, 1995) was an American novelist who is known mainly for her psychological crime thrillers which have led to more than two dozen film adaptations. ...


References

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0183
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • European Chemicals Bureau
  • National Pollutant Inventory - Nitric Acid Fact Sheet
  • Properties and classification of nitric acid

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corporation: Sitemap (163 words)
A leading manufacturer of industrial chemicals including methanol, nitric acid and carbon dioxide.
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Nitric Acid - LoveToKnow 1911 (1058 words)
Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.
In medicine, nitric acid is used externally in a pure state as a caustic to destroy chancres, warts and phagadenic ulcers; and diluted preparations are employed in the treatment of dyspepsia, andc.
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