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Encyclopedia > Nitrate film
Nitrocellulose
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Nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose
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Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low order explosive, it is also known as guncotton. Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), otherwise known as aqua fortis or spirit of nitre, is a colorless, corrosive liquid, a toxic acid which can cause severe burns. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

Contents


Uses

  • Nitrocellulose is a major component of smokeless gunpowder (also see the section on guncotton below).
  • Photographic film
  • Nitrocellulose membrane or nitrocellulose paper is a sticky membrane used for Western blots and immobilizing DNA. It is also used for immobilization of proteins, due to its non-specific affinity for amino acids. Nitrocellulose is widely used as support in diagnostic tests where antigen-antibody binding occur, e.g. pregnancy tests, U-Albumin tests and CRP.
  • When dissolved in ether or other organic solvents, the solution is called collodion, which has been used as a wound dressing and carrier of topical medications since the U.S. Civil War. To this day it is used in Compound W Wart Remover as a carrier of salicylic acid, the active ingredient.
  • Collodion was also used as the carrier for silver salts in some very early photographic emulsions, particularly spread in thin layers on glass plates.
  • Magician's "flash paper", sheets of paper or cloth made from nitrocellulose, which burn almost instantly, with a bright flash, and leave no ash.
  • Nail polish
  • Radon tests for alpha track etches
  • Nitrocellulose lacquer ("Nitro") was used as a finish on guitars in the 1950s and 1960s and is still used on some highend models.[1]

Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Undeveloped Arista black and white film, ISO 125. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... Picture of a western blot with 5 vertical lanes A western blot (a. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. ... Magic, including the arts of prestidigitation and conjuring, is the art of entertaining an audience by performing illusions that baffle and amaze, often by giving the impression that something impossible has been achieved, almost as if the performer had magic or supernatural powers. ... Bottle of No. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Melting point 202 K (-71 °C... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or colored coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... The classical guitar typically has nylon strings. ...

Guncotton

Henri Braconnot, a French chemist, discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material which he named Xyloïdine. A few years later in 1838 another French chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze (teacher of Ascanio Sobrero and Alfred Nobel) treated paper and cardboard in the same way. He obtained a similar material he called Nitramidine . Both of these substances were highly unstable, and were not practical explosives. Henri Braconnot Henri Braconnot (Commercy May 29, 1780 - Nancy January 15, 1855) was a French chemist and pharmacist. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Théophile-Jules Pelouze (also known as Jules Pelouze, Théophile Pelouze, Theo Pelouze, or TJ Pelouze) was a French chemist. ... Ascanio Sobrero (1812-1888) was an Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin in 1847 while working under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Torino, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton. ... Alfred Nobel (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden – December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ...


However, Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution around 1846. As he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basle, he spilled a bottle of concentrated nitric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, and wiped it up. He hung the apron on the stove door to dry, and as soon as it was dry there was a flash as the apron exploded. His preparation method was the first to be widely imitated — one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in fifteen parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue. It was then slowly dried at a temperature below 100°C. Christian Friedrich Schönbein (October 18, 1799 – August 29, 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is most well-known for his discovery of guncotton. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:z@l], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), otherwise known as aqua fortis or spirit of nitre, is a colorless, corrosive liquid, a toxic acid which can cause severe burns. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...


The process uses the nitric acid to convert the cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water:

2HNO3+ C6H10O5 ——> C6H8(NO2)2O5 + 2H2O.

The sulfuric acid is present to prevent the water produced in the reaction from diluting the concentrated nitric acid.


The power of guncotton made it suitable for blasting. As a projectile driver, it has around six times the gas generation of an equal volume of black powder and produces less smoke and less heating. However the sensitivity of the material during production led the British, Prussians and French to discontinue manufacture within a year. Black powder - here a 100 grams container - can be freely bought in Switzerland. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


Jules Verne viewed the development of guncotton with optimism. He referred to the substance several times in his novels. His adventurers carried firearms employing this substance. Most notably, in his From the Earth to the Moon, guncotton was used to launch a projectile into space. Jules Verne. ... The projectile, as pictured in an engraving from the 1872 Illustrated Edition. ...


Further research indicated that the key was the very careful preparation of the cotton: unless it was very well cleaned and dried, it was liable to explode spontaneously. The British, led by Frederick Augustus Abel, also developed a much lengthier manufacturing process at the Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills, patented in 1865, with the washing and drying times each extended to 48 hours and repeated eight times over. The acid mixture was also changed to two parts sulfuric acid to one part nitric. Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, Bart. ...


Guncotton remained useful only for limited applications. For firearms, a more stable and slower burning mixture would be needed. Guncotton-like preparations were eventually prepared for this role, known at the time as smokeless powder. An assortment of modern handheld firearms using fixed ammunition, including military assault rifles, a sporting shotgun (fourth from bottom), and a tactical shotgun (third from bottom). ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


Guncotton, dissolved at approximately 25% in acetone, forms a lacquer used in preliminary stages of wood finishing to develop a hard finish with a deep lustre. It is normally the first coat applied, sanded, and followed by other coatings that bond to it.


Nitrate Film

Nitrocellulose was used as the first flexible film base, beginning with Eastman Kodak products in August, 1889. Camphor is used as plasticizer for nitrocellulose film. It was used until 1933 for X-ray films (where its flammability hazard was most acute) and for motion picture film until 1951. It was replaced by safety film with an acetate base. Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Photographic film called safety film is made with an acetate base, chemically either cellulose diacetate, cellulose acetate propiarate, cellulose acetate butyrate, or cellulose triacetate. ...


The use of nitrocellulose film for motion pictures led to a widespread requirement for fireproof projection rooms with wall coverings made of asbestos. Famously, the US Navy shot a training film for projectionists which included footage of a controlled ignition of a reel of nitrate film which continued to burn even when fully submerged in water. Due to public safety precautions, the London Underground forbade transport of nitrate films on its system until well past the introduction of safety film. A cinema fire caused by ignition of nitrocellulose film stock (foreshadowed by an earlier small fire) was a central plot element in the Italian film Cinema Paradiso. Today nitrate film projection is usually highly regulated and requires extensive precautionary measures including extra projectionist health and safety training. Additionally, projectors certified to run nitrate films have many containment strategies in effect. Among them, this includes the chambering of both the feed and takeup reels in thick metal covers with small slits to allow the film to run through. Furthermore, the projector is modified to accommodate several fire extinguishers with nozzles all aimed directly at the film gate; the extinguishers automatically trigger if a piece of flammable fabric placed near the gate starts to burn. While this triggering would likely damage or destroy a significant portion of the projection components, it would prevent a devastating fire which almost certainly would cause far greater damage. Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek ἄσβεστος: a-, not; sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of fibrous metamorphic minerals of the hydrous magnesium silicate variety. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The nickname the Tube comes from the circular tube-like tunnels through which the small-profile trains travel. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. ... Categories: Stub | 1989 films | Italian films ...


It was discovered decades later that nitrocellulose gradually decomposes, releasing nitric acid which further catalyses the decomposition (usually into a still-flammable powder or goo). Low temperatures can delay these reactions indefinitely. It is estimated that the great majority of films produced during the early twentieth century were lost forever either through this accelerating, self-catalysed disintegration or studio warehouse fires. Salvaging old films is a major problem for film archivists (see film preservation). The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ...


Nitrocellulose film base manufactured by Kodak can be identified by the presence of the word Nitrate dark letters between the perforations. Acetate film manufactured during the era when nitrate films were still in use was marked Safety or Safety Film between the perforations dark letters. Letters in white or light colors are print-through from the negative. Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ...


Color negative film was never manufactured with a nitrate base, nor were 8 mm or 16 mm motion picture film stocks. 8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the filmstrip is eight millimeters wide. ... 16 mm film was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1923 as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ...


Other uses

Depending on the manufacturing process, nitrocellulose is esterified to varying degrees. Table tennis balls, guitar picks, and some photographic films have a fairly low esterification level and burn comparatively slowly with some charred residue. See celluloid. Wang Liqin winning a forehand drive against Jörg Rosskopf. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ...


See also

Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Cordite is a particular family of smokeless propellants made by combining two high explosives: nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, i. ... Nitroglycerin (also nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate) is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ...

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