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Encyclopedia > Nitrate
An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow. The oxygen atoms carry the majority of the negative charge.
An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow. The oxygen atoms carry the majority of the negative charge.
The structure and bonding of the nitrate ion. The N−O bonds are intermediate in length and strength between a single bond and a double bond.
The structure and bonding of the nitrate ion. The N−O bonds are intermediate in length and strength between a single bond and a double bond.

In inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of nitric acid with an ion composed of one nitrogen and three oxygen atoms (NO3). In organic chemistry the esters of nitric acid and various alcohols are called nitrates. Nitrate from food, especially vegetables, is converted in the human digestive tract to nitrite which reacts with amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the pharmaceutical name for nitroglycerin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x714, 303 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrate ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x714, 303 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nitrate ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 822 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 822 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ...

Contents

Chemical properties

The nitrate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula NO3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049. It is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identical oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of negative one, where each oxygen carries a −2/3 charge while the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, and is commonly used as an example of resonance. The three canonical structures of the nitrate ion are shown resonating below: An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom (called a chemical element) in it. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Within the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... ǃǁɚɵ A generic trigonal planar molecule showing ideal bond angle. ... In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) on an atom in a molecule is defined as: FC = number of valence electrons of the atom - number of Lone pair electrons on this atom - half the total number of electrons participating in covalent bonds with this atom. ... For other uses, see Resonance (disambiguation). ...

Canonical forms of the nitrate ion resonating

Almost all inorganic nitrate salts are soluble in water at standard temperature and pressure. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 201 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 276 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...


In organic chemistry a nitrate is a functional group with general chemical formula RONO2 where R stands for any organic residue. They are the esters of nitric acid and alcohols formed by nitroxylation. Examples are methyl nitrate formed by reaction of methanol and nitric acid,[1] the nitrate of tartaric acid,[2] and the inappropriately named nitroglycerin. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


Related materials

Nitrates should not be confused with nitrites (NO2) the salts of nitrous acid. Organic compounds containing the nitro functional group (which has the same formula and structure as the nitrate ion save that one of the O atoms is replaced by the R group) are known as nitro compounds. // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2). ...


Effects on aquatic life

In freshwater or estuarine systems close to land, nitrate can reach high levels that can potentially cause the death of fish. While nitrate is much less toxic than ammonia or nitrite,[3] levels over 30 ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system and cause stress in some aquatic species.[citation needed] However, due to inherent problems with past protocols on acute nitrate toxicity experiments, nitrate may be less toxic to marine animals than previously thought.[4] In most cases of excess nitrate concentrations, the principle pathway of entering aquatic systems is through surface runoff from agricultural or landscaped areas which have received excess nitrate fertilizer. These levels of nitrate can also lead to algae blooms, and when nutrients become limiting (such as potassium, phosphate or nitrate) then eutrophication can occur. As well as leading to water anoxia, these blooms may cause other changes to ecosystem function, favouring some groups of organisms over others. Consequently, as nitrates form a component of total dissolved solids, they are widely used as an indicator of water quality. For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Bottled mineral water usually contains higher TDS levels than tap water Total dissolved solids (often abbreviated TDS) is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ...


Nitrates are also a by product of septic systems. Specifically, they are a naturally occurring chemical that is left after the break down or decomposition of animal or human waste. Water quality may also be affected through ground water resources that have a high number of septic systems in a watershed. Septics leach down into ground water resources or aquifers and supply near by bodies of water. Lakes that rely on ground water are often affected by nitrification through this process. A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by private corporations or local governments. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
nitrates

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the f-ratio is the fraction of total primary production fuelled by nitrate (as opposed to that fuelled by other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium). ... Nitrogen cycle Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. ...

External links

  • ATSDR - Case Studies in Environmental Medicine - Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity
  • Computational Chemistry Wiki Nitrate

References

  1. ^ Black, A. P.; Babers, F. H. (1939). "Methyl nitrate". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 2: 412. 
  2. ^ Snyder, H. R.; Handrick, R. G.; Brooks, L. A. (1942). "Imidazole". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 3: 471. 
  3. ^ Romano, N.; Zeng, C. (2007). "Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs (Portunus pelagicus, Linneaus 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae)." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 1955–1962.
  4. ^ Romano N., Zeng, C. (2007). "Effects of potassium on nitrate mediated changes to osmoregulation in marine crabs". Aquatic Toxicology 85: 202-208. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nitrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (887 words)
In inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of nitric acid.
Nitrates such as potassium nitrate (saltpeter) and ammonium nitrate are important nitrogen carriers in fertilizers; lesser amounts of calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sodium nitrate are applied.
Nitrates should not be confused with nitrites, the salts of nitrous acid.
Nitrate -- A drinking water concern? (549 words)
Once nitrate is formed, its movement in soil and potential for contamination of ground water depend on several factors including the soil characteristics, location and characteristics of the underground water formations (aquifers), and climatic conditions.
Because nitrates move with the flow of groundwater, the source may be located a considerable distance from the well.
In many cases, the time needed for nitrate to pass through the soil into groundwater is difficult to predict due to many variables including application rate, the soil type, and the depth to the water table.
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