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Encyclopedia > Nitocris
Nitocris in hieroglyphs
Image:Hiero_Ca1.png



Image:Hiero_Ca2.png

Nitocris (Greek Νίτωκρις) has been claimed to have been the last Pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt and thereby perhaps the first female ruler of Egypt and first known Queen regnant in the world. Her name is found in the Histories of Herodotus and writings of Manetho. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... Nitocris ordinarily refers to a supposed queen of the Egyptian Sixth Dynasty; but see Nitocris. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...


According to Herodotus (Histories ii), she invited the murderers of her brother, the "king of Egypt", to a banquet, then killed them by flooding the sealed room with the Nile. Then, to avoid the other conspirators, she committed suicide (possibly by running into a burning room). Manetho claims she built the "third pyramid" at Giza, which is attributed by modern historians and archaeologists to Menkaure. Herodotus also has a Babylonian queen of the same name and talks of her constructions in Babylon, mainly connected with diverting the Euphrates. His story about her tomb and the inscription on it which fooled Darius into opening it, only to have another inscription on the inside that chastised the opener for being so greedy is an early example of a familiar cultural meme. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... It has been suggested that Suicide method be merged into this article or section. ... Pyramids of Giza in 1960s Egypt: Site of Giza or Al Jizah (top center). ... Menkaura (Greek Mycerinus) was a pharaoh of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt (ca. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ... The term meme (IPA: , rhyming with theme. Commonly pronounced in the US as , rhyming with gem), coined in 1976[1] by the biologist Richard Dawkins, refers to a unit of cultural information which can propagate from one mind to another in a manner analogous to genes (i. ...


Nitocris is not mentioned, however, in any native Egyptian inscriptions and "she" probably did not exist. It was long claimed that Nitocris appears on a fragment of the Turin King List, dated to the Nineteenth dynasty, under the Egyptian name of Nitiqreti (nt-ỉqrtỉ). The fragment where this name appears was thought to belong to the Sixth Dynasty portion of the king list, thus appearing to confirm both Herodotus and Manetho. However, microscopic analysis of the Turin King List suggests the fragment was misplaced in reassembling the fragmentary text, and that the name Nitiqreti"is in fact a faulty transcription of the praenomen of a clearly male king Netjerkare Siptah I, who is named on the Abydos King List as the successor of the Sixth Dynasty king Nemtyemsaf II. On the Abydos King List, Netjerkare Siptah is placed in the equivalent spot that Neitiqreti Siptah holds on the Turin King List. The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ... The Abydos King List, also called the Abydos Table is a list of the names of 76 kings of Ancient Egypt, found on the walls of the Osireion. ... Menrenre Antyemsaf II was possibly briefly Pharaoh of Egypt. ...


In fiction

  • Nitokris is mentioned in two stories by H.P. Lovecraft, The Outsider and Imprisoned with the Pharaohs. She is mentioned only in passing and portrayed as an evil queen reigning over ghouls and other horrors.
  • Tennessee Williams' first published work is the 1928 short story The Vengeance of Nitocris, detailing the queen's careful plan for revenge.
  • The Queen's Enemies, a play by Lord Dunsany, is also based upon Herodotus' account of Nitocris' murderous activities.

Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... The Outsider may mean: The Outsider (Colin Wilson), a 1956 book by Colin Wilson The Outsider (Howard Fast), a 1984 novel by Howard Fast The Stranger (novel), an alternate translation of LÉtranger, the title of a 1941 Albert Camus novel The Outsider (Richard Wright), a 1952 book by Richard... Under the Pyramids, also known as Imprisoned with the Pharaohs, is a short story ghost-written by American horror fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft for escape artist Harry Houdini in February/March 1924. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... Revenge or vengeance or retribution consists primarily of retaliation against a person or group in response to a perceived wrongdoing. ... Best known as Lord Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany (July 24, 1878–October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist notable for his work in fantasy and horror. ...

References

  • Newberry, Percy Edward. 1943. "Queen Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty." Journal of Egyptian Archæology 29:51–54.
  • Ryholt, Kim Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127:87–100.
  • Zivie-Coche, Christiane M. 1972. "Nitocris, Rhodopis et la troisième pyramide de Giza." Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 72:115–138. PDF

External links

  • "Herodotus on Nitocris": gives quote
Preceded by
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II or Pepi II Neferkare
Pharaoh of Egypt
Sixth dynasty
Succeeded by
Netjerkare?

 
 

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